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' Celebrare domestica facta. ' — Hon. 







I8 74 . 






THE following pages are the result of several months' 
miscellaneous reading of the ephemeral literature 
and of the biographies which bear upon Social Life 
in the English Universities during the eighteenth 

That so portly a volume is now sent out into the 
world, is due partly to the inexperience of the com- 
piler, in part to the interest which he could not 
fail to feel even in the minute and comparatively 
trivial particulars of the life of those who, in earlier 
generations and very different times, had passed 
through the same stages through which he was 
passing; in a measure also to the circumstances 
under which the first instalment of the work was 
written, as a prize competition to be completed by 
a fixed date ; and in no slight degree to the abun- 
dance of material which the libraries poured forth. 

It was hoped that the end proposed by the au- 
thorities of our University in their choice of a sub- 
ject for the Le Bas Essay in 1871, viz. University 

L. B. E. b 

vi Preface. 

Life and Studies in England during the Eighteenth 
Century, would be more easily attained through the 
existence of such a collection as the present, and 
of the materials gathered for the two remaining sub- 
divisions of the subject which are mentioned on 
page 4: — for where the supply of information is so 
great, and at the same time lies so much in the 
dust of pamphlets and books of little general in- 
terest, it would seem to require the familiar study 
of many years to justify even an expert historian 
in undertaking to give an intelligent and trustworthy 
view of the times : a view, that is, in which ideas 
and theories should be presented to the reader with, 
that assumption of a right of judgment which only 
long experience can claim. 

In the present instance the old materials have been, 
as it were, carted to a clear spot, and the reader may 
re-construct for the home of his academic ancestors 
prison or nursery, hut or palace, as each loose stone 
tells its own history to him : or else he must look 
for some skilled architect, or be content to wait 
till the carter has learnt mason's work. 

In order that the pile of materials may not ut- 
terly appal or deter from the work of construction, 
a Table of Contents has been furnished for the 
purpose of indicating the nature of the materials 
which make up the heap, and shewing the method 
in which they are arranged; where it may be seen 

Preface. vii 

that they have not been shot as mere rubbish in 
disregard of future usefulness. 

It remains for the compiler to express his thanks 
to the following gentlemen, without whose help, the 
work would have been more imperfect than it is. 
The Reverend Henry Wilkinson Cookson, D.D., 
Master of Peterhouse or Saint Peter's College, and 
Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge ; 
Henry Bradshaw, Esquire, M.A., Fellow of King's 
College and University Librarian ; The Reverend 
Henry Octavius Coxe, M.A., of Corpus Christi Col- 
lege, Oxford, and Bodley's Librarian ; The Reverend 
William Magan Campion, D.D., Tutor of Queens' 
College ; The Reverend Henry Richards Luard, M.A., 
Fellow of Trinity College and Registrary of the 
University ; The Reverend John Eyton Bickersteth 
Mayor,' M.A., senior Fellow of Saint John's College 
and Professor of Latin, who has kindly assisted while 
the sheets have been passing through the press ; 
J. Bass Mullinger, Esquire, M.A., of Saint John's 
College (who in his recent work on the Early History 
of the University of Cambridge and of European 
education, has already restored the more ancient 
portion of the structure, whose debris of later work- 
manship still need a master-hand to call them up 
before the sight of this our generation) ; The Reverend 
John William Nutt, M.A., Fellow of All Souls' 
College, Sublibrarian of the Bodleian ; The Reverend 


viii Preface. 

Richard Shilleto, M.A., Fellow of Peterhouse ; and 
the Compiler's brother, with other friends. All of 
whom, though in no way responsible for the errors 
of this volume, have by different acts of kindness con- 
tributed to its completion. 

From the nature of the work the debt due to 
authors of books is very great: such authorities as 
Mr Cooper's Annals of Cambridge, Dr Bliss' Reli- 
quiae Hearnianae, and Professor Mayor's additions 
to Baker's History of St Johis College Cambridge, 
have been used unsparingly. The Compiler hopes 
that the references given by him in the text and 
notes may be accepted as a grateful acknowledg- 
ment of the assistance which he has received from 
these and many other writers. 


Introductory Remarks on the Science of History, Page i 

No history of the Universities in the Last Century, 3 

Triple division of the subject of University Life and Studies into 

1. Social- Life; 

1. Individual Studies ; 

3. Religious Life; 
for the first only of which materials are collected in the present volume. 


Importance of Politics in England, especially in the r8th 

Everything in the English Universities during that period 
coloured by political feeling. 

Party Politics. 

Attitude of the Universities in the troubles and under 
A-^ K. James II. 

1687. Oxford. Case of Magdalene College. Ant. Farmer, Drs 
Hough, Levinz, and Parker, 7, 8 
University College. Obadiah Walker, Christ Church, 8, 9 
2nd Dragoon Guards at Oxford. Lovelace received, and the 
P. of Orange, 9 
1689. Cambridge. Case of Alban Francis, 10 

The Seven Bishops. Accession of William, ri, 12, (603) 1 
Parties not yet consolidated.. .at Cambridge. Election of a 
Chancellor, 13 

1 The arable numerals inclosed !n marks of parenthesis, (545) and upwards, refer 
to additional illustrations or comments contained in the pages of Appendices and 
Notes at the end of this Volume. 

Table of Contents. 

Behaviour of Oxford, 13, 14 

Nonjurors. Their numbers at Cambridge and Oxford, 14, 

Magdalene, Oxon., Trinity and St John's, Camb., socii 
eiecti, 15, (603) 
1 710. The Ambrose Bonwickes of the two Colleges of St John 
(Bapt. Oxon., Evang. Camb.), 16 — 18 
F. Roper, T. Browne, (Dr R. Jenkin), T. Baker, St John's, 

Camb. 19— 21 
Uffenbach visits Baker and 
1710-35. T. Hearne, Edmund Hall, Oxon., 21, 22 
1695. Nonjurors' meetings and behaviour at St John's, Camb., de- 
scribed by A. de la Pryme, 22 
1689. The Oaths of Qualification (cp. 28B.), 23, 24 
Growth of Parties, 24 
Pamphlets. Coffee-houses, 25 (605), 26 
Politics strangely woven into the tissue of all University 

matters in the last century. Examples, 26, 27 
How far was Cambridge whig, and Oxford tory? Statements 

of bishop Monk and Mr Ri. Robinson of Queen's, 27 
Symptoms of outward attachment 
to William, seen in Oxford: — Nonjurors at Ch. Ch., 28 
1705. to queen Anne : — Presents of venison, 28, 29 

Oxford's love of the Stuarts, 29 — 32 
'High' and 'Low Church.' 

Convocation of Canterbury. Majority of 'high churchmen.' 
Dr Jane of Ch. Ch. (bifrons), prolocutor versus Tillotspn, 

William's candidate, 32, 33 (605, 606) 
Geo. Hickes and other nonjurors opposed to popery, 33 
i;of. Anti-jacobite demonstration at All Souls', Oxon., on January 

3oth, 33. 34 
{Calves'-head c\ab. Cp. pp. 613, 614) 
Political trimmers and ' complyers,' 34 
1712. Atterbury made dean of Ch. Ch. by queen Anne, 35 

1 7 10. Sacheverell entertained by the Vice-chancellor. D. of Ormond 

and E. of Arran Chancellors, 36 
1697-1800. Loyal Addresses from Cambridge especially, expressing 
allegiance to the dynasty of the Revolution, (606—609) 
William indifferent to the Universities, 36 
Scheme of Royal Visitation abandoned, 
1705, Q. Anne pays a visit to Cambridge, 37 
Bentley, Newton, &c. 

Table of Contents. xi 

1 706. Dr T. Tudway, professor of music, deprived for a disloyal 

jest. Restored. 
168&-1763. Other Royal Visits. Verses of Congratulation and Condo- 
lence, (609, 610) 
The 'high church' party at Cambridge not Jacobite but 
tory, 37 
1717. 'Complyers,' Dodwell, Nelson, (610) 
1718-1725. Power of the Vice-Chancellor in moderating the voice of 

the University, 38, 39 (611) 
1 75 1-2. Dr Wilcox refuses to call a Caput 
University Constitution, 39, (611) 

Caput, Senate, Regents, Non-regents, White-hoods, Black- 
hoods, 39, (611) 
Convocation, and Congregation (of regents only), at Oxford, 

Disorderly state of society in the reigns of Q. Anne and 
George I. 

1712. Mohocks. 

Accession of George I. little observed at Oxford, 40 
More heartily at Cambridge. 

1 713. Tripos' speech by 'one Mr Lawes, A.M.' 

■™ °° «* {^ an tS° f the { *■£ * «* **»- 

Disturbances at Oxford by the Constitutioners, t,i 
Political character of several Oxford colleges, 42, (612) 
Meeting of the ' sculls. ' Dr Charlett. Programma, 43, 44, 

At Cambridge the disaffection quelled by the moderation of 

the tory Sherlock, 44 
Assisted by the Hanoverian Waterland, 45 
The royal gifts to Cambridge and Oxford, 
'books' and 'a troop of horse.' The epigrams, 5, 45 
August 15 (accession of Geo. I.), rumoured landing of 'K. 

James.' 'My lord Shaftesbury' whipt, 46 

Dr J. Ayliffe's fellowship at New College. 

At Cambridge the Oaths, 47 

Nov. 4. Waterland Vice-chancellor. 

. . ,( the Powder Plot. 

Nov. 5. Anniversary 01 j 

( the landing of the P. of Orange. 

Bentley's Univ. Sermon against Popery, 47, (613) 

xii Table of Contents. 

' University Loyalty considered' by Philo-Georgius et Philo- 

1716. May. Waterland's Programma against supping in taverns. 
May 29. Riots at Cambridge. The Trinity and Clare men 

insulted. Mr Hussey's meeting-house, 48 
Waterland's second Programma. (Cp. 613 on p. 51), 49 
Bentley's loyal address fortunately delayed. 
May. At Oxford, Loyal address proposed, 50 
' Oxford Loyalty ' (Prior's MS.) (613) 

May 29. Second noisy meeting of the ' Constitution Clue.' 
Account by Nic. Amhurst (of St John's College, Oxon.) in 

his Terrae Filius, (612, 613) 

1717. Aug. 1 (accession of Geo. I.). Their meeting at the Three 

Tuns, 51 

1 7 16. T. Hearae {Oxon.), T. Baker (Camb.), the Jacobite anti- 

quaries, 52 

1718. P. Brooke of St John's, Camb., Library Keeper, (614) 

1717. Proposed Bill for regulating the two Universities, 53 
Serjt. Edmund Miller's Account of Cambridge (559 — 561) 

1717- George I. visits Cambridge. Bentley and Middleton, 53, 54 

1718. Lord Macclesfield's Scheme for University Reform, 53, 54 

(568, 569, 614) 
Biographies of Bentley. His character, 54 
His reform in Trinity elections, 55 (614) 
He is compared with Gulliver at Lilliput, 55 
The state of Trinity College, Cambridge, under Bentley 
typical of the discord in Univ. Society, 56, 57 
1726. Internal divisions in the colleges at Oxford. Litigation, &c. 
The evil effects described by Hearne, decay of learning 
and deterioration in Candidates for Holy Orders, 57 
Lincoln (Wesley's college), a bright exception, 58 
172I-9. Difficulties at Oriel. Mr Weeksey, Sir P. King, Dr Hodges. 
1729. Disorders at University College. 
Ignorance as to the Visitor. 

Cockman, Denison and 'Jolly' Geo. Ward, 58, 59 
1725. At Cambridge, Dr Snape provost of King's expels Mr Bushe • 
but the Visitor (bp. Reynold) and the whigs prevail to 
restore him. 
1 729*. . Similar case of Mr Dale, 59 

« In the last paragraph on p. 59, for the words 'two months earlier," read 'in 
March, 1729.' ' 

Dr Ri. Newton v. ' 

Table of Contents. xiii 

1729. Equipoise of parties in the Senate at Cambridge, the tory 
candidate elected Vice-chancellor by a majority of one 
Jealousies between college and college. 

Dr Carter of Oriel. 
(W. Seaman's bene discessit), 60 
Dr J. Conybeare, then of Exeter Coll. 
(Hertford College Charter), 61 
Struggles immediately political, 61 
1754-5. Allusion to the case of Exeter College, Oxon. 61 (615) 

Oxford Jacobitism after Culloden and Peace of Aix-la- 
1740. Suspicions. Initials of mysterious import, J. R. (615) 

1745. C.E.C. 

1749. 'Oxford Honesty, or a Case of Conscience,' &c. 61 
Opening of the Radcliff. 

The High Borlace (cp. 153 — 155), 61 
1 748. Programma against seditious practices. 

Oxford Students tried at the King's Bench for drinking the 

Pretender's health, 6 1 
Their punishment, 61, 62 

'Isis,' by Will. Mason (Pemb.-hall, Camb.), 63 
' TAe Trmmph of Isis,' by T. Warton (Trin. Coll. Oxon.). 
Cambridge, as represented by the Caput, on the best of terms 

with the Government. 

1746. Gray complains of the apathy of his fellow-Students with 

regard to the rumoured approach of the Pretender, (615) 
T. Hollis Pelham, D. of Newcastle, High Steward of Cam- 
1748. His Installation as Chancellor [Mason (p. 616), and Gray], 

1 750. He sends Orders and Regulations which were slightly modi- 

fied, 66 

A summary of them, 66 — 68, (616) 

Illustrated by 'The Happiness of a Good Assurance.' 

May 11, June 16, Dispute between the (tory, and high- 
church conservative) Senate, and the (constitutionalist) 
Caput on the proposed Orders and Regulations, 69 

The Chancellor is charged with tyranny and corruption in 
[P. Chester's] ' Letter to Lord Eg[mon]t,' (617) 

Oct. 19. The attack is repeated in ' An Occasional Letter to 
D r Keen,' (617—8) 

xiv Table of Contents. 

Nov. i. 'The Capitade,' a Poem [T. Nevile and J. Devie] 
in which all the 'Heads,' save Dr Ashton, are abused, 

' The Academic ' inclines to condemn those who voted with 
the Caput, 72, (619) 

They are defended in ' Remarks on the Academic' (dated 
like the ' Authentic Narrative ' Dec. 16, 1750. Published 
tardily), (620) 

Nov. 16th. Contemporary account of party dissensions and 
literary scandal, 71, 7 2 

Nov. ijtk. The 'Regulations' enforced by the proctor 
Jas. Brown (Pemb.-hall), against a. party of the West- 
minster Club assembled at Wish's Tavern, ' The Tuns,' 
where the Greek professor and several masters of arts were 
present on the anniversary (p. 633) of Q. Elizabeth's 
birth-day, 69 — 71 

Nov. 20th. Letter of thanks to the Chancellor for his New 
Regulations, &c, voted by the university, 69 

Nov: 10th. The ironical ' Friendly and Honest Advice of 
an old Tory to the Vice-chancellor of Cambridge,' 72, 73, 

The Vice-chancellor's Court of the time, Nov. 24th and 
29th, sits in judgment on Professor Francklin and other 
old Westminsters. They are reprimanded, and T. Ansell, 
a fellow' of Trin. Hall, suspended for contumacy. The 
Vice-chancellor (Dr Edm. Keene, Pet.) denies any right of 
appeal to Ansell, 75 
who publishes (Dec. 16, 1750) ' An Authentic Narrative of 

the Late Extraordinary Proceedings... against the W r 


Dec. 16. The V. C. refuses to appoint delegates to consider 
the right of appeal, 75 

Formation of a club of masters of arts, called 'Associates,' 
meeting at the Tuns Tavern to promote Ansell's appeal. 
'7St- January. 'An Epistle to a Fellow Commoner,' 'Lolly 
Pelham,' on the Vice-chancellor's sicte, (629) 
Jan. \%th. The ' Associators ' in the Regent house reject the 
Vice-chancellor's proposal to appoint Syndics' to consider 
the case. They also obstruct a supplicat, 75, (634). 
Thus out of the controversy respecting the New Orders 
and Regulations,— 
which are discussed further in 'A Fragment,' (621—624), 

Table of Contents. xv 

and in [J. Green's] ' Considerations on the Expediency, &c.' 
1751, (624),— 

grew the Westminster Club scandal, which was in part the 
subject of [Dr W. King's, Oxon.] 'A Key to the Frag- 
ment,' 1751, (626, 627), 
' Another Fragment,' (627,628), 

[Dr Z. Grey's] 'Fragmentum est pars rei fractae,' 1751, 
' (628); 

and finally the literature of Ansell's Appeal, 
[Chapman's] ' Inquiry into the Right of Appeal. mat- 
ters of Discipline,' &c. 1751, (630); 
and, on Ansell's side, 

[R. Hurd's] 'The Opinion of an Eminent Lawyer' [P. 
Yorke], 1751, (630), 

' Some Considerations on the Necessity, &c.' 1752, (631). 
Cp. [Chapman's] ' A Further Inquiry, &c.' 1752, (631), 
[J. Smith's] ' A Letter to the Author of a Further Inquiry, 
&c.' 1752, (631, 632) 

1751. "Wilcox succeeds Keene as Vice-chancellor, 75, 76 

Nov. Jas. Bickham's grace and the ' Associators' frustrated, 

The Senate again strikes work. 
Dec. Disorderly behaviour of undergraduates, 76 11. 

1752. Jan. 24. The V. C. refuses to call a caput meeting, 76 
April — And the Chancellor to act as referee. 

1750-74. Inauguration of University prizes marks an aspiration for 
more peaceful times, 77 (634) 
Visits from the Chancellor (D. of Newcastle). 
1766* ' Letter on a Late Resignation, &c.' (632) 

His successor, the D. of Grafton, 77 
1764. Election of High Steward, P. earl Hardwicke. The E. of 
Sandwich, ' Sly Jemmy Twitcher.' ' An Address to mem- 
bers of the Senate on Attention due to Worth of Charac- 
ter, &c.' 78 
1760. Change in the aspect of Politics on the Accession of George 
III., 79, 80 
His use of patronage. Easy transition between parties. 
Both universities join the new Tory party; Cambridge from 
High church Whiggism, Oxford from High church Tory- 
ism. Political unity at Cambridge in 1793, 80 
1772. Attempt to elect S. Whisson a. member of the Senate as 
Vice-chancellor (as in the years 1586, 1712), 80, 8t 

xvi Table of Contents. 

Substitution of Council for Caput. 
1716, Waterland on the pernicious effects of party strife, 8r, 82 

Decay of piety from the 17th century, and of the sense of 

Statistics of lecturing and non-lecturing professors at the end 

of the 18th century: 

at Cambridge, 83 — 85, at Oxford, 85 — 87 
Decline of sympathy between Tutors and Pupils in the 

18th century (Ridley, Ascham), 92, 95 
The causes, political suspicion and distaste. 
Decay of the system of ' chums ' [foncubicularii). Originally 

they were distinct (camera degentes, chamber-dekyns) from 

'inmates,' 87, 88 
'Lodging' and 'keeping,' musea, 88, (637) 
Later arrangement. Statutes de cubiculorum distribution, 

Bentley, 88, 89, (635) 
Truckle-beds, rotalia, 89, (635, 636) 
Mede, Strype, A. de la Pryme, Evelyn, Bonwicke, 90, 91 
Chamber-fellows, Sacheverell and Addison, Tillotson and 

Holcroft, &c. 91, (636, 637) 
Comparison between earlier undergraduates and modern 

public-school boys ('children,' 'boys,' 'schollers,' 'lads,' 

'men'), 92— 94, (637) 
Matriculation now uniformly at the later AGE (17 — 21). Fifteen, 

which was common till the present century, practically in- 
admissible now, 94, 95, (638, 639) 
At Oxford 16 the age of subscription to xxxix Articles. At 

Cambridge 14 the age of the Scholar's Oath, 94, 95, 

Estrangement of dons and younger students increased also by 

the prevalence of self-indulgence, 95 
Contemporary opinion at issue as to the effect of intimacy 

upon discipline, 96 
Class-estrangement among the younger students themselves. 
The two main classes at Oxford ; Gentlemen-Commoners and 

poor Scholars, 97 

The proportion of Fellow- Commoners larger in the 18th 

century, ib. 
Statistics, 98, (639—643) 
Other titles of these orders, 97, 98 
Other classes of students, Twenty-four-men, Ten-[year-]men 

Sixteen-tnen, (643) 

Table of Contents. xvii 

Harry-sophs, (643, 644) 
Non-entes. 'Beasts' v. 'Men,' (644) 

Cambridge Sizars compared with Oxford Servitors, 97 — 1 10 
Fellows and distinguished men rose commonly from the rank 
of Sizar, 98 

1776, 1792. Bad example of some Fellows encouraging idleness and 

extravagance. W. Wilberforce, 99, (645) 
1637,1721, 1790. 'Fellow-commoners,' then so-called at Oxford (but 
see 646), subject to college exercises in the 17th and 18th 
centuries (not however about 1750), 99, 100, (646) 
1773. and to the new college examination at St John's coll. Cam- 
bridge at its close, 99 
1788. Scheme for abolishing the order of fellow-commoners at Cam- 
bridge, 100 
'Empty bottles,' (647) 
1618, 1660. Menial duties of subsizars, sizars (Cambridge), and 
1691, 1704. 'gentlemen-servitors' (Oxford), 101, (649) 

1709. 'The Servitour, a Poem' (Oxford). 
1670-82. Dr Eachard's account of sizars (Cambridge). 
1728. G. Whitefield at Oxford. 

1700,1754. Servitors employed as copyists at Oxford, 106 
1733. Shenstone ashamed to be seen visiting one, 106, 107 

The distinction of orders offensive to foreigners, 107, 108 
1742-65. Sizars wait at table, 108 

1803. This had been already improved at CAMBRIDGE, 109 
1807. but not at Oxford, no 
1564, 1630. Development of the tutorial system, no 
1728,1731. Its efficiency fluctuating, in 

1710. Neglect of lectures and rise of 
1637. Private tutors at OXFORD, 112 
1710-15. Pupil-mongers at Cambridge, 112,113 
172-J. Tuition fees established, 113 

1713. but found insufficient, 114 

1767. The fees raised, but 

] 790. are still too low. 

1759. Complaints against private tutors being public examiners, 114 

1777. The practice is prohibited, 

i 781. and even reading with any private tutor for the two last years 
before the first degree is forbidden in spite of a petition, 115 
1799. It is partially effective, 116 
1807-24. but the period is gradually reduced, 115 
and finally repealed, 116 

xviii Table of Contents. 

1828-49. Mr W. Hopkins' extensive and successful private tuition in 

mathematics, 116 
1711-55. Moming-lectures in COLLEGE HALLS, 117 

The standard lectures in Latin, 117, 118 

Remission of attendance, 117 
1710,1802. Afternoon lectures. Evening examination, 118 

Other uses (beside lectures) for the College Hall, 
1663, 1764. Recantation and confession of offences read there; as also 

were delivered, 117, 118, 
1747. Epigrams, &c. 'Narrations.' 
1792. Narrare at St John's, Oxon., 119 
1550. Cambridge fare at St John's, ib. 

' Oxford fare' in Sir T. More's time, 120 
1659. Complaint at Christ Church, ib. 
1662. Strype at Jesus Coll. Cambridge, 120 — 122 
1702, 1 710. Verdict passed by foreigners on Trin. coll. hall, 122 

The Norths. 

Fish days, 122, 123 

Peterhouse hall in 17th century; and in 1751, 1758, 1779, 
"2, (655), 123, (656, 657) 

The dinner hour was at Cambridge in 
1550. at ten o'clock, 119 
1620. at eleven, 123 

at nine during Sturbridge fair 
1755. at twelve, 12s 
1 785. changed from one to three at Emmanuel. 

1 799. in non-term at St John's two. 

1800. 2 h. 15 m. (on Sundays 1 h. 15 m.) at Trinity. 
1720. at Oxford changed from eleven to twelve. 

1 747. at one. 

17^2. changed from twelve to three, (657) 

1804, 5. advanced from three to four, and in some colleges from four 
to five, 125 

Breakfast (there was none in 1550), 119 
1662. about 8 a.m. at the butteries or at ' an honest house ' 122 

Dr North took neither sizing nor breakfast, ib, 
1725. at coffee-houses, 126 
1764. Toast and ale. Tea effeminate, 127 
1776. Tea more common. Its price, (658), 128 
1792. Tea and 'brown George' at 8.30 a.m., 128 

Table of Contents. xix 

Supper in College Hall : 
1745. at 6 or 7 p.m. at Oxford, not much frequented, 129 
1799. nor at Trinity, Cambridge, at 8.45 p.m. 

Supper for clerical fellows on Sundays at Cambridge : 
The Samaritan Supper, or 'Neck or Nothing' (King's). 
The Curates' Club (St John's). 
The 'Apostolic' (Christ's Coll.). 
Supper-parties or Sizing-parties in undergraduates' rooms 
were more popular at Cambridge, 129, 130 
1792. and at Oxford. 

The custom of dressing for Dinner in Hall, 1 30 
1812. Pantaloons forbidden in hall and chapel at St John's and 
Trinity, Cambridge, (658) 
University Barbers, 130 — 138 
1 348-1859. The Worshipful Company of Barbers at Oxford and 

1739. A college barber's widow succeeds him in the office, 132 

The barber one of the statutable college servants. His duty 

originally lay with beards and tonsures, ib. 
In later times chiefly with wigs, ib. 
1775. Barber's shop within the walls of Trinity, ib. 
1656,1728, 1775. Sunday shaving, &c. 133, (658—661) 
The barber's office not quite extinct, 133 
Long natural hair unpowdered and untied a mark of pecu- 
liarity at Oxford. Shenstone, G. Whitefield, J. Wesley, 


1786. And short unpowdered hair considered 'raffish' or unfashion- 
able at Cambridge (in spite of the D. of Gloster being an 
'Apollo') till 
1795. the fashion of 'crops' came up. 
1771, is. Barber's bills. 
1792. Duff the highland barber at Oxford, 135 

His more celebrated contemporary at Cambridge, Ro. 
Foster, ' the Flying Barber,' died in 1795. 135—137 
I 785 - 7- Verses and portraits of him. 

Crips mentioned by C. Lamb, 137, 138 

' Jacklin' or Tomlinson, the Major oi ' Sweet Sixteen,' died in 

1824. 138 
Other resorts of Lounging hours, 138 — 162 
Coffee Houses. Their rise in England in the universities, 
1675. At Cambridge frequented by almost all grades, 126, 140 

xx Table of Contents. 

1709. The Greek's coffee-booth at Sturbridge fair. He abuses the 

proctor, 141 

1 7 10. Uffenbach meets Whiston at the Greek's coffee-house. 
1750. Tom's and Clapham's, 146 

1765. DockereWs coffee-house in Trumpington Street, 141 
1770. His booth at Sturbridge fair. 
1803. Master of Arts' Coffee-house, 141, (661) 
1737. Interior of a coffee-house. 
1780. Chess played in them at Cambridge. 
1788. Scenes in the Union Coffee-house, 142, 143 
' Adkin College.' 
' Caryophylli,' 143 
1799-1802. F.Smith, ' Master of the Union Coffee-house. ' 

His other coffee-house. 
I 740. The yohnian Coffee-house in All Saints Yard. 
1 763. Delaport's Emmanuel Coffee-house. 
Its pretensions, 143, 144 
At Oxford, 144 — 147 
1650. Coffee-houses kept by Jacob and Jobson, Jews, 144, 145 
1750-1765. Tom's, 145, 146 

Horseman's, 132, 145, 146 
Harper's, Bagg's, Malbon's, 145 
James's, 146 
1675. Coffee-houses suspected as seditious, 146 
1711. Vice- Chancellor's programma. 
1655. Tillyard's supported by royalists and their guests. 
1677. "Wood complains that the ' Coffee-houses are become places 

for victuallers :' also of ' great drinking.' 
1 762. Claret drunk at Oxford, but not to excess. 
1704. But drunkenness had been fatal there at an earlier date, 148 
1785. And towards the end of the century it was very common at 

Cambridge, 147 
1799. Toast-drinking and 'buzzing.' 

Gunning's description of a combination-room orgy. 
1727-1792. Complaints of the frequency of private entertainments. 

Fast-days made feasts, 149, (594) 
1662. The Tuns Tavern at Cambridge, 149 
1 750. kept by Wish, the meeting-place of the Westminster Club, &c. 
1 72 1. The Tuns at Oxford, kept by Broadgate, the meeting-place 

of the Poetical Club, 149, 150 
1750. The Nonsense Club, 150 

The Jelly-bag Club earlier. 

Table of Contents. xxi 

1733. The Three Tuns frequented by All Souls' men, 150, 15 1 

1721. St John's ' single and double coll.' 151 

1751-62. Tit-up Hall, Clay Hall, Cabbage Hall, Caterpillar Hall, 
Stump Hall, Lemon Hall, Fox Hall, Feather Hall, 
Kettle Hall, Tripe Hall, Westminster Hall, Kidney 
Hall (or Diamond Hall), Redcock Hall, 151, 152, 388, 

1719. Hearne frequents Heddington, Iffley, Blind Pinnocks at 
Cumnor, and Antiquity Hall, called also ' Whittington 
and His Cat,' and ' the Hole in the Wall,' 151, 152, (661) 
1673. Louse Hall, Mother Louse and Mother George, 152 
1807. Mother Goose, 153 

The Constitution. 
1671. The Banterers. 
1737. The Free-cynics. 

I732-65- Tne High Borlace at the King's Head on Aug. 18, 
153— 155 

Clubs at Cambridge, 156—158 

The Old Maids. 
1709. Ri. Langton (Clare), as proctor, wages war against noisy 

1751. 'School-feasts.' The Westminster Club, the Charter-house; 

the Associators. 
1788. Sans Souci, 156 

1799. The True Blue (1688); the Speculative, 157, 596 
1815. The Union [Cooper's Annals, IV. 516, 517.] 
1725. The Zodiack (1728, the 'planets'), 157, 158 
1758. The Hyson, 334, 335 
1793. The Literary Club (Coleridge's), 589, 590 
1801. The College Fellows' Circulating Library, 599 
1746. T. Warton's ' Progress of Discontent, Oxford,' 158 
1758. His diary of a ' Genuine Idler,' 123, 159 
1764. ' An Evening Contemplation in a College,' 159, 160 

Smoking Tobacco. 
i6if Prohibited at King James' visit to Cambridge, 160 
1691. Substitutes for tobacco at Oxford, {662) 

H. Aldrich, dean of Ch. Ch. 160 
1740. T. Baker at St John's, Cambridge. 

1786. Smoking not fashionable among the younger graduates, 
except in the evening on the river, 161 

L. B. E. c 

xxii Table of Contents. 

i Soo. Nor with undergraduates even at wine parties. 

But among the older men. Porson and Parr. Emmanuel 

parlour. Farmer and Busick Harwood. 
Parlours, Common-rooms and Combination-rooms, 171, 162, 

Etymology of the last term, 162 

Lack of vigour in 18th century Amusements, 162, 163 
1667. Oxford recreations in the 17th century. 
' Oxonium poema,' 163, 164 
Exercises for men at the same period, 164 

1618. The Chapel tell rung by a subsizar at Cambridge (Ring- 
ing at the Restoration. Bunyan's works, &c), 165 
1 7 10. Uffenbach's account. 
1 7 24. The ' Cambridge youths.' 
1731. Ri. Dawes is enrolled among them. 
1655. A. Wood's bells at Merton, Oxford, 165, 166 
1733. T. Hearne's interest in ringing-matches, 165 
1775. Still fashionable, 166 
1 795' ' Voted vulgar.' 
1751. Battledore, swinging, leap-frog, tag, hop-step-and-jump, and 

1826. Rise of 'gymnastics' in England. 

Riding the Great Horse in the 17th century (cp. 663, 664), 
167, 168 
1699,1700. Project for a Riding-school at Oxford, 167, (547 — 550) 
1701, 1750-55. Riding on the Hills' Road at Cambridge, 168 
17S8. The cost of hiring horses, 169 
1750, 1797. Riding from Oxford to London. 

' Schemes,' (663) 
1750. Riding prohibited at Cambridge, 170 
1807. Only on Sundays. 

' Constitutionals ' late in the century. 
1829. C. Simeon's advice, (664, 665) 

1 736. Warburton invited to a long vacation tour in Scotland 
Poor scholars never went out of residence, 170, 171 
1756,1760. Tours in England. 
1740. Townson, &c. on the Continent. 
j.790. W. Wordsworth, 171, 172 

Reading parties a device of the 19th century. 

Table of Contents. xxiii 

1 Lakers.' 
1830. ' The Oxford Cantabs,' 172 

1720. Amusements of Sir Erasmus Philipps at Pemb. Oxon., 

.J? 2 . 173 
His water-parties. 

1571. Forbidden at Cambridge. 
1 768. Rowland Hill swims to Grantchester, 
1784. C. Simeon bathes at 5 a.m., 173 

Not popular. 
1724. W. Pattison. 
1788. Gunning's reminiscences. 


1 600. The Thames) , . , , 

' _, _ } made navigable. 

1702. The Cam j & 

1790. Six-oared boats at Oxford. A strange uniform, 175 

1793. Mrs Hooper's boats. Catskin caps, (665, 666) 

1807. Sailing-boats, canoes, men rowing in academical caps, 174 

1799. Rowing not customary at Cambridge, 175 

, 1810. Boat races unknown. 

J787-95- At Cambridge, 176, 177 

Games forbidden by the Univ. Statutes 
at Oxford, 177 
at Cambridge, 178 

1750. Tennis and Cricket in the morning. 

1620. Tennis at Christ's coll. and St John's. 

1688. On Peterhousc ground. 

1 72 1. Fives at Oxford. 
1755- Cricket, 178, (666) 

Wykehamists and Etonians at the old Bullingdon. 

1574,1579. Decrees at Cambridge, 179 
1620. Matches between Trinity and St John's. 
1632. J. Barwick's accident. 

Not played much in the 1 8th century. 
1584. Ministers or deacons forbidden to play at OXFORD, 
1616. Overbury's 'meere Schqlar,' 179,. 180^ 


xxiv Table of Contents. 

1727. Proceedings in the V. C.'s court at Cambridge, (667) 
1 760. • Advice to a young man of Quality, ' 1 80 
1786. Played occasionally at Chesterton. 
1762. At Oxford, (667) 

1764. At Oxford, 160 
1620. At Cambridge, 180 


When statutably permitted. 
1620. Shovel-groat and cards at St John's, Cambridge, 181 
1730. Whist at Caius college. 
1 760. ' Advice to a young man of Quality.' 
1792. In private and in Combination-rooms, 180, 181 

Shovel-board still preserved at Corpus College, OXFORD, i8r 

1620. At Cambridge. 
1780. In a coffee-house. 

1620. Suppressed at Cambridge. 
(1710. Fashionable in London.) 
1727. Disturbance near Oxford. 
1763. Programma at Cambridge, 181, 182 

(1710. A common English sport), 182 
172J. At-OXFORD, 183 

172^. Prohibited at Cambridge. 
1795. Matches against Suffolk. The 'basket,' 182 

1721. Prevalent at Oxford among the seniors, 183 
1785. The exception at Cambridge. 

1782. Could not be licensed in the Universities under the Act. 

Dr Barnes of Peterhouse. 
I783-S- Hey's prize essays on Gambling, Duelling and Suicide. 
J 790. C. Moore's treatise on Gaming. 
1710-20. Horse-racing at Oxford, 183, 184 

Table of Contents. xxv 

[1750. 'Newmarket: <i Satire,' by T. Warton.] 
1791. Duel between UndergracUiates. 

1729. The V. C. and Mayor of Oxford at issue about a. prize-fight. 
1725. The provost of T. C. Dublin leads the van against the 
butchers, 184, 185 

Dancing and vaulting in the 17th century, 185 
1637. Evelyn at Stokes' school at Oxford. 
1655. Stokes' ' Vaulting Master.' 

Dancing only, in the 1 8th century. 
1724. Kellom Tomlinson's 'Art.' 
1 760. " Advice to a Young Man of Quality.' 
1 765. Sir W. Jones attends Angelo's in the vacation. 

Volunteer Corps. 
1798. O.U.V.C. or 'Armed Association,' 185 

Their uniform, 186 
[1803. University Corps at Cambridge. Cooper's Annals, IV. 
478, 479-] 

Stirbridge Fair. 

Its importance. And popularity, 186, 187 
My Lord Tap, 187, (667) 
1 7 10. A. Bonwicke, Stjohrfs 

, .., 1 did not go to it, 187 

1 738. T. Gray, Pet. Coll. \ s M ' 

Dramatic Entertainments at Stirbridge. 

'533. i555> 1592, 188 

1 701. Bentley as V. C. commits Doggett and demolishes the 

booth, 193 
1708. Mention still of actors, 193 
1748. Hussey's Theatrical booth, 195 
1772. Stevens'. 
1782. Mansel, Farmer, and Reid, 'the Shakespeare Gang,' 196 

Other dramatic performances. 
Sir J. Harrington's statement, 188 

1535. Performances of the Trinity lecturers, ib. 

1536. A Greek play at St John's, ib. 

1545. The Christmas lord aX St John's, (667, 668) 
1607. The Christmas prince at St John's, Oxon. (668) 
1557, 1623. Play-acting on Sundays, 189 (668) 
1564. In King's College Chapel, before Q. Elizabeth, 189 

xxvi Table of Contents. 


1544-1641.. Other acting at Cambridge, 189 — 192 
1642. Ordinance against stage-plays, (669) 
1655-60. Acting ' by stealth ' at Oxford, 192 

Dryden's prologues, &c, 193 

Cibber acts at Oxford in the time of William III. 

1712. Cibber's company at the Act, 194 

1 7 13. The players at' Oxford. 

1785. Plea for the drama at Oxford, 196 

Bentley annexes the obsolete Tyring Room at Trinity, Cam- 
bridge, 192, 193 (669) 
1747. Smart's 'A Trip to Cambridge,' 195, (662) 

In old time 'a preparation to divinitie,' 197 
1666,1669. 'Hale and Cosin scholars' at Peterhouse, ought to learn 

music, 198 
1654-7. A. Wood's Musical parties at Oxford. T. Ken, 198, 199, (669) 
1699. An Oxonian at a concert in Cambridge, 199 
1710. Uffenbach's criticism of the Music Club at Christ's college, 

199, 200 
1 72 1. Erasmus Philipps learns the violin at Oxford. 
1 723-1805. Spinnets and harpsichords. 
1733- ' One Handel,' &c. at the Oxford Act, 200, 201 
1 742 . The Music Room. 

1750. Music (especially violin-playing) popular at Cambridge, 
Classical music at Oxford, 203 
Modern comic concerts taking the place of the Early safety, 
valves for boisterous spirits. 

The initiatory ceremony of salting. 
1647. In Wood's time at Oxford, 204—206 
1577- At Trinity, Cambridge, 206 

1620. At Pembroke and St John's (his own college) in D'Ewes' time 
1628. Milton the mock Father of Christ's College in the summer 

vacation, 206, 207 
1 7'4- The Fresh treat at Oxford, 206 

Personages taking part officially in the old University exer- 
cises, who were allowed to make use of Satirical arguments 
2 °7— 3°7 

At Cambridge (,) the « Tripos' or < Bachelor of the stool-' 
(2) the Praevaricator' or ' Va?-ier.' 


Table of Contents. xxvii 

(i) The Tripos 1 , called 

?I555- in bedel Stokys' Book the ' Ould Bachilour; the ' Bachikr 

A wnswerynge. ' 
1 5 .^ 6. ' the bachelor, ' 216 
1576. ' the bachelor of the Stool,' 227 
1665. in bedel Buck's Book the ' Tripos,' 218 
1667. Tripiis, 229 

His business was to take a prominent part as a disputant at 

the Bachelors' Commencement, Comitia minoia priora ac 

posteriora, in Lent. 
Characteristics of the Tripos' Speech, 219, 220 
170^. Sam. Cobb's Tripos speech, 220 — 226 
1624-1741. Regulations and offences of the 'Tripos,' 228—231 
[1650]. Vmbra Comitiorum, or Cambridge Commencement in Types, 

REPRINTED. (671 — 678) 
1574-1802. Account of some of the Tripos Verses, 228 — 244 
1632-6. Peter Gunning, 'senior brother,' ' tripos, ' and ' praevaricator, 


(2) The Praevaricator, or Varier, called 

? 1555- in bedel Stokys' book the 'yong regent,' 247 

1665. in bedel Buck's book the ' Varier or Prcevaricator,' 252 

He was the junior regent M.A. of the previous Commence- 
ment ; and his business was to make a speech at the Comitia 
maiora, or Great Commencement, in the summer, playing 

1 The history of our Cambridge term tripos, as equivalent to ' honour examina- 
tion,' is curious and interesting. 

(1) The B.A., who sat on a three-legged stool (pp. 211, 227) to dispute with the 
'Father' in the philosophy schools on Ash- Wednesday, was called Mr Tripos, from 
that on which he sat. 

(2) The satirical speech made by him (pp. 219, 220) was called the Tripos-speech: 

{3) His humorous verses distributed by the bedels were called Tripos-verses: 

(4) His office became obsolete in the last century ; and similar verses being still 
circulated by authority each sheet of verses was called ' a Tripos,' or ' Tripos Paper' 
(Gradus ad Cantab, ed. 1803). 

(5) On the back of each sheet after the year 1748 a list of 'Wranglers' and 
'Senior Optimes,' or of 'Junior Optimes' {Gradus ad Cantab, ed. 1824). These 
lists were called the 'Triposes/ or first and second 'Tripos lists' (pp. 210, 255); 

(6) The mathematical examination, whose interest centered in this list, was called 
the Tripos. 

(7) When other 'honour examinations* were instituted they were distinguished as 
the ' classical tripos/ &c. from the 'mathematical tripos.' 

xxviii Table .of Contents. 

upon the question to be disputed, or varying its terms, 246, 

247, 252 
1614. There was a Varier also at the public Commencement, ani 

sometimes a ' Music Speech? 
1714. R. Long's ' Music Speech' in St Mary's Church, 259 — 269 
J 73°- John Taylor's Ode and 'Music Speech' in the new Senate- 
House, 269 — 276 
1 785. Commencement week at Cambridge, 276 
1777. Pot Fair. Commencement-Ball, 277, (678) 
1620. The Greater and Lesser Act : the 'praevaricator' and 'tripos' 

in D'Ewes' time, 277 — 283 
1620-84. Notices of fraevaricators : regulations, recantations, &c, 229, 

282, 229, 278, 230, 279, 230 
The Act at Oxford. 
Cibber's remarks, 283 
1654. Evelyn at the Act in St Mary's ('y e Prevaricators '), 286 
1661-1733. A list of some 'Acts,' 284, 285 
1669. Inauguration of the Act in the Sheldonian Theatre. Wallis 

and Evelyn, 286 — 289 
The Terrae filii, 288 
1669. Degeneracy of their wit, 289 
1704. Baker's Comedy, 'An Act at Oxford,' 289—296 
1591-1713. List of Terrae filii, 296—298, 303, (680) 
1703. Two speeches of the Terrae films. Roberts, 298 

1 713. A speech publicly burnt at the Act. Contemporary opinion 

in the Guardian, sketching the progress of terrae filial 
satire, 298, 299 
Amherst's instance of audacious personality, 299 

1 7 14. Dr Ayliffe's description of the Act, 299 — 302 

He ascribes the buffoonery of terrae filius to the anti-papisti- 
cal satire of the Reformation, 302 
1 721. Amherst's account. 
1726. Hogarth's frontispiece, 302, 303 

I 733- The Act. Bellus Homo et Academicus recited. Bowyer's 
' Beau and Academick,' 303 
The terrae filius speech printed and suppressed, 304 — 306 
Mr Robinson's sketch of its contents, ib. 
'7^3- The last of the terrae filii. The rumour of his appearance 

causes apprehensions to the Town and Gown, 306, 307 
1 779. Mentioned by the authoress of ' Who's the Dupe ?' 307 
1660-82. ' Musick Speeches ' or 'Musick Lectures,' 308 

Table of Contents. xxix 

Lent Verses, or Carmina Quadragesimalia, corresponding 
with the Cambridge ' tripos verses,' 309 
1715. Their tory sentiments. 

Popham's specimens. 
1723. Este's volume of Christ Church Carmina Qtizdragesimalia, 

1 74 J. Parson's volume, 313, 314 
1730. The Lent Disputations at Cambridge reformed. 

' Standing in XL™*.' 
1646. ' Coursing' in Lent abolished at Oxford, 315, 316 
'Egg Saturday,' ib. 
'Austins,' 315, 317 
'Wall Lectures,' 315,318 
1722. 'Circuiting,' 318 

Distinction between the Act and Commemoration, or the 
Encaenia, ib. 
1669. The Sheldonian Theatre opened. 
1750-73. Accounts of Commemoration in the Gent. Mag., 319 

Foreigners visiting the Universities. 
1 701. Neophytus the Greek abp. of Philippopolis at Oxford in 
the Long Vacation (Dr Woodroffe), 324, (681) 
And at Cambridge (Bentley, prof. J. Barnes). 
His speech, 320, 321, (680) 
161 6. A future patriarch of Alexandria educated at Balliol, 324 
1689-1705. The Greek College at Oxford, and its students, 324, 325 

1768. The K. of Denmark at Cambridge, 325 
1775. The Pr. of Hesse and the Danish ambassador, ib. 
1797. The Pr. and Princess of Orange, ib. 

1786. K. George III. at Oxford. Miss Burney attends on Q. 
Charlotte. Her description of the visit, 326, 327 
Ladies at foreign universities in the 14th and 1 8th centuries, 328 
The story of Agnodice of Athens, 328, 329 
The decline of literary culture in the Roman republic and 
empire revived by Vespasian's professors. A second gene- 
ration of learned Roman ladies, 329, 330 
Literary taste in the reign of Q, Anne. English ladies of the 
Tatler and Spectator period, 331 
1710-14. Efforts of Steele, Addison, and Hughes in their behalf, 331, 

33 a 

Dr Johnson. B. Stillingfleet junior's blue-stockings. Names 

of some literary ladies of the 18th century, 332 

xxx Table of Contents. 

1 764-1812. Mrs Jebb (Ann .Torkington), 333—343 

Her husband, John Jebb of Peterhouse, an unpopular whig 
and reformer at Cambridge. 

1771. In his attack on 'Subscription' she assists him in a pamphlet, 

under the signature ' Priscilla,' against Dr Randolph's 
Charge, 336, 340 
Paley's remark on the occasion, 340 

1772. When her husband was striving to establish- annual examina- 

tions, she wrote in their favour in the Whitehall Post, &c. 
1774. And in a 'Letter to the Author, &c.' [Dr Powell, master of 

St John's], &c, 336, 339 
1076-1604. Celibacy of the Clergy in England, 343 — 347 
Celibacy at the Universities. 

1 550. Mrs Cox and the wife of Peter Martyr at Christ Church, 350 


1551. A married vice-master of Trinity is continued in his place by 

royal licence of K. Edward, 345, 346 
I553"4- The master of Peterhouse was deprived under Q. Mary as 

being a married man, (681) 
1561. Q. Elizabeth's Injunction against the marriage of Heads and 
other members of Colleges or Cathedrals, 348 
A married president of Magdalen College, Oxon., 350 
1570. The Cambridge statutes seem to admit married heads of 

colleges, 351 
1575. This was proved in the case of Dr Goad of King's. Mrs 
Goad 'came never twice within the quadrant of the college,' 
Loggan's pictures of the 17th century, 352, 353 
Attempt to extend the licence of marrying to fellows of Col- 
leges at Cambridge, 353 

1765. ' The Council in the Moon.' 

1766. Excitement at Cambridge, and especially among the Johnians. 

The proposal falls through, 353, 354 " 
1783. The restriction of celibacy removed from such Heads at 
Oxford as were still bound to it by their statutes, 354, 35 5 

Married fellowships advocated in Gent. Mag., 355 

' A Pair Statement.' 
1793-8. Revived agitation of the question, 355, 356 

Farish's pamphlet, 'Toleration of Marriage,' 356 
1798. Vain attempt to procure a syndicate. 
18 1 1. J. Plumptre's sermon, ' Forbidding to Marry,' 357 
1661. Warden Clayton's wife at Merton, Oxford, 357 — 360 

Table of Contents. xxxi 

She puts the college to expense. Her watch-tower, 358 
1852. Prof. Conington on the restriction of celibacy, 360 

The Cambridge Univ. Commission, 361, 362 
157I-. Dr Goad punishes those who abetted the marriage of young 

Byron of Queens'. 
1629-1712. Proceedings against those who enticed young scholars into 
imprudent marriages, 362, 363 

Familiarity with tradesmen's families, 363 

Promenades at Oxford, ib. 
1707, 1710. Merton Garden. 
? 1625. Earle's Hortus Mertonensis. 
1 570- 1 740. Paradise Garden. 

Uffenbach's description. 

Miller's ' Humours of Oxford,' 365 
1711. Sketch of Wadham Gardens, 366 
1714. A Vindication of the Oxford Ladies. 
1716-27. Merton Walks frequented by the 'Body of Divinity' and 

other' ' Toasts,' 367 
1723. They take refuge in Magdalen college walks, 368 

1720. A 'fellow-commoner' of Pembroke has a key of the garden, 

and gives it to a scholar. 
1 761. Description of Oxford gardens, walks, &c, 394 — 396 

1721. An Oxford ' Toast ' described by Amherst, 368 — 371 

1 7 18. ' Strephon's Revenge, ' wherein the Oxford Toasts are satirized, 

37'. 372 
1718. And their admirers or hangers-on — the College 'Smarts' — at 

Oxford, 372 
1721. Described also by Amherst, 375, 377 
1628. Earle's 'meere young Gentleman of the Vniuersitie,'- 377, 

1711-1825. Such fops were called Loungers at Cambridge, and were 

frequently described by the essayists of the day, 372 — 375, 

(The verses in the Oxford Sausage related apparently to 

Cambridge in the first instance), 372, 373 
1793-1824. * To lounge,' 378(587,593) 

Lounging-books, which were provided in the Mappesian 

Library, kept by Nicholson, 378 
1781-96. Notices of old 'Maps,' 378—385 
1780. Fletcher's reading-room at Oxford, 385 
1662. Abuse of a lending library in early times, 386 
1751. Coffee-house novel libraries, 386, 387 

xxxii Table of Contents. 

1762. Described in Warton's 'Companion to the Guide' (the mss. 

being ledgers), 151, 387—39° 

1763. Library at Cambridge in Emmanuel Coffee-house, 144 
And elsewhere in Gray's time, 390 

Patronesses of the high borlace at Oxford, 154 
1747. And in Trinity College common-room, 391 
1730. Toast drinking, '161, 391 
1710-73. College buildings at Cambridge. 

Eighteenth century taste and 'improvements,' 391 — 394 
1690-1793. Pictures and poems representing ladies in the Backs of the 

Colleges, 397 
1751. The Toast's Progress, 398, 399 
1 746. T. Warton's Progress of Discontent, 399, 400 

Goldsmith's Double Transformation, 399 

Testimonies to the want of politeness in the Universities, 
400 — 404 
1628. Earle's downe-right Scholler, 400 
1698. Farquhar's Love and a Bottle, 401 
1713-23. The Essayists, &c. 
1751. The Female Student, 401, 402 

Richardson's 'MrWalden,' 402 — 404 
1779. A student ignorant of fashionable slang, 404 


? Thomas Hobson's choice of horses, 405 (683 — 687) 

1654-1842. ' Flying Coaches,' &c.,4o5 — 408 

1688, 1729. Hackney-coach fares, 406 

1749-96. Letter carriers and post days at Cambridge, 406, 407 

1785. Pack-horses, 407 

Sloth of coaches, 408 
1809. Dick Vaughan of the * Telegraph ' light Coach, it. 

Tapers and oil-lamps versus gas, 408 — 410 (688) 

Parsimony in oil, 409, 410 
1782-8. Paving and lighting Cambridge streets, 410 
1.625. Bedmakers not to usurp the offices of poor scholars, ib. 

V. Bourne's verses on Newton's bedmaker, John Perkins, 411 
1 72 1. And on Rouss. 

Increasing luxuriousness of college rooms, 411, 412 
1687. Winston's rooms, 412, 413 
I7°9- The Oxford Servitour's lodgings, 103, 104 
1740. ' A soph's furniture ' proverbial, 412 
1 761. Apartments at All Souls' in the Gothic taste. 

Table of Contents. xxxiii 

1 764. Interior in the illustrations to the Oxford Sausage. 
1820. Sofas not yet universal, 412 


1620-1801. Some students' spendings, 413 — 418 

1727-47. Pamphlets by Dr Ri. Newton of Hart Hall (571 — 583) 

Taxors appointed in the early universities to defend students 
from the exorbitance of the townsmen, their landlords, 415 

After the foundation of Colleges their office is changed, 415, 
1502-1855. History of the later taxors, 416 — 418 

Bidding prayers pro defunctis, 418, 419 
1705. Aggression of town magistrates punished, 419 
1616-1750; Judicious proctors, 419 — 421 

Town and Gown, 421 — 428 
[354-7. Feb. 10, S. Scholastica's Day at Oxford, and the sequel of 

the fray, 421 — 424 
1357-1854. Its humiliating commemoration, 423 — 426 
X575. ' Welsh and Saxons, ' 427 

1673. A scholar of B.N.C. wounded at the mayor's election riot, ib. 
1575. Quarrelsome Cambridge scholars, 426 

'A Royston horse and a Cambridge M.A.,' 427 

'North and South,' ib. 
1788. A drayman killed by Turk Taylor. 
1792. Misconduct of townsmen. 

1768. Rating the colleges. 'Rights... of... Cambridge defended,' 427, 


1769. 'An Argument in the Case of Coll. Chr. and Emman.,' 428 
] 774. Case of Catherine Hall v. Parish of St Botolph. 

1782. Dr Ro. Plumptre's 'Hints.' 


As in the country, so in the Universities, 428 
I74t. ' Culinary Kays,' 429 
1750. Testimony of the Academic as to the improved state of things 

at Cambridge at the very time of the 'New Regulations,' 

67, 429 
? Dr Johnson drinks three bottles of port at Oxford, 429 

1644-1771. Wines drunk in Oxford, London, Scotland, &c, 429 — 432, 

1773-80. Price of College wine, 432, 433 
1661. Morning draughts at Oxford, 433 

xxxiv Table of Contents. 

1713-64. Became old-fashioned, 127, 128 

1835. Beer re-introduced at Oxford from Cambridge [where Porson 
had always broken his fast on malt liquor], 433 

1 747. The discipline of Glasgow and Aberdeen held up for imita- 
tion, 434 

1751. Disorderly demonstrations in Cambridge, 434, 435 

1837. Modem university society as described by an American 
clergyman, 435 

1716,1728. Disciplinary regulations, 436 

1740. Symptoms of disorders at St John's, 438 

1749. Many heinous offenders among the wealthier students, 437, 


1750, 1822. ' School feasts,' 71, 436, 437 

1 733- Dr Conybeare's reforms at Ch. Ch., Oxford displease Hearne, 

1747. Dr Cockman at Univ. coll., 434 
1727-47. Dr Newton of Hart Hall, 438 (570 — 583) 

1837. Dr Whewell's theory of punishment, 438, 439 

His scale of penalties, 442, 443 
1663-1764. Admonitions and Confession of Offences, 118, 119, 439,440 
1652. Discommonsing (Dryden's case), 439, 440 

Sending to Coventry and discommuning, 440 
1 740-93. Rustication and Expulsion, 438 — 440, 445 
1556. Flogging in the Universities, 439, 481 
?i6i5. Dr Potter. 
1662, At the Butteries. 

And in the Hall, 442, (689) 

The title of Dean of wide application, 442 
1571. Stocks in the College hall, 443 
1790. The Stang probably obsolete, 443, 444 
1723-1803. Sconcing, 443—445 
1803. A punishment = an 'imposition,' 445 
1679-1803. Impositions, 445 — 452, 485 

Contracted for by ' Maps,' 447 

And by Jemmy Gordon, 447 — 453, (689) 

Pictures of Gordon, 451, 452 
1768-85. And of D. Randall and Mother Hammond, 453, 454 

1 541. Inventory of the apparel of => scholar of St John's, CAM- 
BRIDGE [ex decreto scaccarii), 454, 455, (689, 690) 

Table of Contents. xxxv 

(1577. Expenses of the E. of Essex and his Attendant at Trinity, 

456, 457) 
1598. Inventory of a B.A. of Oxford, 455, 456 
1 3+|. Unclerical gaiety of attire censured, 459 
1566. King's coll. free from the quarrels concerning dress, 461 

1570. Cambridge statutes affecting the private dress of scholars, 

459. 460 

1571. Interpretation as to wearing hats, 460 
The proctors and other offenders, 461 

1 57 1. Dr Goad's troublesome fellows, 352 

1585. Lord Burleigh's orders, 461 — 465 

1587. He presents complaints of tailors' bills, 465 

1589. Whitgift reprimands the Oxonians, 465, 466 

1602. And receives complaints from Cambridge, 466 

1603. The LXXivth Canon, 466, 467 
Sir Hugh Evans, 467 

1636. 'Certain Disorders' represented to Laud, 467, 468 

1674. The accusation of long perukes met, 468 

1694. The V. C. at Oxford speaks against a fashion of hats, ib. 

Fashions in Q. Anne's reign, 469 

Little changed under George I., 469, 470 
171I. Gown sleeves at Oxford, 470 
1 72 1. Lace ruffles and flaxen tye-wigs, 470, 471 
1742. Hogarth's Taste in High Life, 470 

Dr Richardson punishes the wearing of neckcloths for stocks, 


1750. Sumptuary Orders and Regulations, 65, 68 

1 751. The Sloven, 47 r, 472 
Bobs and grizzles, 472, 473 

1 775"9- Wigs unfashionable, 473 

Simeon and Porson, ib. 
1768-75. Extracts from F. Dawes' bills, 473—476 
17S6-8. Extravagance of undergraduates, 47$ 
1 799. Prof. Pryme's reminiscences of dress, wigs, &c, 476, 477 
1619-1804. Etiquette concerning boots, 478, 479 

Supplicatio de ocreis et crepidis, 479 — 481, 487 
1633. Boots forbidden, 480 

1633-1770. Oxford statutes on dress private and academical, 481 
1816. A penalty imposed for disregard of those statutes, 485 

Academical dress of students derived from the Benedictines, 
1414-1788. Regulations affecting the scholastic dress at Cambridge. 

xxxvi Table of Contents. 

1837. Dr Whewell on the importance of academical dress, 491, 492 
The hood, tippet, liripipe, &c, 492—499, (690) 
The hood 'squared,' 'flourished,' &c, 498, (690) 
The old Cambridge non-regent black hood, 499 
The cap round and square, 499 — 512 
1570-1835. The gowns, 461, 496, 505, 512—524, (693) 
16S2. Mourning gowns and crape gowns. [Eachard's] Speculum, 

515. £ 22 > ( 6qi — 6 93) 
1790. The Oxford commoner's leading-strings, 525 
1857. Proposal to alter the commoner's gown, ib. 

Dress of the clergy, 525-^30 

The cassock, 525, 526 
1764-65. Pamphlets on clerical dress, 526 — 530 

Scarlet gowns, 530 

Scarlet days and Litany days at Cambridge, ib. 

The surplice. 

Scarves and stoles, 500, 501, 516, 531 — 533 
1610,1646-1759. Pictures bearing upon the vestments of the clergy and 
of the altar, 533—538. 543, (^93— °9 6 ) 

The University cope, 538 — 543 

Proctor's ruffs, 543 
1550. Bedell's quoifs, ib. 


AFTER laying down such a book as Izaak Walton's 
Memoirs of George Herbert or Bishop Monk's Life 
of Bentley, we naturally put to ourselves the question: 
whether, if we had our choice, we should prefer the 
times in which either of them lived to our own days. 

Such a comparison is not unprofitable as an 
exercise of the Affections or the Imagination ; but 
it has a distinct value with reference to our own 
Conduct and Opinions at the present time. 

It is true, no doubt, that most of us are inclined to 
dwell with pleasure upon the lively Chronicles of the 
post-Elizabethan Age ; and to recoil from the deathlike 
Effigies of the Eighteenth Century, when the Spirit of 
Chivalry seems dead, and the Christian Life paralysed 
and obscured. And in our days, when men's minds 
are fixed upon the Present almost to the exclusion of 
what is Past or Future from the range of their view, 
w,e can hardly do wrong in encouraging in ourselves 
and others the Contemplation of the Seventeenth 
Century, and of still remoter times. 

Nevertheless the student of history must not neg- 
lect those periods which seem to him uninteresting. 
Without interest no period of history can ever be in 
its relation to that which has followed it or is to 
L. B. E. * i 


follow; since the darkest and even the blankest pages 
of history can never be blotted out or removed with- 
out destroying the Unity and Continuity of the whole. 
The sons cannot wholly do the fathers' work : much 
less can they undo it; — even though that work be 

And if this be true of the study of Ecclesiastical 
History (as Professor Westcott teaches us), it is a 
principle no less to be observed in reviewing that 
most important section of the great educational ques- 
tion of the day ; the Condition and Proper Destiny of 
our Universities. 

In examining the pile of different parts which 
compose the architectural whole of the University 
Structure, we must not be content with fixing our 
eyes upon the point towards which the lines converge 
(a point still enveloped in the dim mysterious 
distance), nor yet with taking a bird's-eye view 
from the high places of Philosophy. 

despicere unde queas alios, passimque uidere 
errare atque uiam palantis quaerere uitae, 
certare ingenio, contendere nobilitate, 
noctis atque dies niti praestante labore 
ad summas emergere opes rerumque potiri. 

In addition to these, and in order to complete our 
fore-shortened sketch of past and present, there is 
need to make, at intervals in the length, Transverse 
Sections from which to gather the general condition 
of the Societies in each stage of their development. 
In a word, we must contemplate the parts in their 
Solidarity as well as in their Continuity. 


Any attempt to take such a view of the condition 
of our Universities in the Eighteenth Century, 
must, except in the hands of the practised Historian, 
be at present partial and of doubtful success. The 
Life of that Age is not as yet consolidated into His- 
tory; and for that reason there will be gaps and 
doubtful tints in our Chart of the Section. 

At present we must content ourselves with hoping 
that the day will soon come when some diligent 
Lover of Truth will piece together the later history 
of our Universities from the Pamphlets of a Pamph- 
leteering Age. 

Such a work would be unquestionably a most 
important assistance in grappling with difficulties 
which now beset us. It would, I believe, enable us 
to see in many cases the causes of neglect from 
which Disease moral, religious, and political has 
spread in our great educational bodies, and so, since 
the importance of the Universities has increased, 

in patriam populumque fluxit. 

At the same time we should, I believe, learn to 
our profit that, whereas we are apt to boast of our 
Advancement and to despise our forefathers in the 
last century, many (if not most) of those Educational 
and Constitutional Movements in which the Party of 
Progress in our Universities are now most interested, 
had been suggested or elaborated by persons or by im- 
portant minorities long before we ourselves were born. 
.'. Such a history is however beyond the scope of the 
following compilation. 


The Method proposed is to take the different topics 
severally which relate to the University Life and 
Studies in England during the Eighteenth Century 
under these three heads : 

i. Social Life. This division contains remarks 
upon the Political and Moral Condition of the Univer- 
sities ; the Mutual Relations of different classes of 
their members; the Amusements, the Discipline; with 
some account of Proposals for Reform put forward at 
the time. 

This part only has been completed in the present 
volume. The Elements of the two following are al- 
ready in solution in my Note Books, but are not as 
yet precipitated upon Paper as Copy for the Press. 

2. The Individual Studies pursued in the 
University Curriculum, or advanced by the efforts of 
private Students : the Tools and Helps afforded them, 
or needed by them, as Libraries, Editions, Scientific 
Apparatus, and Laboratories. This division of the 
sketch should treat of some of that second class of 
Instruments to the advancement of learning men- 
tioned by Bacon at the commencement of the second 
book ' de augmentis scientiarum ;' while the first di- 
vision is devoted to the Workshop and the Men 
(' litter arum sedes' — 'personae eruditorum') in their re- 
lation to the common weal. 

As an appendage to the Studies, should follow 
some account of the proceeding to Degrees, and of 
the early University Calendars. 

3- The Religious Life in its personal and social 


Social Life. 

King George observing with judicious eyes 

The state of both his Universities, 

To Oxford sent a troop of horse; and why? 

That learned body wanted loyalty. 

To Cambridge books he sent, as well discerning 

How much that loyal body wanted learning. 

The King to Oxford sent a troop of horse, 
For Tories own no argument but force; 
With equal skill to Cambridge books he sent, 
For Whigs admit no force but argument. 

'Everything'— says Hartley Coleridge 1 , in his Life 
of Dr Richard Bentley — 'everything in England 
takes the shape and hue of politics.' If this was 
true of the country in the earlier half of the present 
century, it was so pre-eminently at the Universities in 
the Eighteenth. 

The Civil War in the days of King Charles I. had 
spread so widely over the country that it was almost 
impossible for any man, much more for any woman, 
to abstain from espousing earnestly that cause which 
appeared to have the better claim to advantage or to. 
right. And if the horrors of civil broils and the sour 
tyranny of a body more imperious than one man 
could be, made many no longer unwilling to welcome 

1 Northern Worthies, p. 151. 

University Society 

back the exiled Prince; yet, after the disturbing 
influences of a luxurious reign, the infatuation of 
King James roused the dormant indignation of his 
subjects; the succession, which by a prudent and a 
sober king might have been established to the welfare 
of the nation, was violently interrupted, and England 
was once more the scene of faction and distress. 

It would perhaps have been difficult to augur on 
which side the sister Universities would place them- 
selves. Many Colleges in each had given their plate 
and their men to further the good cause. The words 
of Dr Bliss 1 will apply to Cambridge, as well as to 
Oxford, of which he is writing; witness the pages 
of Mercurius Rusticus, and the acts of the Earl of 

'They had been despoiled of their property, ejected 
from their livings and subjected to every injury and 
insult at the hands of a rabble who thought them- 
selves reformers, but had no other aim than their 
own advancement and the plunder of those which 
had anything to lose. Can we wonder at the popu- 
larity with which Charles II. ascended his father's 
throne, or be surprised that Hearne and those who 
thought with him still adhered in the following reign 
to the race of the Stuarts?' They had suffered for 
the king and they had suffered with him. Was not 
that enough to make them faithful ? For the loyalty 
of benefactors is most loyal ; they engender affection, 
the offspring of adoptive parents. But the second 
Charles in the gaiety of the court often played the 
1 Reliquiae Hearnianae, in. Appendix I. pp. 188, 189. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 

part of Pharaoh's chief butler to those who had 
restored him to his liberty, and to his office. Such 
conduct would make some bitter enemies: — others 
(like the dog who does not hate his master for the 
blow or cruel word) would increase in loyalty ; their 
sense of duty and of chivalry becoming stronger 
with their sense of the difficulty of maintaining 

Then came the trial of conscience. King James 
in his ardour for Romanism, and urged on perhaps 
by a suspicion that he had but little time wherein 
to advance his cause, by attempts to an exertion 
, of arbitrary power in either University struck with 
his own hand two fatal blows to the security of 
his throne 1 . 

At Oxford upon the death of Dr Clarke in 1687 
a mandamus was received from the king by the 
Fellows of Magdalene College to elect Mr Anthony 
Farmer, a man of no good character and a Papist, to 
the vacant Presidency. But the Fellows of Magda- 
lene stood firm. They proceeded statutably to elect 
Dr Hough — who (as we learn from Heame's diary 2 ) 
only agreed to hold the Presidency against the king's 
mandamus when Dr Baptiste Levinz, bishop of Man, 
withdrew. The Fellows were summoned to Whitehall. 
James could no longer insist upon the election of one 
of such notoriety as his nominee ; he therefore issued 

1 Burnet's Own Time, nr. 139, ed. Oxon. 18-23 ( = '• 6°7> sqq- fol!o 
ed.). On the great influence of the Universities in the country, at the 
end of the 1 7th cent., see Macaulay's Hist. ch. viii. 

8 Reliquiae Hearnianae, III. 167. 

8 University Society 

another mandamus for the election of Dr Parker. 
But the king had shewn his weakness, and the 
Fellows knew their strength lay in doing their 

They bore the unkingly conduct of their sovereign, 
who came to Christ Church Hall and rated them in 
person. Dr Hough was deprived, and the door of 
his presidential lodgings broken open by the servants 
of the Commission: for no Oxford blacksmith could 
be induced to do the deed. Twenty-five Fellows were 
expelled and most of the Demies followed their 
example. The college servants also suffered and 
acted boldly for their masters. 

'Already' (writes Lord Macaulay of the year 1687) 
'had University College been turned by Obadiah 
Walker into a Roman Catholic seminary. Already 
Christ Church was governed by a Roman Catholic 
Dean. Mass was already said in both those Colleges. 
The tranquil and majestic city, so long the strong- 
hold of monarchical principles, was agitated by 
passions which it had never before known. The 
undergraduates, with the connivance of those who 
were in authority over them, hooted the members 
of Walker's 1 congregation and chanted satirical ditties 
under his windows. Some fragments of the serenades 
which then disturbed the High Street have been 
preserved. The burden of one ballad ran thus : — 

"Old Obadiah sings Ave Maria." 

1 For an anecdote relating to Obadiah Walker, see the quotation 
from Cibber's Life given below. His name is still commemorated in an 

in the Eighteenth Century. 

' So mutinous indeed was the temper of the University 
that one of the newly-raised regiments — the same which 
is now called the Second Dragoon Guards, was quar- 
tered at Oxford for the purpose of preventing an out- 
break. As a necessary consequence of James's arbi- 
trary proceedings, when in 1688 the insurgents under 
Lovelace appeared before Oxford, they were received 
with a hearty welcome. Already some of the heads 
of the University had dispatched one of their number 
to assure the Prince of Orange that they espoused his 
cause, and would willingly coin their plate for his 
service. The Whig chief therefore rode through the 
capital of Toryism amidst general acclamation, and at 
the head of a long procession of horse and foot 1 .' 

Yet the Jesuits had made some way at Oxford, 
whether by deluding the conscience of the famous 
Quaker William Penn, or through the pervert Master 
of University, Obadiah Walker, who had a press in 
the College for printing unlicensed books 2 . 

Oxford had at this critical time a Vice- Chancellor 
(Dr Gilbert Ironside of Wadham) worthy of the men of 

' Maudlin, Magdalen, or Magdalene.' 

He could answer the king with dignity, yet without for- 

admonition to pass the wine, which is, I am told, traditional in the Club 

at Oxford — a Society founded in the 18th century. 
' Obadiah Walker us'd to say, 
"If you don't drink, your neighbour may.'"'' 

1 Macaulay's Hist., compare Burnet's Own Time, III. 321, 331 = 
folio ed. I. 793, 798. 

3 Cp. the passage from Cibber's Life quoted below. Dr Sykes' 
Letters to Dr Charlett of Univ. Coll. in 1687. Letters from the 
Bodleian (1813), Vol. I. No. xvi. foil. 

io University Society 

getting the obedience which he owed to the royal com- 
mand in all things lawful 1 . It was he who prudently 
answered a captious question put to him by one who 
was sent to test the willingness of the University to 
confer the degrees of D.D. and LL.B. on persons 
nominated by the king 2 . 

Our Cambridge also had brooked the royal dis- 
pleasure by withstanding an attempt to set aside her 
laws, when the king would have forced her to admit 
Alban Francis, a Benedictine monk, to the Degree of 
M.A. without his taking the oaths'. The Vice-Chan- 
cellor (Dr Peachell) was deposed, but still the 
University persisted, and Father Francis was rejected. 
And for king James himself, 'it is not too much' (says 
the now Master of Jesus College Cambridge) 'to say 
that the following out of those designs cost him his 
throne V 

1 Letters from the Bodleian, I. pp. 35, 36. 

2 In 171 1 (Nov. 19) there came a mandate from Queen Anne 'to 
make Mr Nicholas Sanderson (a blind man from his infancy, but who 
had taught Mathematicks in Christ's College about 4 years) Master of 
Arts. It did not command, but only recommended him; and yet he"; 
was immediately admitted and created without reading any grace for it. 
20. He was chosen Mathematick Professor in the room of Mr Whiston, 
who was expell'd for Heresy.' Diary of Edw. Hud, p. 7. Camb i860' 
ed. Rev. H. R. Luard. 

3 See a Pamphlet in the Bodleian Library (Gough, Cambr. 103). 
'The Cambridge Case, being an exact narrative of all the Proceedings 
against the Vice-Chancellour and Delegates of that University, for 
refusing to admit Alban Francis a Benedictine Monk to the Degree of 
Master of Arts, without taking the Oaths. London, Printed and are to 
be vSold by Randal Taylor near Stationers' Hall. 1689.' (PP- 16.) 

4 Brief Historical notices of the interference of the Crown with the 
affairs of the English Universities, by G. Elwes Corrie, B.D., Fellow 
and Tutor of St Catharine's Hall, and Norrisian Professor, Cam- 
bridge, 1839. p. 85. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 1 1 

Then stood forth the seven Bishops and spoke the 
mind of the country, seeing how dangerous were the 
encroachments of the papal court to the stability of 
the English Church and State. Here be nine Worthies, 
viz. *William Sancroft, Abp Cant., of Emman. Coll. 
Camb., William Lloyde of St Asaph, of Oriel and 
Jesus Coll. Oxon., * Thomas Ken of Bath and Wells, 
of New Coll. Oxon., * Francis Turner of Ely, of New 
Coll. Oxon., *John Lake of Chichester [S. T. P. per 
regias literas, Camb. 1661], *Thomas White of Peter- 
borough, f William Thomas of Worcester, St John's 
and Jesus Oxon., * Robert Frampton of Gloucester, 
C. C. Coll. and Ch. Ch. Oxon., Sir Jonathan Trelawney 
of Bristol, of Christ Church, Oxon. Seven of them 
were committed to the Tower, 1 and we know with 
what acclamations their acquittal was welcomed in 
London — so loud that they forced themselves upon 
the ear of James. Bishops Thomas and White died in 
the year 1689 before they had incurred suspension for 
their refusal to take the Oaths to William. Their 
colleague Lake lived long enough to be suspended, 
but anticipated the sentence of deprivation by his 
death. Ken, whose honest refusal to receive the 

* Those marked with an asterisk were deprived as non-jurors after 
the Revolution, f Bishop Thomas was suspended, but did not live to be 
deprived, see Wood's Fasti, Bliss, IV. 264. Trelawney alone, the darling 
of Cornwall, joined the Bishop of London in inviting over the Prince 
of Orange. He had opposed James almost as soon as he took his 
seat in the House of Lords. (Wood, Bliss.) That king advanced him 
to Exeter in the following September, and King William confirmed 
the appointment. Mr Palin's History of the Church of England, 
1851, p. 65. 

1 The first six and Trelawney. 

12 University Society 

mistress of Charles the Second had won from the 
merry monarch his important charge 1 , was now left 
with his dear friend and old fellow-student Turner to 
head those disinterested and conscientious men who 
could not transfer their allegiance. 

It was not till after an unsuccessful attempt towards 
the comprehension of Protestant Dissenters 2 (which 
was rendered abortive by the change of Government), 
that Archbishop Sancroft with his brethren were 
brought into conflict with the new king. 

We may now perhaps, in commenting upon the 
history of those who refused to take the oaths, be 
inclined to the opinion that after the breathing-time 
of the interregnum and the vote of the two houses of 
Parliament, the clergy might have all united (as indeed 
by far the most of them did) to welcome the Prince of 
Orange as their king. If they had done so, much 
might have been done towards the harmony of the 
Church and of the State, which in a few years became 
impossible ; when parties had become crystallized, 
and party cries familiar to men's tongues, when Dis- 
senters were suspicious of High Churchmen, and 
when High Churchmen would not trust the Whigs, nor 
even William himself, whose own proposals were a 
thousand times more tolerant than the -measures of 
the Whigs with all their boasted love of toleration. 
But whatever may be our regrets, we cannot help 

1 See Introduction to Ken's Manual of Prayers for Winchester 
Scholars, by the present Bishop of Salisbury, p. vi. Parker, i860. 

3 See the statements of Dr Wake, delivered at Sacheverell's trial 
(when he was Bishop of Lincoln), quoted by Mr Palin, History of the 
Church of England, p. 34. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 13 

admiring the noble firmness of those men who could 
be loyal and obedient to that other king whom they 
were not afraid to withstand to the face when he was 
worthy to be blamed. But which side did the 
Universities take at the Revolution ? 

At Cambridge the Thanksgiving Day 1 'for the 
deliverance of the nation from Popery and arbitrary 
power was observed' on Valentine's Day 1688 — 89, 
and a sermon preached in St Mary's by Mr [Jo.] 
Laughton of Trinity. The King William and Queen 
Mary were proclaimed in Cambridge, the bells rang 
all the afternoon, and at night there were bonfires. 
The Vice-Chancellor John Montague, Master of 
Trinity, entertained the officers at dinner, and after- 
wards manifested his allegiance, with the Provost of 
King's and the Masters of Peterhouse and Trinity 
Hall and other members of the University, in loyal 
effusions of congratulatory verse. 

Yet even a week later 2 so little had parties be- 
come consolidated that the University still expected 
that Archbishop Sancroft would consent to be their 
Chancellor. On his refusal Charles Seymour, Duke 
of Somerset, K.G., was elected and held the office 
until his death in 1748, sixty years later, when he 
was succeeded by the Duke of Newcastle, who was 
then High Steward of the University,, and of whom 
we shall have more to say anon. 

Oxford too (as we learn from Bishop Burnet 8 ) had 

1 Cooper's Annals of Cambridge, IV. 2. (William and Mary, 1688.) 

s Ibid. 1688—89. 

3 Burnet's Own Time, in. 321, 331 ( = 1. 793, 798, folio ed.). 

14 University Society 

welcomed the new king. Her indignation against 
James was justly great, and it was not wonderful that 
a considerable number of men in the University- 
should be glad to be rid of attempts at tyranny. 

Among the clergy, those who maintained their 
strict adherence to the doctrine that a king could not 
abdicate, much less be constrained to resign his 
functions, and that no wrong suffered could compen- 
sate an act which they believed not right, 363 were 
firm even to the losing of their benefices. Of this 
number the non-jurors residing in the Universities 1 
were as follows : 



i Fellows of Trinity 

1 Fellows of Magdalen 

1 Scholar ,, „ 

i Fellow of Queen's 

1 Fellow of Queens' 

1 ,, ,, All Souls' 

3 Fellows of Peterhouse 

1 ,, ,, Lincoln 

1 Fellow of Magdalen 

2 Fellows of Oriel 

1 ,, ,, Caius 

S ,, ,, Balliol 

28 Fellows of St John's 

1 Fellow of Brazennose 

1 „ ,, Catherine Hall 

H. Dodwell, Professor 0: 

1 ,, „ Pembroke Hall 

1 Fellow of Trinity College Hall 

According to the above list the number of non- 
jurors in the Universities in the reign of William III. 
was at Cambridge 42, at Oxford only 14. It 
would be interesting to enquire whether this was the 
complete case; or whether there were not Colleges 
where loyalty to James was so strong as to baffle the 
efforts of intolerance of which King William did not 
in his own heart approve. The reader will observe 
1 Appendix to Palm's History of the Church of England. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 15 

the mention of two Fellows of Magdalen College 
Oxford among the non-jurors, like the bishops merg- 
ing the sense of personal wrongs in the deep feeling 
of loyalty to the 'vacating' king. We must not pass 
over the two Fellows of Trinity College Cambridge 
and the ' one Scholar of the same,' a brave trio to 
stand aloof from their many comrades in the royal 
College whose master as Vice-Chancellor had pro- 
claimed King William. But more noticeable perhaps 
than all is the fact that a single College (St John 
the Evangelist's) sent forth a number of non-jurors 
equal to that produced by all the Colleges of Oxford 
and the rest of those of Cambridge combined. 
Thomas Baker was then at his Rectory of Long 
Newton in the diocese of Durham ; and it was not 
until the reign of George I. that he was deprived of 
his fellowship with one-and-twenty others of his 
College. The list given above therefore does not 
give a complete catalogue of the members of the 
Universities who suffered as non-jurors in William's 
reign 1 . In addition to Baker, there were probably 
several in the country who, like the elder Bonwicke, 

1 E.g. We might enquire " what was the state of the case at St John's 
College Oxford?' Were there no Jacobites there in May, 1701 ? Or 
was the elder Ambrose Bonwicke the only honest member of that 
foundation in the two senses in which that word is used, by Tho. Hearne 
and less violent partizans? (See Life of Bonwicke, ed. 1870, p. 116, 
1. 32.) It appears that while Dr Gower was Master of St John's, 
Cambridge (till March, 1710 — n), it was possible for a few non-jurors 
to keep their fellowships by his connivance. (Baker— Mayor, 998.) At 
Oxford, Nic. Amherst says of the year 1715 or 17 16, that 'the oath of 
allegiance to King George is often evaded.' Terra? Filius, No. 
xvii. p. 93. 

1 6 University Society 

were deprived as clergymen or schoolmasters rather 
than as Fellows of Colleges. 

The history of Ambrose Bonwicke has become 
familiar to some of us through the works of his grate- 
ful pupil, William Bowyer Esquire, printer, a sizar of 
St John's College, and of his partner John Nichols, and 
through his own anonymous account of the martyr, 
his son Ambrose Bonwicke, which has lately been 
made accessible and most valuable to us by the 
labours of Mr John E. B. Mayor of St John's. 

The elder Bonwicke had been librarian and was 
Fellow of St John's College Oxford, and Master of 
th.e associate School of the Merchant Taylors (elected 
in 1686). He was at first (June, 1690) allowed to 
hold the mastership 1 on condition that he resigned 
his fellowship. A month had not passed before he 
was molested, and, in spite of the innocency and use- 
fulness of his conduct and the representation of the 
College in his favour, he was asked whether he had 
taken the oaths of allegiance ; and in thirteen months' 
time was dismissed from the head-mastership, having 
'time till Michaelmas next to provide for himselfe 2 / 
After his ejection he established a private school 
at Headley 3 . It was in the interval between his 

1 In the list of non-jurors given in Palin's Appendix, dio. London 
— 'Bonwick, Master of Merchant Taylors' School' fellows 'Jeremy 
Collyer, some time Lecturer of Grays'-inn.' 

I have seen a book (an edition of Macrobius, if I remember right) 
belonging to the library of St John's Coll. Oxon., and apparently 
presented by A. Bonwicke. 

3 Life of A. Bonwicke (1870), p 116. 

s Hist. Reg., Wilson 392, quoted by Mr Mayor, Life of A. Bonwicke, 
p. 116. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 17 

father's notice of ejection 1 and the time that he and 
his wife quitted Merchant Taylors, that young 
Ambrose Bonwicke was born (Sep. 30. 1691), and 
being removed with the family to Headley he made 
there great progress in piety and in his studies till he 
was eleven years old : and after studying in the Mer- 
chant Taylors' School, where his father had before 
been master, for seven years and a half, 'and above 
six of them in the head form ;' he had good hopes to 
succeed to one of the two vacancies at St John's Col- 
lege in Oxford where his father had been till he de- 
clined to take the oaths. Young Ambrose passed the 
scholarship examination with more than ordinary 
credit — he was proved to be facile princeps, and was 
complimented by the examiners. But through the 
malice of some informer it was remembered that when 
it was his course to read the prayers in school Bon- 
wicke had omitted that for the king, 'a governor 
whom he thought was not so de iure as well as de 
facto".' He was questioned on the subject,.and when a 
word might have gained the honour which his family 
so much desired for him, he would not sacrifice to dis- 
honesty and to ambition, but 'in short answered: 
"Sir, I could not do it." Upon which the master 
and several other persons there present, said, It was 
a very honest answer, the best answer he could give ; 
and one, that he was very sorry for him.' 

This happened on Sunday, St Barnabas Day, 1710. 
The result was that Ambrose was supplanted by two 

1 Life of A. Bonwicke, p. 8. 5 Life, p. 14. 

1 8 University Society 

of his fellow scholars who were less proficient in 
scholarship than himself, and who could not have 
been more distinguished for piety and virtue. 

His father, an old Oxonian, appears to have 
thought that his son might not like to go to the 
College of St John the Evangelist 1 at the sister 
University. But the youth went home to Headley, 
and followed the example of his Lord at Nazareth ; 
until the 'Bartholomew Vacation' gave parents and 
son leisure to travel together to Cambridge, where 
he was admitted (Aug. 25) to St John's College 2 . 

There they were not afraid to elect him to an ex- 
hibition and afterwards to a scholarship (Nov. 6. 
1710), his duty being to wind up the clock. The per- 
formance of this office when he was in a weak state 
of health hastened his early death. Every line of his 
short biography is full of interest, and we must leave 
the reader to study it for himself ; reserving however 
some notices of his life for other sections of this 
Essay, while we now only remark, that we may 
conclude, from information gleaned from the book 
(if we might not conjecture it from the existence of 
such a life), that there were others residing at Cam- 
bridge whose conscience (whether right or wrong) led 
them to adhere to their old allegiance to king James. 
Such were Ambrose's brother Philip, and their chum 
who shared the college chamber in common with 

1 See a letter from him, Feb. 22, 1709—10. Nichols' Lit. Anted. 
v. p. iir, u. 

* Life, p. 22, ed. 1870, and notes. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 19 

them. Among the elder members of the University- 
were Francis Roper, late a Fellow of St John's 1 , who 
in 1690 was deprived of his stall at Ely and of the 
rectory of Northwold, Norfolk 2 . He was residing in 
St John's and reading with pupils in 171 1 when he 
received the news of the death of holy Bishop Ken 3 . 
This was in the of the mastership of the 
College and of the. Margaret Professorship of Divinity 
by the death of Dr Gower, who was succeeded in both 
offices by Dr R. Jenkin 4 . The new master, though 
he had resigned his preferment with other non-jurors 
in 1690, changed his political opinions and took the 
paths to Queen Anne in 171 1 — having been admitted 
to proceed in Divinity two years before (see Mayor 
on Baker, p. 1006) — feeling perhaps with Sir Matthew 
Hale, according to the principle of R. Sanderson, 
that allegiance was not due to a disputed dynasty 
when the representative of it was no longer in the 
field. His conduct, however, caused much distress 
to his old friends 5 , and this was heightened by the 
enforcement of the oaths in virtue of an Act of 
Parliament passed in his mastership, when 22 Fel- 
lows of St John's were ejected 'on the fatal Jan. 21, 
17 16 — 17, when the ejected had sinned not by denying, 

1 [And his pupil Tho. Browne, a kind friend of the Bonwicke family. 
Life of A. B., pp. 12, 135, 175, 176.] Life of A. Bonwicke, (1870), 

P- 175- 

2 Palin, Hist. Ch. England, Appendix, dio. Norfolk. 
s Life of A. Bonwicke, p. 28, ed. 1.870, 

4 Jenkin did good work as Margaret Professor by his Reasonableness 
of Christianity. Like Lardner he was a forerunner of Paley. 

5 Masters' Life of T. Baker, p. %\. Camb. 1784. 


20 University Society 

but merely by declining to affirm the # omnipotence 
of Parliament to dispense with oaths 1 .' 

It was on this occasion that gentle Thomas Baker, 
author of the MSS. so valuable to the 1 history of the 
country and the University, was deprived of his 

He was a quiet harmless man, a friend of the whig 
Bishop Gilbert Burnet as well as of Tom Hearne 
and Dr R. Rawlinson (brother of 'Tom Folio'), 
the antiquaries, and one of Ambrose Bonwicke's 
'special benefactors 2 .' More than this, he was a 
religious bible-loving man, as may be seen from his 
anonymous pamphlet 'Reflections upon Learning 3 ,' 
which was published sometime before he could claim 
his title "socius eiectus! His diligence and consci- 
entiousness in study was unbounded, witness the 
fact that he was set upon compiling a laborious 

1 Mr Mayor, Preface to ihe life of A. Banwicke, 1870, p. IX. Cooper 
ill his Annals of Camb. gives the date as Jan. 20. (Following Masters' 
Life of Baker, p. 34, who tells us that the ejected were 'to the number 
of twenty-two in that College only, whose names are mentioned in App. 
to the Life of Kettlewell, p. 33.') Cp. Mayor's Baker, p. 1008. 

2 Letter of A. Bonwicke senior to his wife on the publication of the 
Pattern for young Students (the life of his son), quoted in Mayor's 
notes to the Life, p. 136. 

3 See Travels of Z. C. Von Uffenbach, m. 20, 24, who enjoyed 
Baker's kindness, Aug. i, 1710, and says of him, 'He is a very quiet, 
modest and affable man, and could have held high offices if he were not 
si Jacobite and non-jurer.' 

The scope of the book is to show, from a consideration of the un- 
satisfactory and variable character of all branches of human knowledge, 
the value and necessity of religion. Editions noted in the new catalogue 
of the Bodleian, are, 1699; ed. 3, 1700; ed. 7, 1738. ' Reflections upon 
learning, Wherein is shewn the Insufficiency Thereof in its several Par- 
ticulars : in order to evince the Usefulness and Necessity of Revelation. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 21 

history of his College by the request of a friend 
who wanted notices of the lives of northern worthies 
from the records of St John's; and that he could cast 
it aside because through no fault of his own it could 
not be made complete. Well might Hearne say 1 , 
•A Mr Baker is not to be met with but in a few 

As for Tom Hearne himself, he was of a more 
petty and of a hotter temper than Baker ; but he 
was like him in his diligence and in his sufferings 
as a non-juror. He performed his duty as Under- 
Librarian of the Bodleian 2 so long as he was per- 
mitted to do so. He had a high opinion of the 
duties of the University with respect to 'the use of 
Bodley's magnificent storehouse of precious materials, 
and he exerted all his influence and energies in 
making those treasures accessible to the country. But 
in December 1716 he was in danger of having his 
papers seized 3 by the Vice-Chancellor of Oxford; 

The seventh edition, by a Gentleman, London : printed for John and 
Paul Knapton, at the Crown, in Ludgate Street, 1737' (pp. 275). A 
copy in the Camb. Univ. Lib. is 'Printed for A. Bosvile at the Dial 
against St Dunstan's Church in Fleet Street, 1700.' 

1 Reliquiae Hearnianae, Bliss, III. 16 r. 

2 There is a curious mention of our friend in the travels of Zach. 
Conrad von Uffenbach (1754), III. 15S. In his Itinerary, Sept. 17, 1710, 
Uffenbach, in one of his visits to the Bodleian while at Oxford, relates 
that the Protobibliothecarius, 'Bookseller' Hudson, left the work of 
making the new Catalogue to the Hypobibliothecarii Master Crab and 
Master Hearne. ' This . Hearne is a man of 30 year, a poor starveling 
mean little creature, yet diligent withal and of good scholarship. He 
is only keeper (Beschleisser) of the Library, and shows the Anatomy 
Camera, wherefore he is very eager for the fee. He has not much from 
the Library, and, as he assured me, only £\o' 

3 Reliquiae Hearnianae, Bliss, II. 43. 

22 University Society 

and rather more than a year earlier he had been 
debarred from the use of the Library ; and as he had 
the keys, being Hypobliothecarius, the locks were 
altered to keep him out 1 . Hearne lived on at Ed- 
mund Hall in Oxford till 1735, solacing himself 
in the company of 'honest antiquarians,' in listening 
to the Oxford bells, and in complaining to those 
diaries his 'collectanea/ which, as far" as they are 
accessible to us, are of no less interest than the MSS. 
of Baker. 

Here the reader may find interest in reading the 
following character of the non-jurors drawn by one 
who seceded from their number (Abraham Dela 
Pryme, His Diary, Surtees Society, 54. p. 70). 1695, 
'October 3. Some may be asking in future times 
how the Jacobites behaved themselves under this 
government, which they were so much against. I 
answer, that when anything went of their side, they 
were very merry and joyfull ; and, on the contrary, 
were as much cast down when anything went against 
them. They were frequently exceeding bold, and 
would talk openly against the government, which the 
government connived a little at, for fear of raising 
any bustle, knowing that they were inconsiderable 
by reason of their paucity. They set up separate 
meetings all over, where there was any number of 
them, at which meetings I myself have once or twice 
been in Cambridge, for we had above twenty fellows 
in our College] that were non-jurors. The service 

1 Reliqu. Hearn. 11. p. 82; m. 96, 104, 109, 121, 133, i 4S , 
IS 4, 180; 

in the Eighteenth Century. 23 

they used was the Common Prayer, and always pray'd 
heartily for king James, nameing him most com- 
monly ; but in some meetings, they onely prayed for 
the king, not nameing who. 

'About three years ago, they held a great consul- 
tation at the nonjuring arch-bish[op] of Canterbury's 
house, where about all the chief nonjurors were 
present in all England, in which the arch-bish[op] 
gave them rules how to behave themselves, and how 
they should pray for the king, and such like. 

'Their meetings in Cambridge were oftentimes 
broken up by order of the vice-chancellor, but then 
they always met again in some private house or 

'They had a custom in our college, [St John's] 
while I was there, which I did not like, and that was 
always on publick fast days, which was every first 
Wednesday in every month, they always made a 
great feast then, and drunk and was merry; the 
like they did at London.' 

The oaths prescribed at the Universities at the end 
of the Revolution were 

1. The Oath of Allegiance to the Sovereign. 

2. The Oath of the King or Queen's Supremacy, 
and against the power and authority of all -foreign 
Potentates, i.e. 'The Oath of the Queen's Sove- 
reignty' in the Ordinal. 

3. The Declaration against Transubstantiation, 
Invocation and Adoration of the B. V. Mary or any 
other Saint, and the Romish doctrine of the Mass. 

These Oaths were first taken at Peterhouse, June 22, 

24 University Society 

1689, and continued till 17 19, by persons retaining 
or entering upon their fellowships. One memo- 
randum in the Register of the House states that 
'Mr Worthington having in his Letter to y e Master, 
dated at London, November 5, 1691, acknow- 
ledged that he hath not taken y e Oathes to their 
Majesties, injoined by y e last Act of Pari, his 
Fellowship was ordered (this present 9th of Novemb. 
169 1) in scrutiny, to be vacant according to the said 

A few extracts from the Register of the Oaths of 
Qualification at St John's are given by Mr Mayor in 
his addition to Baker's History, pp. 552 — 554. 

We have seen that the consolidation of parties had 
led in the reign of George I. to the persecution of 
inoffensive members of either University; and that 
friends had learnt to transfer to friends that resent- 
ment which was due not to the persons but to the 
principles which they held. 

We may now proceed to take a more general 
view of the political tendencies in the two seats of 

It might at first sight appear that Politics could 
have very little to do with the Life and Studies of 
a University. But this is far from being the real 
state of the case. After three such revolutions as the 
country had experienced within half a century, it was 
impossible that the interest of the country should not 
be fixed upon public affairs. The taste for Pamphlets 
which had arisen in the days of Charles I. had now 
increased a thousand fold. It was no uncommon 

in the Eighteenth Century. 25 

thing to inform the reader upon the title-page, with 
that happy disregard for grammar which convenience 
had sanctioned, that the work in his hand was 
'Printed: and are to be Sold at all the Pamphlett- 
Shops in London and Westminster'' '. 

This ephemeral literature supplied the place which 
newspapers and magazines occupy in our time, as 
well as in some measure the need for books. Pam- 
phlets were one of the important commodities with 
which the master of the coffee-houses supplied his 
guests, and these establishments we know were the 
stronghold of politicians, as early as the time of 
Charles II., who had it in his mind to shut them up, 
within twenty years of the first opening of a house 
for the retail of the ' coffee-drink 1 ' by an enterprising 
Turkish merchant of England. People in those days 
had more time to read if only they had the books; 
still when we count volumes of pamphlets in our 
libraries by hundreds, — pamphlets which have escaped 
the fire and the housemaid's hands, and pamphlets 
which some one has thought worth the binding, — 
the demand for such numbers would seem incredible 
if we were not witnesses of the supply. 

If we take up a chance volume containing 18th 
century tracts relating to either of the Universities, 
it will be no extraordinary thing if there are one 
or more bearing directly upon the politics of the 
day: very few we shall find, if we have the time or 
the patience to read them through, are totally un- 
connected with party dissensions. And in this 
1 D'Israeli, Curiosities of Lit. 

26 University Society 

respect, a volume of pamphlets of miscellaneous 
design and authorship gives a true counterfeit of 
the condition of the Universities of that time. Each 
writer wears the badge of party, some openly, some 
half concealed, in the motto on the forefront of his 

Can we think of any subject more widely removed 
from politics than regulations for the gowns of fellow- 
commoners and for the closing of taverns at eleven 
o'clock at night. But a whig Chancellor (the Duke 
of Newcastle, 1750) had commended them to the 
University, a whig Proctor had tried to enforce them 
on an unfortunate occasion (as will be seen hereafter), 
and all the University was divided. Pamphlet fol- 
lowed pamphlet, fragment supplemented fragment, 
squib sputtered after squib, appeal succeeded trial. 

Then opened the vexed question of the right of' 
application to another court from the decision of 
Chancellor or Commissary, in matters of discipline. 
Nor was this, or the earlier case of Dr Bentley, which 
had amused or enraged our University some thirty 
years, a single though an extraordinary case. 

Politics usurped the place of Christian doctrine in 
the pulpit; politics lurked in the coffee-houses and in 
the taverns — her spirit was not expelled even from 
the 'Triposes-' (or Tripos verses) and Tripos-speeches. 
At Oxford the Act (or Commemoration) was full of 
it ; it was the mainspring which set agoing the more 
decent compositions of that official merry-andrew the 
terrae filius. 

Party feeling had (as we shall see) a great power in 

tn the Eighteenth Century. 27 

producing and in fostering the nightly demonstrations 
which disturbed the more peaceful students and 
inhabitants of Cambridge and Oxford, at the begin- 
ning of the last century, and early in our own. 

It led to expulsions and trials, to persecution and 
intolerance. The attention of men became fixed 
upon the badges which their neighbours wore, — and 
many regarded them alone, to the neglect of 'Justice 
and the love of God' — and consequently of the love of 

It has been a custom sanctioned by convenience to 
say that in the last century Cambridge was whig and 
Oxford tory ; and this is perhaps the only short form 
in which the truth can be given approximately. 

But this, like most brief classifying formulae, requires 
explanation, and, it may be, correction. That this is 
true, will have been observed by any one who has 
read lives of persons in the Universities, or annals of 
the two great English seats of learning. More than 
forty years ago bp. Monk 1 protested against this 
generalization with respect to Cambridge. And just 
four years since a writer in the Oxford Under- 
graduates' Journal made a corresponding protest in 
behalf of the sister University. 

[Mr Richard Robinson of Worcester Coll. Fellow of 
Queen's Coll. Oxon. who wrote Five Letters on Oxford 
from 1688 to 1750, under the signature of 'A Templar,' 
which appeared in May and June 1867, in Nos. 18—22 
of the Oxford Undergraduates' Journal. Mr Robinson 
,has left a high repute for knowledge of the history of 
1 Life ofBentley, I. 375, ed. 1833. 

'University Society 

Oxford among eminent members of that University. 
But for his early death 2 years ago we might already 
be reaping the fruits of his labours in a rich but almost 
untouched field. It is a great misfortune that his 
notes (as we are informed) are illegible, and the Five 
Letters contain no references.] 

We have already referred to bp. Burnet's statement 
that Oxford had declared for William; and it is 
certain that the compulsatory measures of govern- 
ment 1 had produced at least a seeming loyalty to the 
new king among its governing body. In 1705, as we 
learn from no.tices in Hearne's Diary' 1 , the Jacobites 
were hardly used by some chief members of the 
University, who presented them to the Bishop : and 
the non-jurors were forced to receive the Holy Com- 
munion secretly in Christ Church 3 at the chamber of 
Mr Seldon the Archbishop's nephew. It was in that 
House that Dr John Massey 1 , a roman Catholic, had 
been made Dean by James II, and thither Francis 
Atterbury was to be promoted in the reign of queen 
Anne. But now Massey had been supplanted by 
Henry Aldrich" the learned opponent of Obadiah 
Walker, and one whom William had advanced. 

1 By an Act which received the royal assent March 1, 1702, all 
members of the foundations of any College or Hall in the Universities 
being of the age of 18 years, and all persons teaching pupils, were obliged 
to take and subscribe the oath of abjuration in the court at Westminster 
or at the quarter sessions. — Cooper's Annals. 

2 Reliqu. Hearn. Bliss, I. p. 6. ' Ibid. p. 32. 

4 Mr Middleton Massey of whom in 1710, Hearne says, Reliqu. H. 
Bliss, 1. 227, that he took no degree, being a non-juror, was perhaps a 
relation of this man. 

5 Biog. Brit. Kippis, art. Aldrich, 

in the Eighteenth Century. 29 

Some were open to base arguments like the cha- 
racter described by Law 1 : ' Succus is very loyal, 
and as soon as ever he likes any wine he drinks the 
king's health with all his heart. Nothing could put 
rebellious thoughts into his head unless he should 
live to see a proclamation against eating of pheasants' 
eggs 2 .' 

In queen Anne's reign we find the duchess of 
Marlborough sending Mr Evans a good fat doe to 
treat the warden of Wadham and others well affected 
to the memory of William. This party apparently 
was not very strong at Oxford, for we find Burnet 3 
complaining that in 1704 'the Universities, Oxford 
especially, have been very unhappily, successful in 
corrupting the principles of those who were sent to be 
bred among them : so that few of them escaped the 
taint of it, and the generality of the clergy were not 
only ill-principled but ill-tempered ' — i. e. they opposed 
the toleration which king William and Burnet himself 

The family of James I. had always been popular 

1 Serious Call, ch. xil. 

2 lieliqu. Hearn. Bliss, I. 73. So in Sept. 1732 (Ibid. ill. 90) the 
Bishop of Winchester sends the Fellows of Magdalen half a buck in 

' the absence of the President ; and Queen Caroline sends them a whole 
one, on which occasion they dine at the unusually late hour of 1 o'clock. 
Cp. 'As to the eating part, of that 
Good plenty was at hand ; 
Twelve bucks in larder firm and fat, 
From good Lord Westmoreland.' 
Dr Hansel's account of the Emmanuel jubilee sent to Mathias, Oct. 12, 
1782. — N. and Q. 2nd s. X. 41. 

3 Burnet's Own Time, v. 137, ed. 1823 (=11. 380, folio). 

30 • University Society 

at Oxford. Although he favoured Cambridge by 
a second visit to the performance of Ruggle's Igno- 
ramus 1 , yet that monarch found the spirit of Oxford 
more congenial to his own tastes. He considered the 
condition of subscription required by that University 
to be worthy to be imitated in the other. He was 
graciously pleased to guide her studies in divinity ; 
and it was in accordance with his second advice that 
Oxford went to the well-springs for her theology 
instead of contenting herself as theretofore with the 
'green mantle of the standing pools' of dry com- 
pendiums and Calvin's Institutes. 

Beside this, 'the pedantry of king James I.' (says 
Dr Bliss 2 ) 'was in accordance with the literary taste 
of his times ; and Oxford of course delighted in 
scholastic exercises, religious conferences and quaint 
disputations. Charles was a peculiar favourite; Ox- 
ford had welcomed him in his prosperity, nobly 
supported him in time of trouble and defeat. The 
king's love of literature, his fondness for the arts, 
his generous patronage of the University, his court- 
eous affability towards her members, and, above all, 
his maintaining what he considered to be the right 
cause, had endeared him to all the old members of 
Oxford, where he was both respected and beloved ; 
and these feelings had descended from father to son, 
even to the days of Hearne. 

The Restoration was hailed with delight through 
the whole of England; but nowhere more heartilyi 

1 [Bp.] R. Corbet's Poems, Nichols' Royal Progresses. 

2 Reliqu. Hearn, Bliss, Appendix i. voL m. p. 188. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 31 

than in Oxford. About the year 1637 — we learn 
from one who was then in his seventeenth year 
a 'Fellow Com'uner in Baliol,' for, so John Evelyn 1 
calls himself — 'was the University exceedingly 
regular under the exact discipline of William Lawd 
Archbishop of Canterbury, then Chancellor 2 .' But 
alas the good efforts of the pious but ungenial lover 
of Oxford were frustrated upon the accession of the 
prince and 'the little Duke of York,' whose boyish 
fancy had been pleased by the pretty book brought 
from little Gidding by young Nicholas Ferrar at 
the command of my Lord of Canterbury 3 — ah, 'si sic 
omnia!' In the reign of Charles and James II. were 
sown the seeds of idleness and licentiousness in 
morals and in religion which brought forth such a 
crop of drowsiness and debauchery in all classes of 
society, from the highest ,to the lowest, as we see 
portrayed in the works of Fielding and of Hogarth, 
and no less in the biographies of the eighteenth 

The severity of puritanism was still fresh enough . 
in the minds of Englishmen to tempt them to 
protract the rejoicing at the Restoration; and they 
did not withstand the temptation till the celebration 
of their freedom became not an annual but a perennial 
jollity. . 

It was not until* personal holiness was well nigh 

1 Evelyn's Diary, anno 1637. 
3 Evelyn's Diary, sub anno 1637. 

3 Life, by John Ferrar, p. 136. Camb. 1855. 

4 Whiston's Autobiography, I. p. 10 (ed. 1749). 

University Society 

dead, and public religion was almost forgotten, that 
the death of the merry monarch brought his less 
genial brother to the throne. The house of Stuart 
was still popular at Oxford, and even the wrongs 
done them by James II. could not efface from their 
hearts the loyal feeling impressed there by the other 
wrongs voluntarily suffered for his father. 

Those who had not forgotten their reverence for 
God's worship, — what sympathy could they feel with 
a king who wore his hat in church 1 ? King James at 
least did not err upon that side. Where again was 
William's learning? what encouragement did he give 
to literature ? As to taste — that in a Dutchman was 
out of the question. Above all, what right has he 
to rule over us ? Let us not do evil, even if we are 
quite sure that good will come. 

Such perhaps were the arguments of those who 
became known as the high-church party, and, as 
Hickesites, some of whom suffered as non-jurors, and 
who stood up boldly in the lower house of the South- 
ern Convocation against the new low-church Bishops 
and Hoadleians, to be silenced only by the unconsti- 
tutional measure of suppressing Convocation. 

While that body was permitted to represent the 
Church of England, as it did by the mandate of 
William, upon the most important question of a 
comprehensive scheme, the strength of the high- 
churchmen, may be estimated by the fact that Dr 
Jane 2 , the King's Professor of Divinity at Oxford, 

1 See Palm, Hist. Engl. Ch. p. 218. 

2 Macaulay's Hist. ch. xiv. See my notes. 

in the Eighteenth Cenhiry. 33 

was elected Prolocutor, by a majority of 55 to 28; 
while Tillotson, whom the King intended to succeed 
archbishop Sancroft, did not secure one-third of the 
votes. And this was a few months after sentence of 
suspension had gone out against the non-juring 

Many, if not most of the non-jurors were opposed 
to popery, even George Hickes himself (of St John's 
and Magdalen Colleges, and afterwards of Magdalen 
Hall, and Fellow of Lincoln, rector of St Ebbe's 
Oxford, and D.D.), one of the most ardent and reck- 
less of the non-jurors and high-churchmen, had, on 
the accession of James II., lost his expected appoint- 
ment to the bishopric of Bristol, because he was a 
foe to romanism. This could not be said of all the 
Jacobites : and many, who sided with them, incurred 
the odium which often attaches to those who re- 
ligiously adhere to their principles, from their com- 
panionship with some who do not in all points agree 
with them. 

While Oxford, though outwardly acquiescing in 
the Revolution, was still Jacobite at heart, — so much 
so as even in the middle of the century to be accused 
of wholesale dishonesty and unconscientiousness, — 
there was within her a party of young men who 
manifested their detestation of the Stuarts. On 
January the 30th, 1706-7 1 , which the non-jurors would 
be observing as a day of humiliation, the anniversary 
of the martyrdom of their king, there was, in the 
words of Hearne, no favourable historian, 'an abomin- 
1 Reliqu. Hearn. Bliss, I. 127. 
L. B. E. 3 

34 University Society 

able riot at All Souls.' Mr Dal ton A.M., and Mr 
Talbot, son to the bp. of Oxon. A.B., both Fellows, 
had a dinner drest at 12 o'clock (a late hour for 
those days). Two of the pro-proctors, Oriel men, 
Ibbetson and Rogers, were present. They beheaded 
woodcocks in mockery, and Dalton (a nominee of 
abp. Tennison) 'was for having calves' heads 1 , but 
the cook refused to dress them.' 

It was a few years later, in the days of queen 
Anne, whose heart may still have inclined towards 
her father and her brother even before the fall of 
Marlborough, that there were signs of political trim- 
ming in each direction 2 ; among others, John Johnson 
(author of the once popular Clergyman' s Vade-Mecum, 
1705 and other years) who had been a staunch Hano- 
verian, became a high churchman and anti-dissenter ; 
— nor was his a singular case 3 . 

' Among the high-churchmen/I find there are several 
That stick to the doctrine of Henry Sacheverell, 
Among the low-church too I find that as oddly 
Some pin all their faith upon Benjamin Hoadly. 
But we moderate men do our judgment suspend, 
For God only knows where these matters will end. 
For Sal'sbury, Burnett, and Kennet White shew, 
That as the times vary so principles go : 
And twenty years hence, for aught you or I know, 
'Twill be Hoadly the high, and Sacheverell the low.' 

The reader will remember the attitude which the 
two clergymen last mentioned in the doggerel just 

1 See the account of the Calves-head Club, Jan. 30, 1734-5. Hone's 
Every-Day Book,\\. 158, 1 59, quoted below. Cp. also Cooper, Annals, IV. 
45° (i794)> and Report 2 of flist.MSS. Commission (1872), p. 112. App. 

2 See the sneers of Amherst, Terrae Films, VI. 

* 1709, 10. 'The Thanksgiving,' quoted by Hearne, Bliss, I. p. 189. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 35 

quoted took upon the question of passive obedience. 
It is significant of the altered face which political af- 
fairs bore at this period in Oxford and in the country 
generally, that Francis Atterbury was elected dean 
of Christ Church by queen Anne in 171 2, when 
some two years before he had opposed Hoadly upon 
the question of passive obedience and was believed 1 
to have penned the defence of Sacheverell, assisted 
perhaps by his neighbour the young Christ Church 
wit and Westminster usher, the Jacobite Samuel, 
the eldest of the Wesleys 2 . It is a fact indicative of 
the strange effect of party spirit that the hero of 
the great demonstration which overthrew the ministry 
should have been a worthless noisy incendiary (for 
such a character is attributed to Sacheverell), the 
spokesman at once of honest men, of deep and auda- 
cious plotters, and of a rabble of dissolute and dis- 
contented subjects. Be this as it may, Sacheverell, 
when, in the course of his triumphal tour in 1710 
he arrived at Oxford, was enthusiastically received 
there as in other places; he 'was met and mag- 
nificently entertained by the Vice-Chancellor [Dr 
Braithwait] and the heads of that University as 
well as by most persons of distinction in the neigh* 
bourhood of that city 8 .' It was by a similar expres- 
sion of a.nti-constitutional principles that the senior 
members of the same University 4 , 'upon their Chan- 

1 Rdiqu. Hearn. Bliss, II. 203. 

2 Southey's Life of Wesley, edited by his son, 1. p. 19. 

3 Life and reign of Qtieen Artne, p. 541. 

4 Monk's Life of Bentley, I. 375. 


36 University Society 

cellor, the duke of Ormond, openly embarking in the 
service of the Pretender, testified their unaltered 
attachment to him by choosing his brother, the earl 
of Arran, to hold his station.' 

Let us now turn to our own University. 
While we meet with fewer expressions of Oxford 
allegiance to the dynasty of the Revolution, we 
cannot but be struck by the pains which the 
majority at Cambridge took to assure the Sove- 
reigns of their loyalty. It is almost impossible to 
open a page of the fourth volume of Mr C. H. 
Cooper's Annals of that University and Town, 
without finding the notice of at least one address 
to the Crown or Royal family. 

These were generally presented at St James' by 
the Chancellor and Vice-Chancellor and other 
members of the University in their academical 
robes :— a strange sight in London, where, as Hearne 
informs us {Reliqu. Hearn. Bliss II. p. 107, Feb. 
1719-20), the tory clergy only wore the M.A. gown, 
while 'the whigs and enemies of the Universities eo 
in pudding-sleeve gowns.' I shall give in the notes a 
chronological list of the addresses to the Crown from 
Cambridge in the last century. 

It does not appear that King William had much 
sympathy with either of the Universities. He had 
on one occasion thought of making a royal visitation 
(whether in person or through commissioners as his 
predecessors had done I do not know), but he was 
dissuaded from it by the legal advisers of the Crown. 

It may have been owing to her womanly tact that 

in the Eighteenth Century. 37 

his successor and the sister of his good queen Mary 
was pleased to visit our University in 170S. She 
was received by lines of students with acclamations 
of Vivat Regina. ' The ways were all along strowed 
with flowers ; the bells rung and the conduits run 
with wine.' After the conferring of honorary degrees, 
Dr Bentley received her Majesty at Trinity College, 
where I. Newton and the Vice-Chancellor and the 
Council for the University were knighted. She 
was entertained in the Hall of that Royal College 
'at the expence of the University, upon a Throne 
erected five foot high for that purpose.' She after- 
wards visited the college Library, and after being re- 
ceived at St John's she went to Prayers in King's 
college Chapel, and thence to visit Queens', and so to 
Newmarket. So great was the loyalty then felt by 
Cambridge for queen Anne, that the vice-chancellor 
Dr Bardsay Fisher, Sid., and eight heads, deprived 
Dr Tho. Tudway, music professor of his degrees and 
Organist's office in S. Mary's church and King's and 
Pembroke, for reflecting in a bad pun upon the 
conduct of the Queen. The poor wretch made a 
most humble apology, and was by her Majesty's 
command restored. (July 20, 1706, March 10, 

Although, as we are informed by bishop Monk 
{Life of Bentley, I. 276), only a small proportion of 
the High Church party at Cambridge were Jaco- 
bites — while such was not the case at Oxford — the 
change in parties which was going on throughout the 
reign of Q. Anne appears to have produced a cqnsi- 

38 University Society 

derable increase in the ranks of the tories at our 
University. The sympathies of Cambridge in the 
following reign were with Sherlock and the inferior 
clergy against Hoadly in the Bangorian controversy 
(1717). 'At the general election in 1715 the tory 
representatives were re-elected ; and in all subsequent 
struggles, by which the strength of the parties can 
be estimated, that interest maintained a majority of 
at least two to one.' (Monk's Life of Bentley, I. 376.) 
The dynasty of the Revolution was already taking 
firm root ; and many who held high views of royalty 
were already transferring their allegiance to the now 
established descent, and swelling the ranks of the 
party which favoured personal government and the 
religious spirit which yet lay between the leaves of 
the Book of Common Prayer. Or (shall we not 
rather say it?) many were compelling the Hanoverian 
line to wear in their crown the badge of the white 
tory rose. But the political utterances of Cambridge 
could be enunciated by a very small but all-powerful 

In the University the Caput was autocratic. It 
consisted of the Vice-Chancellor (or Chancellor's 
Commissary) and five other members. Three of 
them were Heads of Colleges, or Professors repre- 
senting the faculties of Divinity, Law and Physic ; 
the remaining two were the senior members of the 
two ' houses ' which composed the Senate: the Non- 
Regent House, who wore black hoods, and the 
Regent House, which was composed entirely of 
Masters of Arts under five years' standing, whose- 

in the Eighteenth Century. 39 

duty was to preside at the Acts or Disputations 
(regere in schola). These last alone wore white 
linings to their M.A. hoods. 

Any individual member of the Caput had an 
absolute veto upon any university question whatever, 
and the Vice-Chancellor was absolute among them, 
for he could refuse to call a Caput, as was done by 
Dr Wilcox, master of Clare Hall, when the University 
was distracted upon the question of Appeal in 175 1-2. 

A few months before, a grace on the same question 
had been stopped in the Caput, and the disappointed 
Associators (for so the supporters of the Right of 
Appeal were called) in their exasperation stopped a 
Degree in their stronghold, the non-regent house, the 
same afternoon. (Compare Cooper's Annals, p. 285, 
with the remarks of the late Mr R. Robinson of 
Queen's, in the Oxford Undergraduates' Journal, 

p. 149 «■) 

The above statement gives a clear instance of 
the conservative capabilities of the university consti- 
tution : but it is premature in our sketch of the 
politics of Cambridge. We may nevertheless con- 
clude that the power of a Vice- Chancellor would 
enable him, if he were so inclined, to defy the princi- 
ples of a constitutional Senate, provided he had only 
got his election safe. 

There had already been signs of disorder among 
the young men of England. Hearne 1 speaks of the 
band of Mohocks in London (March 30, 17 12). His 

1 lieliqu. Hearn. Bliss, I. 247, 248. Cf. Spectator, Nos. 324, 
347. <&• 

40 University Society 

statement that they were ' all of the whiggish gang ' 
may be questioned ; but it is noteworthy that the 
whigs tried to prove that they were no such persons. 
Bishop Burnet's son (late of Merton) was said to be 
the ringleader. 

At Oxford much disappointment must have been 
felt upon the accession of George I. The rejoicings 
there on the night of his coronation, Oct. 20, 17 14, 
were, according to Hearne 1 , ' very little ; nor did any 
person that I know of drink king George's health 
but mentioned him with ridicule. The illuminations 
and bonfires were very poor and mean.' 

At Cambridge, on the other hand, he was pro- 
claimed immediately upon the news of the Queens 
death by Dr Lang of Pembroke Hall, in the absence 
of Thomas Greene (Bene't Coll.) the vice-chancellor, 
who however contributed to the collection of poems 
of condolence and congratulation produced on this 
as on other similar occasions by the University. 

There were however some evidences of Jacobite 
feeling, at least among the junior members of our 
society. ' One Mr Lawes, A.M. of Cambridge, was 
lately degraded by the means of Dr Adams, head of 
King's College' and vice-chancellor, 'who com- 
plained to the present lord-treasurer (who was zealous 
for his degradation) upon account of some queries 
in his speech called tripos speech, such as Whether 
the sun shines when it is in an eclipse ? Whether a 
controverted son be not better than a controverted 
successor? Whether a dubious successor be not in 
1 Reliqu. Hearn. Bliss, 1. p. 311. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 41 

danger of being set aside ? With other things of the 
same nature V 

Upon the accession of king George I., when the 
old non-jurors had either left the University or were 
living a harmless and generally a useful life, it was 
plain to see that in the late queen's reign there had 
grown at Cambridge as well as at Oxford a generation 
of undergraduates who were strong anti-Hanoverians. 
It was an unfortunate thing for the quiet of the king's 
subjects that his birthday was also the eve of the 
anniversary both of the birth and restoration of 
king Charles II. ; a day which the whole nation 
had once been used to celebrate with a general 
thanksgiving and rejoicing. 

On May the 28th", 1715, the first anniversary of 
George's birthday since his accession, some bells in 
Oxford (we are told by Hearne 2 , who would think his 
favourite music desecrated by such an occasion) were 
'jambled' by the whigs, but not much observed. 
The mob, who stopped all signs of rejoicing, were so 
far infuriated at the slight show of loyalty to the 
Hanoverian, that they pulled down ' a good part of a 
presbyterian meeting-house.' 

On the 29th, which was a Sunday, there were 

1 This extract is from Hearne's Diary (Bliss, I. 282) of the date 
July 30, 1713. The first Tripos speech in the century which we know 
(Sam. Cobb's) was delivered Feb. 19 (1701-2), i.e. at the time of the 
comitia priora in later years. Was there ever a Tripos speech -at the 
'commencement' in July? Or did University proceedings and news 
travel slow? The second query mentioned by Hearne would be more 
pointed than ever when the decease of Q. Anne was daily expected. 

2 Reliqu. Beam. Bliss, II. pp. 2-4, and for the whig account of 
the transaction see [Amherst] Terras Filius, No. L. 

42 University Society 

great demonstrations for 'King James III.' which 
contrasted strongly with the disaffection manifested 
to the reigning Sovereign on the morning of the 
preceding day. The mob disgraced themselves so 
far as to repeat their act of violence and intole- 
rance by demolishing the meeting-houses of quakers 
and anabaptists. Several members of the Univer- 
sity were concerned in these disturbances. During 
the two preceding reigns there had been little 
manifestation of extreme whiggery at Oxford, but 
no sooner was king George safely on the throne 
than a society of advanced whigs came upon the 

The Constitution Club, as they called themselves, 
held their meetings at the King's Head Tavern in 
the High Street 1 . Among their members we have- 
mention of five Fellows, a chaplain, and four gentlemen 
commoners of New College, one gentleman com- 
moner and seven others of Oriel, three of Christ 
Church : Hart Hall, Worcester, All Souls, Merton, St 
John's, Trinity, and Wadham contributed at least 
one member each, — usually a gentleman commoner. 

On the king's birthday, the 28th of May aforesaid, 
the whole body of the Constitution Club met together 
at a tavern, and ordered the windows of the house 
to be illuminated and some faggots to be prepared 
for a bonfire. But before the bonfire could be lighted, 
a very numerous mob, which was hired for that 
purpose, tore to pieces the faggots and then assaulted 
the room where the club was sitting, with brickbats 

1 Mr Jeaffreson's Annals of Oxford. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 43 

and stones. All the time that the mob was thus 
employed, the disaffected scholars, who had crowded 
the houses and streets near the tavern, continued 
throwing up their caps and scattering money 
amongst the rabble and crying out, ' Down with the 

Constitutioners ; down with the Whigs ; no G e; 

Ja — j for ever, Ormond, Bolingbroke,' &c. It is 
perhaps hardly possible to tell how much of the 
above account and of that which follows is true, and 
how much is to be attributed to the malice of 
Nicholas Amherst. Our other authority, Thomas 
Hearne, though no less prejudiced in the other 
direction, yet bears a more respectable character, 
and. was writing for his own satisfaction, not with 
a view to produce any immediate effect upon public 
opinion. The following statements, at least, there 
seems no cause to doubt: — The 'Constitutioners' 
thought it prudent to make the best of their way 
to their colleges for the night. On the Sunday the 
club met again, at Oriel, and were the objects of the 
indignation of the mob ('scholars and others,' accord- 
ing to Amherst), who thronged the streets at six 
o'clock. A Brasenose man was wounded by a gun- 
shot fired by one of the Constitutioners, or their 
friends in Oriel, after which the. crowd retired to 
pull down the conventicles. 

Such a disturbance could not be overlooked: the 
Heads of the Houses, or 'Sculls' as they were 
vulgarly called, met in Golgotha 1 beneath the por- 
trait of the late Queen and laid the blame upon 
1 A room in the Old Clarendon described in Terras Filius, No. XI. 

44 University Society 

the Constitution Club, who naturally appeared f to 
them to have been the aggressors. But king 
George was not well pleased : so that ' rattling letters' 
were sent early in June to Dr Arthur Charlett, the 
Vice-Chancellor and Master of University. The 
Heads therefore were forced to draw up a 'pro- 
gramma' and to send 'old Sherwin the Yeoman 
beadle' to London to represent the truth of the 
matter *- 

At Cambridge also there had been Jacobite 
demonstrations on the 28th and 29th of May, but 
there was little harm done; a few windows were 
broken and there were shouts of 'no Hanover,' but 
by the prudence of the vice-chancellor, Dr Thomas 
Sherlock 2 , ' warden ' of Catharine Hall, who was a 
moderate tory for those days, and the son of a 
'Compiler,' the offenders were treated as having 
committed an ordinary breach of good manners, 
without reference to their political expressions. He 
was however thought to have connived at jacobit- 
ism, as was Dr T. Gooch of Caius when Vice-Chan- 
cellor in 17 1 8 (Monk's Bentley, II. 45), and it required 

1 Heame, Bliss, II. 5. 

2 Dr Tho. Sherlock was son of Dr Will. Sherlock — [of Eton and 
Peterhouse, master of the Temple, a non-juror, afterwards a 'Complyer,' 
Dean of St. Paul's, opposes Dr South] — Eton and Catharine Hall, 
1704, succeeded his father as Master of the Temple ; 1714, Master of 
Catharine Hall; 1716, Dean of Chichester. Sherlock succeeded his 
antagonist Benjamin Hoadly in the bishopric of Bangor 1728, and of 
Salisbury 1734. Their portraits now hang near together in the hall of 
St. Catharine, where they were Fellows together. Sherlock, having re- 
fused the primacy, was afterwards translated to the see of London, 1 748, 
Died July 18, 1761. — Gorton, Diet. Biogr. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 45 

the influence of Daniel Waterland, who was a Hano- 
verian, to quell the animosities. 

Some apprehensions may have arisen from the 
more serious disorders at Oxford. True at least if 
is that our University presented an address to king 
George'; with which expression of loyalty his Ma- 
jesty was so well pleased that at the suggestion 
of Charles viscount Townshend he purchased for 
£6000 the most valuable library of the late bishop 
Moore of Ely, containing upwards of 30,000 volumes, 
and with royal munificence presented the collection 
to the University of Cambridge. 

It was on this occasion that the well-known epi- 
grams prefixed to the first portion of this essay were 
composed. The former is variously ascribed to two 
Oxford professors of poetry, Dr Joseph Trapp and 
Tom Warton the elder. The retort was the com- 
position of sir William Browne (founder of the 
prizes for verse), who, if we may trust the statement 
of Mrs Thrale {Johnsoniana, § 11.), improvised the 
lines in reply to Dr Johnson, who in one of his fits 
of rude oxonianism had repeated Dr Trapp's epi- 

Scarcely had Cambridge returned her thanks in 
an address 2 presented, and it is thought composed, 
by Sherlock, when 'the ministry were obliged to 
send to Oxford a squadron of horse 3 under Major- 

1 Van Mildert's Life of Waterland, p. 18 (for an account of Daniel 
Waterland, see below). Compare Cooper's Annals, IV. p. 137; Monk's 
Life of Bentley, 1. 376.'' 

2 Monk's Life of Bentley, I. 377. 3 Cooper's Annals, IV. 141. 

46 University Society 

General Pepper to seize Colonel Owen and other 
Jacobite officers who had been turned out of the 

The report which had reached Oxford a few weeks 
before, that 'King James' had landed in Scotland, 
did not tend to the quiet of that University. In 
spite of the loyal 'programma put forth by Dr 
Gardiner, our present pharisaical Vice-Chancellor' 
(as Hearne calls him), the memorable kalends of 
August 2 , the anniversary of king George's accession, 
were 'very little observed 3 .' Soon after there was 
a demonstration of Balliol men and others against 
a recruiting officer of volunteer dragoons, and they 
whipt 'a rioted roundhead, commonly called my 
Lord Shaftesbury 4 ,' a deformed tailor. 

In this same month of August, 1715, we have a 
curious instance of the irregular way in which some 
men unpopular with the authorities retired from 
the University. Dr John Ayliffe had written a valu- 
able work entitled the Antient and Present Stats of 
Oxford (1714) 5 , which had given offence to the Vice- 
Chancellor (Dr Gardiner of All Souls) by 'disclosing, 
facts which did not consist with the favorite dogma 
of its Trojan foundation, and which told the outer 

1 Reliqu. Hearn. II. p. 6. 

2 The memory of the first of August was perpetuated for ever by the 
legacy of the whig Dogget, Cibber's fellow- comedian— the Thames 
watermen's coat and badge. 

3 Hearne, II. pp. ri, 12. 4 Hearne, Bliss, 11. pp. n, 12. 

" Printed for E. Curll, at the Dial and Bible, against St. Dunstan's 
Church in Fleet Street, 1714. Nichols' Lit. Anecd. 1. 456. Offered in 
1731, by Henry Curll, at lowest selling-off price for io.--. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 47 

world too much 1 .' The book had been burnt ('by the 
common hangman/ a-MS. note in our copy says) and 
himself degraded and expelled from the University 
but not from the College. In the following year we 
are told he and three other Fellows of New College 
'have sold their fellowships, which is a custom here, 
under pretence of resignation and so will go off 2 .' 

The loyalty of Cambridge did not exempt her 
from the imposition of the oaths, — nor was this to be 
expected while the 'pretended Prince of Wales 3 ' 
was 'takeing upon himself the style and title of King 
of Great Brittaine, by the name of James the third 4 .' 

Daniel Waterland, master and tutor of Magdalene, 
a Hanoverian, had succeeded the tory Sherlock, as 
Vice-Chancellor, and the day after his election 
Bentley (who had now thought good to become a 
whig) his coadjutor preached his famous Fifth of 
November sermon in the University Church against 

In the preceding year Bentley had been eulogized 
by Philo-Georgms et Philo-Bentleius, an ardent 
whig, in a pamphlet entitled 'University Loyalty 
considered; in a Letter to a Gentleman at Cam- 
bridge" (London, 1715). We gather from the tract 

1 Mr R. Robinson of Queen's, 0. Undergrad. Journal, p. 149 a. 
Oxoniana, IV. 225, 227. Dr Rawlinson's MSS. 

2 Heame, Bliss, II. p. 13. 

3 See the extracts from the Book of Oaths of Qualification to be 
subscribed by Masters of the College, in Mr Mayor's notes to Baker's 
Hist, of St John's, p. 552. 

4 Ibid. p. 553. , 

R Monk's Life of Bentley, I. 378, on whose authority this notice has 

been taken, p. 22. 

48 University Society 

that there had been hisses heard when the Public 
Orator expatiated on the virtues of King George, and 
that certain speakers in the University of Cambridge 
had dwelt unnecessarily long upon the loss sustained 
by the death of good queen Anne. 

'Philo-Bentleius,' though he has no idea of toler- 
ance for the tories, advocates the restoration of 
William Whiston, who had been deprived for heresy 
five years before. Herein we may observe the 
presence of the High-Church element in the tory 
party, which was by no means co-extensive with 
jacobitism at Cambridge or elsewhere. 

The new vice-chancellor, Mr Waterland, had done 
wisely in publishing early in May, 17 16, a notice 
that the statutes of the University would be enforced 
against scholars under the degree of M.A., who 
dined or supped in taverns or public-houses 
(Cooper's Annals, referring to Baker MS. xxv). But 
in spite of these precautions, there was a great 
disturbance in Cambridge, on the 29th of May, 1716, 
'and the scholars of Clare Hall were miserably 
insulted for their loyalty to the Government, to- 
gether with those of Trinity College.' Calamy {His- 
torical Account of his own Life, ed. Rutt. 11. 252 ap. 
Cooper, in. 556 n.) goes on to tell how 'Mr Hussey's 
meeting-house was pillaged and plundered, and al- 
most demolished.' It is too probable that some 
members of our University followed on this occasion 
the bad example of the Oxford riot a year before, 
and joined in the attack upon the conventicles, for 
the impartial vice-chancellor Waterland, in a notice 

in the Eighteenth Century. 49 

published six weeks later, prohibits the carrying of 
'any stick, club, or any manner of arms,' and the 
using 'any opprobrious words, or invidious names 1 ' — 
together with hissing, pointing, or making 'any loud 
shoutings, or outcries, tending to incite, or raise any 
mob within the limits of the University.' — The pre- 
amble states that 'there hath been of late divers 
disorders, among several scholars of the University 
tumultuously meeting together, provoking, and ex- 
asperating one another by... throwing of stones and 
other great irregularities.' 

It was, perhaps, as well for the credit of the Uni- 
versity with the Court, that the address 8 which was 
presented in Waterland's Vice-Chancellorship had 
met with opposition : — a fate which every composition 
of Bentley's must have learnt to take as a matter 
of course. Like everything else of Bentley's it was 
carried by a coup 3 : when he and two of his friends 
acted on the Caput, as deputies of the Pembroke 
men, who had once put their veto on it. The 
address thus came very opportunely, as the expression 
of the loyalty of the University, after, instead of 
before, the disturbance on "the 29th of May 4 . The 
fact of its opposition however, (for after it had passed 
the Caput, the voting in the Senate in its favour was 
36 to 15 in the Non-Regent, and 34 to 14 in the 
Regent House,) no less than the disturbances among 

1 Cooper's Annals, IV. 143. 

s Cp. Bentley to Sam. Clarke, quoted by Van Mildert, Waterland, 
1. to. 

' Van Mildert's Life of Waterland, p. 18. 

* Cooper's Annals, anno 1716. * 

L. B. E. 4 

'50 University Society 

the Scholars, is a clear evidence of Jacobite feeling, 
existing at this time in Cambridge. 

Meanwhile at the tory University, there had been 
a similar address proposed, to congratulate the King 
upon the suppression of a rebellion 'which' (writes 
Mr Robinson, addressing the Undergraduates of Ox- 
ford, in their Gazette, for May 4, 1867) 'you were 
known to have fomented, and on his return from a 
country more suitable to him, and where you only 
wished he had stayed, and to thank him for the 
favour of omitting at your asking to burn,. in company 
with the figures of the Pope and the Devil, effigies 
of the son of your King, and of Ormond and Mar. 
You reasonably demurred, nor was the unnecessary 
insult of the presence of soldiery among you against 
whose outrage you in vain remonstrated, calculated 
to sooth your feelings, your expression of indignation 
was received by the House of Lords in a way which 
was probably unparliamentary, and assuredly ill- 
advised and cruel.' The Hanoverian Club of ' Consti- 
tute iers' had repeated their noisy meeting on the 
29th of May 17 1 6. 

We will take the account of their advocate Nicholas 
Amherst: 'In the evening, the Constitution Club, and 
several officers in Colonel Handyside's regiment, met 
together at the tavern. Whilst they were drinking 
the king's and other loyal healths, several squibs 
were thrown in at the window, which burnt some of 
their cloaths, and filled the room with fire and smoak. 
Besides this, they were continually insulted with loud 
peals of hisses and conclamations of Down with the 

in the Eighteenth Century. 51 

-Roundheads, from the govvnmen, and other disorderly 
people in the street; of which they took no notice. 
They continued together till about eleven of clock, or 
not quite so late, when Mr Holt of Maudlin College, 
Sub-Proctor at that time came, and making up to 
Mr Meadowcourl (who happened to be steward of 
the Club that night,) demanded of him the reason 
of their being at the tavern. Mr Meadowcourt rose 
up and told him, that they were met together to 
commemorate the Restoration of king Charles II. 
and to drink king George's health; and that they 
should be obliged to HIM if he would be pleased to 
drink king George'.? health with them; which the 
Proctor, after some entreaties, comply'd with. After 
which, one of the captains went to him, and desired 
him to excuse the scholars that were there, promising 
him that he would take care that no harm or disorder 
should be committed, and then waited upon the 
Proctor down stairs.' 

The reader will observe that Amherst is anxious 
to make out a good case for his companions in dis- 
grace; for the chief members of the Club were kept 
long waiting for their next degrees. Mr Meadow- 
court, a young Fellow of Merton, three years later 
o-ave the Vice- Chancellor some trouble 1 by accusing 


the University governors of disaffection. In spite 
of these proceedings against members of the Consti- 
tution Club in Oxford, they held a meeting at the 
Three Tun Tavern on the King's Accession in the 

1 Terrae-filius, Nos. xxn, xxm, xxiv. 


52 University Society 

following year (Aug. I, 1717) with a bonfire and 

It will be remembered that it was in January 
1716-7, in the Vice- Chancellorship of Mr Grigg, master 
of Clare Hall, that Thomas Baker, and one and 
twenty other members of St John's, had been ejected 
from their fellowships at Cambridge, for refusing 'to 
affirm the omnipotence of parliament to dispense 
with oaths.' It was in the preceding month (Dec. 
1716 : see Hearne, Bliss, II. 43) that Tom Hearne was 
in great danger of having his papers searched for 
Jacobite sentiments by the Vice- Chancellor (Dr 
Baron, of Balliol). This was rather more than a year 
since he had been debarred the use of Bodley, of 
which he was Hypobibliothecarius. Nevertheless we 
find him doing useful work, in this and the next 
reign 1 ,— interested in the literary activity of Oxford, 
and in 1734 speaking to Vice-Chancellor Holmes 
about a committee for publishing MSS. 2 belonging 
to the University. He still lived in Edmund Hall 
and walked frequently to 'the third house on the 
left hand after you have passed High Bridge, goino- 
from Worcester College 3 '— a tavern, known as 'Anti- 
quity Hall,' where he met many young gentlemen 
of Christ Church and other 'honest' antiquaries, to 
chat over pot and pipe. 

In 1716-7, 'the Government contemplated intro- 

1 Hearne, Bliss, III. 102, 165. a j/,^ In t g 5 

' Ibid. 11 82, cf. in. 164, where Hearne complains that he has 
been ridiculed in a print of that house in J723, by two 'very conceited 
fellows of little understanding, tho' both are Masters of Arts.' 

tn the Eighteenth Century. 53 

ducing into Parliament, a bill for regulating the 
two Universities 1 .' Soon after the Parliament met, 
Edmund Miller, Sergeant at Law, and Deputy High 
Steward of the University, published a tract pur- 
porting to be, 'An account of the University of 
Cambridge, and the Colleges thereof 2 ,' addressed to 
the Houses of Parliament. It is in fact an attack 
upon Bentley who had declared his fellowship vacant, 
because he opposed his scheme, six years before. 
Miller's position was that the statutes required chang- 
ing because they were not kept; he takes Trinity 
College as a specimen, and thus has a splendid 
opportunity for abusing his adversary the Master. 
The pamphlet was considered a 'famosus libellus', 
and proceedings were instituted thereupon; but Miller 
was a cunning lawyer, and the affair was dropped. 

On the 6th of October 17 17 K. George I. paid 
Cambridge a visit, chiefly memorable because 
Bentley, as Master of Trinity, and Regius Professor, 
was prominent upon the occasion, and for the dispute 
about fees between 'fiddling' Conyers Middleton 
and himself which arose out of it. 

In the next year we find the result of the agitation 
for University reform in a careful scheme 3 drawn up 
by Lord Macclesfield (but not adopted). For the 

1 Cooper's Annals, IV. 145. 

2 The title of the tract is given in full with an extract from it rela- 
ting to Bentley, in an Appendix (A. I.) to this part of the Essay, before 
the Analysis of Ld. Macclesfield's Scheme. (Appendix A. II.) 

3 A digest of Lord Macclesfield'?, Scheme, taken from Gutch Collec- 
tanea Curiosa, No. ix, will be given in an Appendix (A. II.) to this 1st 
Part of the present Compilation. 

54 University Society 

present it is enough to state that two questions are 
discussed in it : — -firstly the promotion of Learning and 
Industry, irrespective of party considerations; secondly 
a remedy for the present disaffection of the Univer- 
sities. Some of the details will be found elsewhere. 

We have already referred to the dispute between 
Middleton and Bentley, but for an account of the 
numberless litigations in which the great Master 
of Trinity baffled his opponents, we must refer the 
reader to one or all of the interesting publications 
which have become a part of English literature. 

The two volumes of the Life by bishop Monk of 
Gloucester, are impartial and most full of interesting 
and entertaining matter. 

The Biography of Dr Ri. Bentley in the Worthies 
of Yorkshire and Lancashire (pp. 65 — 174) is founded 
upon Monk's Life 'and other sources of information ' 
(p. 68). In addition to the advantage of conciseness, 
this has the recommendation (in itself sufficient) of 
proceeding from the pen of Hartley Coleridge (1836) 
whose comments cannot fail to charm us even where 
we dissent from them. 

Readers of Tom De Quincey will not need to be 
reminded of the amusing Essay wherein he leads us 
(ut solet) like Will o' the Wisp, through the marisch 
ground of plausibilities until we find ourselves 
awakened by a sudden gurgling of the cold water 
of paradox in our ears ; yet can hardly resist joining 
in the laugh with Puck and Ariel at the pretty pickle 
we are in. 

Although (in spite of the enticing lanthorn of 

in the Eighteenth Century. 55 

utility which De Quincey holds out to us— as in spite 
of all the piping and taboring of Ariel) we cannot 
consent to 'hang the little dog' (poor Colbatch, who 
at least could go out of his way to oblige a stranger) 1 
rather than give the great dog a bad name; yet 
we can find great pleasure in thinking on the good 
which Bentley did. His improvement in the election 
of Scholars and Fellows at Trinity, from which none 
but himself has ever departed: the impulse which 
he gave to that accurate criticism which has since 
become the aim, though not the method always, of 
European Thought: the power that was given him,, 
in spite of his pugnacious propensities, and in spite 
of his hauteur, of concentrating the interests of the 
learned men of continental countries 2 and our own — 
these things alone would give Bentley a claim to stand 
among the foremost of the heroes of the 18th century. 
But while we reflect how great he was, and how 
much was done by him with all his faults, we cannot 
help adding, What might he not have done without 
them ! If he had devoted to the critical study of 
the Scriptures that time which he did worse than waste 
in litigation, the cause of Truth might have been 
advanced beyond its present stage, and Bentley might 
have made what Kipling was allowed to mar and what 
Mr Scrivener has been forced to undo and do again. 
But the Doctor was like the Lemuel Gulliver of 
his opponent Swift, and he was conscious that his 
^^temporaries (How the very words conspire to 

1 See Thoresby's Diary, quoted below. 

s See the Preface to Wordsworth's Edition of Bentley' 1 s Correspondence. 

56 University Society 

attest this statement!) 1 were but as Lilliputians by his 
side. Like Gulliver he could not resist the tempta- 
tion of amusing himself with the littlenesses of the 
little men. He appropriated their household stuff 
and had a fine lodging built and furnished at the 
expense of the community; he dabbled in the politics 
of Lilliput and Blefuscu as seemed' most to his 
advantage at the moment. Each party was glad of 
his assistance but each party was thankful to be rid of 
him. They might take away his title of nardac, but 
they could not send him bound. And after all, when 
either side had done their best and their worst to 
punish him ; this Quinbus Flestrin, the great man 
mountain, comes off scot free with their cows and 
sheep in his coat pocket. 

The State of Trinity College under Bentley, as it 
represents the most remarkable and the most impor- 
tant college quarrel of the time, so it was but too 
truly typical of the dissensions which prevailed in 
the university societies in the former half of the last 

In addition to this, it contained, owing to its extent 
the germs of every species of dispute which destroyed 
the harmony and impaired the usefulness of those 
places of education. 

The dissension between High Church and Low 
was exemplified in the antagonism of Bentley and 
Middleton. Bentley took some pains to ingratiate 
himself with the reigning sovereign, Sergt. Miller was 

1 See Bentley's Phalaris, where he «gratulates 'Mr B.' on his 
^position of the word 'cotemporary.' 

in the Eighteenth Century. 57 

a staunch supporter of the ministry; the Master was 
an Absolutist, the recalcitrant Fellows were for 
limited authority : the appeal to the Visitor and the 
visitatorial sanctions, which are such important ele- 
ments in the university quarrels of the time, were 
debated in the case of the Master and Fellows of 
Trinity College with as great eagerness and with as 
strange results as in any of the later controversies. 

Turning again to the other university : of the 
uncomfortable condition in which the Colleges at 
Oxford were with respect to the attitude which the 
members of any college bore to one another, we have 
evidence more than enough in the Diary of Hearne 1 . 
In June 1726 he writes, 'There are such differences 
now in the university of Oxford (hardly one college 
but where all the members are busied in law business 
and quarrels, not at all relating to the promoting of 
learning) that good letters miserably decay every day 
insomuch that this ordination on Trinity Sunday at 
Oxford there were no fewer (as I am informed) than 
fifteen denied orders for insufficiency which is the more 
to be noted because our bishops and those employed 
by them are themselves generally illiterate men.' 
This was the year after John Wesley was ordained. 

It must be borne in mind that Hearne had no 
sympathy with the 'Low Church' Bishops, and 
considered the popularity of 'Burnetts romance or 
libel called by hjm The History of his own Times' as 
an instance of the low depths to which learning had 
sunk in 1734. Hearne, Bliss, III. 125, 129. 

1 Reliqu. JTearn. Bliss, II. 247. 

58 University Society 

In this same year (1726) John Wesley writes of 
Lincoln college to his brother Samuel whom he 
had lately joined as fellow of that society; — ' I never 
knew a College besides ours whereof the members 
were so perfectly satisfied with one another and so 
inoffensive to the other part of the university. All 
I have yet seen of the fellows are both well-natured 
and well-bred men, admirably disposed as well to 
preserve peace and good neighbourhood among them- 
selves as to promote it wherever else they have any 
acquaintance 1 .' 

In 1727—28 there was at Oriel one of the disputes 
to which allusion has been made. Mr Wicksey (or 
Weeksy) having done all he could to hinder the 
peace of the college and annoy his rival the new 
Provost, was deprived of his fellowship as being 1 
incapacitated from holding it by his possession of 
uberius beneficium 2 . 

In September 1729 Ld. chancellor sir Peter King, 
being ignorant of college affairs, as Visitor restores 
Weeksey and confirms Dr Hodges in the office of 
' Warden.' A little earlier, in the last months of the 
reign of George I., it was discovered that the king, 
and not the Vice-Chancellor, proctors and Doctors of 
Divinity, was Visitor of University Coll. Oxon. 
Accordingly Mr Cockman was elected as master 
instead of Denison, the nominee of the university 
officers. Scenes of disorder thereupon ensued. 'Jolly' 

1 Southey, Coleridge, and C. C. Southey's Life of Wesley, 1846, 
I. 34 n. 

2 Reliqu. Hearn., III. 4, 13, 29. 

tn the Eighteenth Century: 59 

Geo. Ward, senior resident fellow, goes early into 
the chapel, usurps the Master's place, and strikes 
Cockman's name out of the buttery-book 1 . He also 
removed his chair from the College Hall. In May 
1729 a Commission restored Cockman and declared 
five fellowships vacant, Denison's among them 2 . 

Nichols, Lit. Anecd. V. 339, tells how about the 
year 1725, when Dr Snape (son of the serjeant-farrier 
to K. Charles II.) was provost of King's, a Mr Bushe 
was expelled for some whiggish reflections in a college 
exercise ; he too was reinstated by the Visitor (the 
bishop of Lincoln) and though this judgment was 
litigated, 'in the end the whigs prevailed and gave 
a turn to the political sentiments of the whole 

At Cambridge two months earlier the bishop of 
Lincoln, Dr Ri. Reynolds, had restored Mr Dale to 
his fellowship at King's, whence he had been deprived 
for reflecting in a set speech upon K. Charles I. 
(Dr Andrew Snape, provost). Later too in the same 
year there was a memorable party struggle at 
Cambridge, which almost proves how hot men must 
have waxed in politics, so near was the division. 
The election to the office of Vice-Chancellor fell 
upon Dr Rob. Lambert a tory (Master of S. John's 3 ) 
who polled 84 votes against Matthias Mawson of 
Bene't Coll. (afterwards bishop of Ely), who in spite 
of Waterland's canvassing wanted one vote to equal 

1 Reliqu. Hearn. Bliss," II. 316-318, III. 22. 

* Ibid. III. 18 (Mar. 1729). 

3 Mr Mayor on Bakers Hist, of S, John's, p. 1017. 

60 University Society 

Lambert. Nevertheless he held the office in the two 
subsequent years. 

Meanwhile there was not wanting time to those- 
who chose it for disputes between college and college. 
The occasion for the most frequent class of these 
quarrels was the jealousy felt by one society against 
another who lured away her pupils. 

The most famous case was that of Hart Hall (or 
Hertford College as Dr Newton loved to have it 

The following is the account given by Hearne — 

' Dr Carter provost of Oriel Coll. having entered a 
young gentleman some time ago from Hart Hall, the 
principal of Hart Hall, Dr Newton, hath made a 
great stir in the matter because the young gentleman 
had no discessit from the hall as the statutes require ; 
tho' after all Dr Carter forfeits only 40 shillings for 
such entrance by the statutes, which Newton would 
have raised to 40 libs. Newton is famous for talking 
much, Carter for saying nothing 1 ' — and it seemed a 
question which would hold out longest. This was 
expressed in an epigram 2 . 

Mr Sayman the student in dispute died of the 
small-pox (May 11, 1735), fellow of Oriel 3 . 

Dr Carter paid the 40 shillings : the smallness of 
which recompense Ri. Newton resenting, he published 
in folio in six sheets ' A Letter to the rev. Dr Holmes 

1 Hearne, Bliss, 11. 209, 210. 

2 See Amherst's Appendix to Terrae-filius, 1726, or Dr Newton's 
book entitled University Education, &c. 

3 Hearne, Bliss, lit. 158. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 61 

Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford and 
Visitor of Hart Hall within the said University. 
By R. Newton D.D. Principal of Hart Hall. London. 
Printed in the year 1734.' In it he advocated his 
favourite project of getting a collegiate charter for 
Hart Hall. In this he was opposed by Exeter 
College, one of the late Fellows of which Dr John 
Conybeare 1 then famous as Dean of Christ Church 
he attacked : but Hearne says that no one commend- 
ed his conduct (ill. 184). 

In addition to these personal feuds the political 
struggle was as violent as ever in the universities. 

We are able at present only to allude to the case 
of Exeter College, an election dispute which evoked 
a letter from *a Cambridge Soph' with several other 
pamphlets and squibs which are to be found in the 
Libraries of our Universities. Even after the battle 
of Culloden in 1746, and the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle 
two years later, Oxford was open to the imputation 
of jacobitism. The title of one single Pamphlet will 
sufficiently illustrate this statement. It is 'Oxford 
Honesty 2 : or a Case of Conscience Humbly put to 
the Worshipful and Reverend The Vice-Chancellor, 
The Heads of Houses, The Fellows &c. of the 
University of Oxford. Whether one may take the 
oaths to King George; and yet consistently with 
Honour and Conscience and the Fear of God may do 

1 Had been Rector of Exeter, afterwards bp of Bristol— Hearne, 
Bliss, in. 92. See Calumny Refuted, by J. Conybeare, D.D., Ed. 1, 

1735- , 

3 In the Bodleian, Godwin Pamph. 1081. 

62 University Society 

all one can in Favour of the Pretender f Occasioned 
by the Oxford Speech and Oxford Behaviour, at the 
opening of Radcliff's Library April 13, 1749. The 
second edition with additions. Ezek. xxii. 25... 
London: Sold by M. Cooper at the Globe in 
Paternoster Row, and at the Pamphlet shops in 
London and Westminster, [price sixpence.] ' pp. 39. 
On page 5 the anonymous writer asks ' Who is it 
that is ignorant that you take the Oaths to King 
George and abjure the Pretender not a man of you 
excepted? It is likewise, I believe, well known even 
at Paris and Rome what sort of People are most 
caressed at all publick Meetings, your Races, your 
High Borlace &c. [for the High Borlace, see the 
notice below among the Oxford Clubs] and how 
you dispose of your Places of Honour, Trust and 
Profit. Your members of Parliament too ! How 
warmly have these always spoken of the Revolution f 
Their Respect how singular to the present Govern- 
ment? How zealous in its' Defence in the late Re- 
bellion ? ' 

Nevertheless the authorities at Oxford published 
a programma against seditious practices : but 
whether they were considered partial, or for some 
other reason, the jurisdiction was taken out of their 
hands in 1748, when two or three young men were 
convicted of drinking the Pretender's health. Two 
of the offenders were tried in the Court of King's 
Bench and 'sentenced to walk through the courts of 
Westminster with a specification of their crime fixed 
to their foreheads ; to pay a fine of five nobles each ■ 

in the Eighteenth Century. 63 

to be imprisoned for two years, and find security of 
their good behaviour for the term of seven years 
after their enlargement.' 1 

It was in 1748 while the matter was before society" 
that William Mason (1725 — 1797, who, having spent 
part of his Cambridge career at St John's, was 
elected fellow of Pembroke Hall in 1 747 s , where nine 
years later he was joined by his friend Gray) wrote 
his 'Isis.' In that poem he taunts Oxford's degene- 
rate sons who 

'madly bold 
To Freedom's foes infernal orgies hold.' 

Tom Warton of Trinity College Oxford retorted in 
'The Triumph of Isis,' upon 'the venal sons of 
slavish Cam ' whom he taunts with being ' still of 

preferment queen.' He openly boasts of the 

company which tory Oxford delighted to honour 
in the Radcliffe and the Theatre. ' It is remarkable 
(says Dr Anderson in the notice prefixed to Warton's 
poems) that though neither Mason nor Warton ever 
excelled these performances, each of them, as by 
' consent, when he first collected his poems into a 
volume omitted his own party production.' It was a 
good example of gentleness. In later days Mason's 
republican feelings like those of some other poets 
received a shock from the french Revolution, so 
violent as to wrench out a recantation. 

At this time Cambridge and the Government were 
upon the best of terms. 

1 Smollett's Hist. Bk. Ill, ch. i, § 16. Cp. the Gent. Mag. XXV. 
168—170, also the vol. for 1748, pp. 214—234, 521. 

5 Cooper's Annals, IV. 236. ' Ibid. p. 255. 

64 University Society 

On the death of the E. of Anglesey in 1737, 
Thomas Holies Pelham, duke of Newcastle, then 
Secretary of State, was elected High Steward of the 
University. From that time till his resignation of 
the office of First Lord of the Treasury in 1756, and 
later, he was most constant in attendance upon the 
desires of the governing body at Cambridge. The 
duke of Newcastle accompanied an Address to the 
Crown from the University a few weeks after his 
appointment by that body, and nine years later when 
Dr Rooke of Christ's was vice-chancellor we find 
him engaged in a similar way. In 1748 he succeeded 
the D. of Somerset as Chancellor, being elected by 
the University in accordance with the desire of the 
king, who did not choose that Frederick prince of 
Wales should have the office 1 . 

The Installation of the Chancellor was celebrated 
with all honours and dishonours. ' Every one while 
it lasted was very gay and very busy in the morning, 
and very owlish and very tipsy at night : I make no 
exception from the chancellor to blue-coat 2 .' So 
writes Gray to Dr Wharton in giving an account of 
the festivities at the request of Dr Keene. The poet 
was not likely to appreciate such merry-making, 
especially in honour of one whose politics he despised, 
and from whom if he expected no favour he was not 

1 See the letter quoted by Mr Cooper (Annals IV. 263, 264). Com- 
pare A Fragment, p. 2. 

2 Blue-coat, a servant of the Vice-Chancellor's, whose business was 
to attend acts, degrees, etc., see Gray's Letter No. 59. Gray's Letters 
(ed. 1819) No. 71. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 65 

destined to be disappointed 1 . Indeed he confesses in 
the same letter that the only thing which gave him 
pleasure at the time, was the performance (to Boyce's 
Music) of the Installation Ode 2 , which had been 
composed by his friend and fellow-poet Will. Mason, 
once of St John's, then Fellow of Pembroke Hall, 
who was afterwards to be the editor of his life and 
works. Very different were Gray's feelings when, 
exactly twenty years later, he himself composed the 
Ode for the Installation of the duke of Grafton. 

It was not intended that the new Chancellor should 
be useless and merely an ornament to the Uni- 
versity. There were frequent meetings at Christ's 
Lodge, and packets with the signature of the Secre- 
tary of State (D. of Newcastle) were doubtless 
observed to come by the evening mail to the Blue 
Boar or to the Red Lion, addressed to Drs Rooke and 
Keene and Chapman. The bishops of Ely, Lincoln, 
Chichester and Peterboro' were sometimes noticed 
driving into Cambridge, and their faces had become 
familiar to the residents since the late Installation. 

At last the secret of all this mystery was known. 
The Chancellor had sent a code of Orders and Regu- 
lations for the approval of the Senate. On May 1 1, 
1750, they were first brought before that body; when 
some of them were rejected by a small majority. 
But on the 26th of June, the whole eighteen were 
passed: a nineteenth not having been permitted by 
the Heads to come before the Senate on account of 

1 Cf. Letter on a Late Resignation, 1756, p. 14 n. 
* See Cooper's Annals, IV. 269. 

L. B. E. 5 

66 University Society 

its absurdity. It required an annual account of the 
character and behaviour of every person in the 
University to be transmitted to the Chancellor. 

In the Occasional Letter to Dr Keen, however, it 
is stated that ' the work contain'd one-and-twenty 
distinct Orders most of them Copies from our public 
Statutes, some such as could never be put in ex- 
ecution, and the last so insufferably ridiculous that 
you was ashamed to offer it to the Senate.' Perhaps 
the first Order originally stood as two or three. 
Yet it may be that the objection to the discarded 
Order was in those days made rather on the score of 
impracticability than impertinence ; for in the present 
century we find that the tutors of Colleges used to 
furnish the proctors and moderators with a list of 
questionists, with ' appropriate marks ' against the 
name of each, as 'reading' ' non- reading,' 'hard-read- 
ing man,' and the like. See Camb. Univ. Calendar 
for the year 1 802. 

The Allegorical 'Fragment' represents the number 
of Orders as 20, one being foisted in by Dr Sam. 
Squire of St John's, the chancellor's chaplain (who 
preached at St Mary's on the Sunday afternoon 
before the Inauguration) : though Dr Chapman sub- 
sequently got rid of it. 

The xviii. Regulations may be seen in full in Mr 
C. H. Cooper's Annals of Cambridge, IV. 278-280, and 
in 'Excerpta e officia Scholarium perti- 
nentia,' Camb. Univ. Press (issued frequently at least 
since 1714). They may be summed up as follows: 

1. 'Every person in statu fupillari shall wear 

in the Eighteenth Century. 67 

cloaths of a grave colour in the judgment of the 
officers of the University, without lace fringe or 
embroidery, without cuffs or capes of a different 
colour from their coats.' 

Fellow-commoner graduates to wear the proper 
habit of their degree. 

B. A. to wear gowns ' of prunello or of princes stuff.' 

2. Fellow-commoners to wear their ' proper gown, 
cap and band.' 

3, 4. No one in statu pupillari to keep a servant or 
a horse, without the consent of parents or guardians 
and the head of his college. 

5. No person in statu pupillari to go to a coffee- 
house, tennis-court, cricket-ground, &c. between 9 and 
12 A.M. 

6. A fine of sixpence for not attending the Univ. 
Sermon. A distribution of seats in the galleries of 
S. Mary's. Sizars to mark the absentees. 

7. 8. Tavern-keepers and coffee-house-keepers not 
to allow bills above 20J. Nor to serve wine, punch, 
or any other strong liquor, after 1 1 P.M. 

9, 10. No one to ride or drive out of Cambridge 
without leave of his tutor or master of the College. 
Nor to be out of his College after 1 1 P.M. 

11. Respect to be shown to superiors. Any 
M.A. may demand a man's name and College. 

12. Dining in a coffee-house forbidden except 
as under Stat. XLVII. 

13. Guns and sporting-dogs forbidden. 

14. Noblemen and fellow-commoners to be 
amenable to discipline upon a Declaration. 


68 University Society 

IS, 16. Keeping evil company, 'breaking win- 
dows, making and fomenting riots and disturbances ' 
are to be punished. 

17. Dice forbidden; also cards, except for small 
sums and at statutable times. 

18. Fines to be collected and applied by Stat. 
Univ. 50. 

It will easily be imagined that these New Regula- 
tions were not popular upon the whole. 

A squib, in which allusion is made to most of 
the Orders and Regulations, is printed in the Stu- 
dent, or Oxford and Camb. Monthly Miscellany, vol. I. 
pp. 311, 312, and signed Cambridge, August 1, 1750, 
Sophista. It is entitled 'The Happiness of a good 
Assurance. Horace, Book 1. Ode 22. Imitated and 

' Whoe'er with frontless phyz is blest, 
Still in a blue or scarlet vest 

May saunter thro' the town, 
Or strut, regardless of the rules, 
Ev'n to St Mary's or the Schools 

In hat or poplin gown. {Orders and Regulations, I. II.] 

A dog he unconcern'd maintains, [O. and R. XIII.] 
And seeks with gun the sportive plains 

Which ancient Cam divides ; 
Or to the hills on horse-back strays [O. and R. iv. ix.] 
(Unask'd his Tutor) or his chaise 

To fam'd New-market guides. 

For in his sight (whose brow severe 

Each morn the coffee-houses fear, [0. and R. v.] 

Each night the taverns dread j [0. and R. vii.] 
To whom the tatter'd Sophs bend low, 
To whom the gilded tossils bow 

And Graduates nod the head;) [0. and R. XI.] 

in the Eighteenth Cenhiry. 69 

Ev'n in the Proctor's awful sight 

On Regent-walk at twelve last night [0. and R. x.] 

Unheedingly I came; 
And tho', with Whish's claret fir'd, [0. and R. VIII. XII.] 
I brush'd his side, he ne'er enquir'd \0. and R. XI.] 

My college or my name. 

Were I oblig'd whole terms to keep 
And haste to Chapel, rouz'd from sleep, 

At five each frosty morning; 
Or for a riot should my ear [0. and R. XVI.] 
Of hated rustication hear 

The first or second warning:' &c. &c. 

The Senate did- not approve of the intervention 
of the Chancellor and the Bishops ; and they were 
jealous of the power of the Caput, and smarted under 
the indignity of having been forced to adopt their 
measures. These two sections of the governing body 
of the University corresponded, to a considerable 
extent, with other pairs of parties in the common- 

The Caput as a general rule were constitutionalists 
and supporters of the Bishops 1 ; while a large propor- 
tion of the Senate was tory, if not Jacobite, friendly 
to high-churchmen and the remnant of the Lower- 
House of Convocation. Nevertheless in November 
the Public Orator was directed to thank the Chan- 
cellor for his condescension and to assure him that 
his orders would be carried out. The non-placets 
were but few 2 . 

And they were as good as their word. A few days 
before this grace had passed, the Senior Proctor, 

1 Cf. The Academic, pp. 47, 48. 2 Cooper's Annals, IV. 181. 

7o University Society 

James Brown M.A. fellow (and afterwards master 
1 770- 1 784) of Pembroke Hall, in his zeal to carry out 
the 8th and 10th Regulations, visited the Tuns 
Tavern punctually at 11 o'clock on the evening of 
Nov. 17th. 

Forty-six members of the Westminster Club were 
keeping, as ' Old Westminsters ' use, the Anniversary 
of the Accession of their Foundress Q. Elizabeth — 
the regius professor of greek, Thomas Francklyn, 
Fellow of Trinity (translator of Sophocles), was in 
the chair, and other senior members of the University 
were present ; the bill had been called for ; some 
slight. matter it was said detained them, and while a 
subscription was being levied for the waiters, the 
health of Dr Nichols the head master was being 
drunk. It is probable that some at least of the party 
were in high boisterous spirits, and the presence of 
the Proctor was not received with respect by all. It 
was (we may be inclined to think) not very wise in 
that Gentleman to exercise his power in a company 
where there were several Masters of Arts, and a 
Professor who could see good order observed ; and 
such an act was considered an infringement on 
etiquette 1 . The Professor remonstrated with him 
upon what he considered an intrusion ; his remon- 
strance was cheer'd by the company, as also was a 
speech from Thomas Ansell, LL.B. fellow of Trinity 

1 Compare Gunning's Reminiscences, I. p. 60 (ed. 1854), withCamb. 
Univ. Stat. 47, referred to in the 12th of the New Regulations. Als6 
Key to the Fragment, pp. 26, 27. Authentic Narrative of the late Extra- 
oi-ftinary Proceedings at Camb. against the W r Club, p. 17. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 71 

Hall, who drew the Proctor's attention, not very 
respectfully, to the sobriety of the party. A burst of 
applause also followed when Samuel Crew, M.A., 
Fellow of Trinity, protested against the encroachment 
upon the rights of Masters of Arts. After drinking 
the toast, which had been proposed before their 
interruption, the Club dispersed. It was clear that, 
however unwisely Mr Brown the Proctor may have 
acted, the learned grecian and the other senior men 
who were of the party at Mr WisKs Tavern 1 acted 
wrongly, and set a fatal example in questioning his 
authority before an excited audience. The affair 
was most unfortunate and the sequel most disastrous. 
The University had already been much agitated 
while the question of the New Regulations was being 
moved. The following extract from a Letter dated 
Cambridge, November 16, 1750 (from a page of MS. 
(qu. a copy), is bound in a volume in the Bodleian 
Library 1 \Gough, Camb. 47]. It was written [appa- 
rently to an Oxford friend : there is no signature. 
Ri. Gough himself was at Corpus Coll. Cambridge, 
and did not come into residence till 1752, and took 
no degree (Gorton, Diet. Biog). His books were 
bequeathed to 'Bodley' on his death in 1809.] the very 
day before the meeting of the Westminster Club, and 
will give a fair account of the state of feeling at the 
time : ' Our conversation in the University has been of 

1 ' Wish calls — the Midnight Revels must be done.' Epistle to a 
Fellow-Commoner (i75 )- 

'Thro' his (Keene's) direction Vice shall be no more, 
Poor Wish for want of trade shut up the Tuns.' 

The Capitade, 1750. 

72 University Society 

late very much in the disputatious way, and I am 
satisfied we are both equally grieved to find that 
Party dissensions have at last found their way into 
this university as well as that of Oxford. Nothing 
now to be heard but party squabbles and literary 
scandal. Since the letter to Lord Egmont there has 
appeared another to Dr Keene equally scurrilous and 
abusive : and what has made more noise than any of 
the letters ; an infamous Libel on the Heads of Houses 
called the Capitade which was printed in the London 
evening Post of thursday, Novem r . 1st. The other 
day came out a pamphlet called " The Academic, or a 
Disputation on the propriety of the late Regulations 
and the State of the University :" with a great pro- 
fession of candour, it is one of the most unfair and 
disingenuous Pieces I ever read, and plainly wrote as 
an abuse of the Vice-Chancellor. The authors by 
repute are Powel of St John's, with Balguy and 
Allen and Mason of Pembrook. But I believe they 
have made a rod for their own backs.' 

There had lately been cases of disorderly conduct 
which had come before the Vice-Chancellor, and 
which had probably been the occasion of the new 
Regulations 1 . In the pamphlets of the time were 
frequent references '' to the disorders in '49, in which 
window-breaking was a prominent offence. In the 
first year of his vice-chancellorship, Dr Keene had 
'publickly admonished twelve young Gentlemen of 

1 The Academic, pp. 10, 19, 40. 

s Ibid. p. a6. Another Fragment, p. 5, compared with Regu- 
lation XVI. 

tn the Eighteenth Century. 73 

the first Character in the University 1 ,' who had 
behaved rudely in the round of visits which it was 
then customary for some ' men ' in the first class on 
the first day of the degree examination, as it then 
was, to make in order to receive congratulations from 
the 'Toasts' of their acquaintance. On this occa- 
sion, as well as on another 2 soon afterwards, the 
Vice-Chancellor was thought by some to have acted 
without due enquiry and examination. ' Upwards 
of twenty Persons, many of good Families and For- 
tune,' as Dr Green informs us (Observations on Regu- 
lations, pp. 17, 18), had been expelled or rusticated 
' for very heinous violations of our Laws and Dis- 

It was therefore extremely unlucky that a per- 
sonal affront to the Proctor was made the cause of 
summoning before the Vice-Chancellor's court, the 
greek Professor (Francklin), a Fellow of Trinity 
Hall (Ansell), a Fellow of Trinity (Crew — besides 
Francklin), and two Fellow-commoners (Vernon 
Trinity, Vane Peter House). 

The Court was held 3 in the Law Schools on 
Saturday, Nov. 24, and at dusk adjourned to 'the 
Theatre', where the Undergraduates in the gallery 
took the opportunity of expressing their sympathy 
with the accused. Ansell made matters worse, by 
appealing to them to be quiet 'for our sake,' and 

1 Friendly and Honest Advice of an old Tory, 1751, pp. 26, 2J. 
3 Honest and Friendly Advice, pp. 29, 30. 

3 The following account is taken chiefly from [Ansell's] Authentic 
Narrative, (see the Notes at the end). 

74 University Society 

behaved in an unseemly and contemptuous manner '. 
After another sitting in the Law School 2 , where 
sixteen proproctors were provided to prevent a 
recurrence of the disturbances, Franklin, Ansell, 
Crew, Vernon and Vane, were found guilty of in- 
sulting and interrupting the Proctor in the execu- 
tion of his office, and were reprimanded. 

Ansell alone 3 was suspended (on account of his 
behaviour in his defence), 'ab omni gradu suscepto 
et suscipiendo.' The defendants had to pay the 
costs, and such members of the Club as were in 
statu pupillari were fined 6s. 8d. for being out of 
College after Eleven P.M. 

Whatever may have been the indiscretion of the 
Proctor (and of this we can hardly judge from violent 
pamphlets 4 ), there seems no reason to suppose that 
the sentence was unjust, or that it could have been 

Ansell, however, who had manifested when under 
examination the same impudent conduct which had 
betrayed itself under excitement at the Westminster 
Club, declared his intention of appealing from the 

1 Appendix to Inquiry into Right of Appeal, compared with Ansell's 
own account, Authentic Narrative, p. 32 «., and Another Fragment, 
p. 26, Fragmentum est pars, p. 31. (Tuesday, Nov. 27.) 

' Their Harangues seem'd to make no more Impression upon Mun 
and the Gentlemen of the Jury than if they had read to them The 
Franklein's Tale out of Chaucer.' Fragmentum est pars, p. 32. 

2 (Thursday, Nov. 2g.) 

3 See Appendix to Inquiry, Authentic Narrative, p. 32 n. Another 
Fragment, p. 26, Fragmentum est pars, p. 31, and the notice of Dr 
Will. George of King's, which will be found in the Notes. 

* (The Authentic Narrative was drawn up by Ansell himself.) 

hi the Eighteenth Cenhiry. 75 

Vice-Chancellor's sentence \ Dr Keene, after some 
delay caused by waiting for legal opinions, decided 
that no appeal lay from his sentence in cases of 
discipline 2 . 

Although we find that Ansell did not think fit 
to prosecute his intention, the question of appeal 
absorbed the attention and the animosities of the 
University for some time, and produced almost as 
plentiful a crop of pamphlets, as the earlier grounds 
of the dispute on the Regulations and the Club. 

At a congregation about a fortnight later the 
Vice-Chancellor, on the strength of legal opinions, 
refused an application from a future regius pro- 
fessor of civil law (Will. Ridlington of Trinity 
Hall) to appoint delegates upon Mr Ansell's appeal; 
and though he informed them of his intention of 
bringing in a grace to appoint syndics to inquire 
into the question, the Associators (as they were 
called) 3 not only rejected the grace when it was 
brought forward a month later (by 52 against II 
placets in the Non-Regent House), but gave an 
immediate evidence of their discontent by stopping 
a supplicat for a B.A.'s degree. 

In November 1751, Edmund Keene retired from 
the office of Vice-Chancellor, which he had held for 
two unquiet years. He was succeeded by Dr John 

1 Appendix to Inquiry into Right of Appeal. 

'. Honest and Friendly Advice, passim. 

3 The Associators were a body of about 36 MM. A., who asserted the 
right of appeal. They used to meet at the Tuns Tavern (the scene of 
the Westminster Club meeting). At their head (Cooper's Annals, IV. 
283) was John Banson, LL.D., Fellow of Trinity Hall. 

76 University Society 

Wilcox of Clare Hall 1 — Dr Will. George, provost 
of King's, being the other candidate. 

Wilcox was scarcely more a favourite with the 
Associators than the Master of Peter House had 
been, and when the grace offered by James Bick- 
ham of Emmanuel was rejected in the caput, a 
degree was stopped by the Non-Regents as before. 
In the following month, however, a similar attempt 
at obstruction was frustrated in each House of the 
Senate. A more constitutional attempt to gain 
their object was frustrated by the Vice-Chancellor 
refusing to call a caput ; — a prudent use in this 
instance of a strangely autocratic power : for it is 
hardly likely that the Caput would have accepted 
Mr Bickham's grace without inquiring into the 
question on its merits. A proposition, which seemed 
likely to determine the difficulty by impartial search 
into the legal aspect of the alleged right, was 
quashed by the reasonable refusal of the D. of 
Newcastle (the chancellor of Cambridge) to act 
as referee 2 : and the question it seems was never 

The disturbances appear to have been kept up 5 
by the Undergraduates almost till the close of the 
controversy: the latest phase of their fury was a 
bacchanalian impulse to rush through the streets with 
lighted links and torches. 

1 In The Capitade he figures as 'good though gloomy W—c—x,' 
which is rather high praise. 
3 Cooper's Annals, iv. 286. 

3 Ibid. 285. See Decree of Vice-C. and Heads, Dec. 5, 1751 there 
quoted. ' 

in the Eighteenth Century. J J 

After a while the University seems to have sober- 
ed down to the more peaceful arts of receiving visits 
from the Chancellor, opening the New Library, pre- 
senting addresses to the King, and writing for the 
new prizes for composition &c, which inaugurated the 
second half of the century. 

Of the character of the D. of Newcastle I am 
not competent to speak : but in his capacity as Chan- 
cellor of our University his conduct was apparently 
upright and considerate. He visited Cambridge in 
June, 1766, the year when he retired from all state 
employments. Within eighteen months he had died ; 
and the D. of Grafton was installed in his room 1 , 
having, like his predecessor, retired from being the 
First Lord of the Treasury. 

Whatever we may think of the wisdom of the 
' Regulations,' the impression which will probably be 
left upon our minds is, that the condition of the 
University can hardly be called satisfactory when 
Caput and Senate were not ashamed 2 to charge one 
another with bidding for royal and ducal favour by 
no honest means. 

In 1764, Cambridge was again disturbed by a 
warm political contest for the office of High-Steward 
or Seneschal of the University, in the room of the 
late lord chancellor Hardwicke 3 . His son Philip, the 
second earl, was elected after a most remarkable 
conflict 4 , which involved some nice questions on the 

1 Cooper's Annals, IV. 353—356. 

s The Academic, 32, 49 foil, with passages in the other pamphlets. 

1 Cooper's Annals, IV. 297, 334. 399 ; his death > IV - 437- 

4 See at length Cooper's Annals, IV. 334, 335- 

78' University Society 

order of voting, and very nearly ended in a tie. The 
unsuccessful candidate was John, Earl of Sandwich 1 
(three times first lord of the admiralty, twice a. 
secretary of state, postmaster-general in I77°> took 
part in the conference at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748,- 
and died 1792). Although his private character was 
far from respectable, the clergy preferred his political 
principles to those of lord Hardwicke, who was sup- 
ported by the faculties of Law and Medicine. The 
reader will remember the bitter election squib wherein 
Gray satirized him as 'Sty Jemmy Twitcher*? 

He also figures as 'Lord Sandtown,' a gay noble- 
man, who is represented as having stood for the office 
of High-Steward '« long time ago; in a pamphlet 3 
which preserves a similar strain of earnest banter 

1 Cooper's Annals, iv. 334 n. 

2 'The Candidate, or the Cambridge Courtship? Gray's Works. 
See also ' The Candidate; by C. Churchill (where Lothario, lord Bute, is 
mentioned), ' Black Smith of Trinity,' Sumner, then V.-C, and Roger 
Long, of Pembroke, are mentioned as supporters of Sandwich. 

3 ' An Address to the Members of the Senate of the University of 
Cambridge on The Attention due to Worth of Character from a Reli- 
gious Society: with a View to the ensuing Election of a High Steward. 
To which is added a Letter of Mr Jos. Mede formerly of Christ's Col- 
lege, copied from a MS. in the Harleian Collection [if it is a genuine.. 
Letter to Sir Martin Stukeville, Kt. at Dalham, Suffolk, Christ Coll. 
June 3, [1626], it will be found probably in MS. Harl. 390] giving a 
very particular Account of the Circumstances attending the Duke of 
Buckingham's Election in King Charles the First's Time. By a Master 
of Arts. Prov. xxiv. 24, 25. Printed for the Editor in the Year 1764.' 
(8vo. pp. 60.— Bodl. Gough, Camb. 36). Mr Cooper, Annals, iv. 334 (as 
well as a MS. note in a copy I have seen in an old hand), attributes it 
to 'John Gorden, fellow of Emmanuel College, afterwards fellow of 
Peterhouse, D.D., and Archdeacon of Lincoln.' (J. Gordon was also 
Chancellor of Lincoln. See Nichols, Lit. Anecd.) 

in the Eighteenth Century. 79 

By this time, in the reign of George III., there 
had been working a radical change in the meaning of 
party names. 'When the possibility of the restora- 
tion of the Stuarts became extinct, the minds of the 
tories were set free ; and so the strong feeling of 
personal loyalty began to concentrate itself round 
George III., who was an englishman born, and a 
monarch by hereditary right, though derived from 
usurpation. The king was a man of great force of 
character and fair abilities, and one who could com- 
mand respect. It was not surprising therefore that he 
was enabled to enlist the sympathies of the party of 
prerogative whose toryism was now a habit rather than 
^sentiment 1 . Instead of attempting to suspend the laws 
which were affecting prerogative, the king made free 
use of patronage, — a powerful engine with all parties 
when the House of Commons was nominated by 
lords of boroughs headed by the king. The tories 
as yet had with them, as they had had all along, the 
sympathies of the people. In the eighteenth century 
whiggism was by no means popular, and it was not 
till the present century that the whigs bethought 
them, as a last resort, of attempting to enlist the power 
of public opinion on their side.' 

At no time perhaps was a shuffling and a chang- 
ing of the suits of party more easy than in the years 
which followed 1760. In the reigns of the first two 
Georges the most consistent tories had found them- 
selves doing the same work of opposition to the 

1 Notes of a lecture delivered by the Professor of Modern History ; 
(the office was instituted in Cambridge in 1724 by George I.). 

8o University Society 

Crown as the more thorough and the less conserva- 
tive of the whigs. But as soon as George III. was 
come to revive the flame of loyalty which was lan- 
guishing for want of one to feed it, the ardour of the 
tories was satisfied in him, and they became attached 
to him and his successors, yet not with all the devo- 
tion of a first love, but rather in the more cautious 
and unabandoned spirit which had characterized the 
allegiance of the more moderate whigs. 

For the remainder of the century both Universi- 
ties became assimilated to the new tory party 1 , the 
one from High Church Whiggism, the other from 
High Church Toryism. So that even at Cambridge 
by 1793, the friends of the first french Revolution 
were in such discredit that even a whig was scarcely 
to be found. It was not till the present century that 
the 'evangelical' movement gained any strength at 
Cambridge — and then many of its members held 
High Church Doctrine in the 18th century use of the 
term, — or that the 'tractarian' school developed itself 
in Oxford. 

Of the prognostications of those great revolutions 
in the religious life of the Universities we shall have 
occasion to speak in the last division of this work. 

Yet at Cambridge (if not at Oxford) there re- 
mained some portion of the bitter root, some seeds 
of the inveterate mischief of dissension. In 1772 
there was an attempt made by the Senate 2 to choose 

1 Gunning, Reminisc. I. 189. 

- Monk's Life ofBentley, 1. 335, 33°" «• Cooper's Annals, iv. 1 10. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 81 

a Fellow of Trinity as Vice-Chancellor, but it was 
frustrated by the refusal of their nominee, Stephen 
Whisson; and Dr Cooke, the provost of King's, was 
duly elected. There had only been one other attempt 
of the kind (since 1586, when Dr Copcot, fellow of 
Trinity, held the office), and that at the time when 
the Senate was beginning to manifest a hostile spirit, 
when, in 17 12, some members of that body took ad- 
vantage of the small attendance of the Heads, at the 
preliminary nomination, to propose Mr Hawkins, fel- 
low of Pembroke; but the design was defeated by 
the entry of two voters who were not in the plot. 

It is, perhaps, not the least of the improvements 
introduced into our University constitution, that the 
Council has been substituted for the Caput. The 
Senate take pains to select the best men ; and the 
employment of Tutors and others in that body is 
beneficial to the University no less than to them- 

Meantime, an ex-Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge 
had given a prophetic account of the results which 
should follow the dissensions of which he had seen 
but the beginning. There is the following striking 
passage in Daniel Waterland's Thanksgiving Sermon, 
preached in 1716. 

'As divisions increase, Christian Charity will de- 
cline daily, till it becomes an empty name or an idea 
only. Discipline will of course slacken and hang 
loose; and the consequence of that must be a general 
dissoluteness and corruption of manners. Nor will 
the enemy be wanting to sow tares to corrupt our 
L. B. E. 6 

82 University Society 

faith as well as practice, and to introduce a general 
latitude of opinions. Arianism, Deism, Atheism, will 
insensibly steal upon us, while our heads and hearts 
run after politics and parties.' 

We have already seen enough of the distractions 
of the times, and we can easily understand that, 
amid so much wrangling and disputing, there was 
little room for piety or Christian love. And where 
there was not the fulfilling of the law and will of 
God, how could men hope to know of the doctrine? 

Since the preceding century there had been a 
great falling off from the search for truth in the 
Science of Religion. The great civil conflict had un- 
settled the habit of quiet search, of sober life, and 
religious communion ; of the formation of which there 
had at one time been promise in this country. And 
when the struggle was over for a while, the selfish 
worship of the puritan, and the more selfish ungodli- 
ness of the cavalier, conspired towards the debase- 
ment of the land. A thousand pities that the one 
could not lend the other his good qualities, and fling 
the bad away; that serious purpose and an inclina- 
tion for religion could not have been graced with 
geniality, and exalted into the communion of the 
manifold Christian Life. As it was the two combined 
(the one by deficiency, the other by extravagance,) 
to bring into being the classes whose characteristics 
retarded the progress of Christian Unity. 

Although there were not wanting men of learning 
and of purity in either body, the few great divines 
of the Eighteenth Century did not communicate 

in the Eighteenth Century. 

their knowledge and enthusiasm to the younger men. 
For a Professor at the University to lecture was al- 
most the exception. In 1766, indeed, we find Dr 
Edward Bentham, of Christ Church, delivering a 
course, as King's Professor of Divinity; and, in 1780, 
Dr John Hey, late fellow of Sidney Sussex College, 
did the same, as the first Norrisian Professor; and 
his successor, Fawcett of St John's, followed his ex- 
ample. Still, according to the Cambridge University 
Calendar for 1802, there were public lectures delivered 
only by the following Professors : — Jowett, on Civil 
Law ; Vince, on Experimental Philosophy; Farish, on 
Chemistry; Martyn, on Botany; Harwood, on Ana- 
tomy; Symonds, on Modem History ; Fawcett, Nor- 
risian Prof, of Divinity ; Wollaston, on Natural and 
Experimental Philosophy ; Edw. Christian, on the Laws 
of England; nine Sadlerian Algebra Lecturers, and 
four Barnaby Lecturei's. Meanwhile, the list of Pro- 
fessors delivering no lectures (though some of these 
presided at the 'Acts') seems to us of a disgraceful 
length. Dr Sam. Parr, however, did not think so, 
when two years earlier he wrote : ' In regard to Cam- 
bridge, the persons there appointed to Professorships, 
have, in few instances, disgraced them by notorious 
incapacity or criminal negligence. A late work of 
Dr Hey furnishes us with a decisive proof of his abi- 
lities and his activity. Dr Waring and Mr Vince, in 
their writings, have done honour to the science, not 
only of their University, but of their age. The pro- 
found researches of Dr Waring, I suppose, were not 
adapted to any form of communication by lectures. 
Put Mr Vince has, by private instructions, been very 


84 University Society 

useful both to those who were novitiates 1 , and to 
those who were proficients, in mathematics. Dr Hal- 
lifax, Dr Rutherforth, and Dr Watson, very abun- 
dantly conveyed the information which belonged to , 
their departments, sometimes in the disputes of the 
schools, and sometimes by the publication of their 
writings. Chemistry has been adorned, not by their 
labour only, but by the sagacity of Dr Watson, and 
Dr Milner. Mr Porson, the Greek Professor, has not 
read more than one lecture, but that one was 7rt'oWo? 
ef tep^? 0X1777 \ifids. He has written, however, books 
of utility far more extensive than lectures could be; 
and I speak from my own actual observation when I 
state, that the Greek Plays edited by this wonderful 
man have turned the attention of several academics 
towards philological learning, which, it must be con- 
fessed, has few and feeble attractions to the eagerness 
of curiosity, or the sprightliness of youth.' (Parr's 
Spital Sermon, published August, 1800, note 84.) 

To return to the list of professors who delivered no 
lectures at Cambridge in 1802. It is headed, in spite 
of his boasted enlightenment and ardour in University 
educational reform, by Ri. Watson, King's Professor 
of Divinity; then follow Physic, Hebrew (because he 
met not ' with suitable encouragement,' p. 20), Greek 
(Ri. Porson), Lady Margaret Divinity, Casuistry, Ara- 
bic, Lucasian Mathematics, (but Is. Milner 2 'is at all 
times accessible to Students of any College, by whom 

1 noviciate = novice, Addison, Spect. No. 164. 'improperly,' says 
Todd on Johnson. 

1 For //. Milner'* neglect of lectures, Mr Mayor refers me to his 
Hist, of St. John's, p. 849 1. 45, and to a tract by Frend. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 85 

he is frequently consulted,' p. 22), Music, Mineralogy 
(but Prof. Hailstone attends at the Museum three 
days a week, 9 — 11 A.M., 2 — 4 P.M.), Astronomy. 

As to the industry of the Professors at Oxford Dr 
Parr writes: 'what I know I will relate. Dr Trapp, 
Mr Hawkins, and Dr Lowth, have published their 
lectures as Poetry professors. Mr Wharton has in- 
serted one lecture into his edition of Theocritus. The 
gentleman who is now professor [James Hurdis] reads 
lectures, and has published a part of them I believe 
in English. That the lectures of Sir William Scott 
upon History, if given to the world, "would form a 
most valuable treatise," Mr Gibbon himself has been 
assured. In addition to this respectable testimony 
I would beg leave to say, that many years ago Sir 
William read to me a part of one lecture which con- 
tained some curious matter on the revenues of the 
Grecian States, and which seemed to me perfectly 
worthy of the writer, from variety of learning, acute- 
ness of observation, and elegance of style. The Com- 
mentaries of Dr Blackstone, and a very excellent 
work of Professor Woodison, are proofs that the insti- 
tution of the Vinerian Professorship is not wholly 
useless. Dr Bentham formerly read lectures in the 
Divinity School, and the same office is now performed 
with great ability by Dr Randolph, whose cares as a 
prelate have not made him inattentive to his duties 
as a Professor. In Chemistry and in Anatomy, lec- 
tures I know were, for some years, regularly given; 
and I believe they were largely attended. The lec- 
tures of the Saxon, Professor [Charles Mayo] were 

86 University Society 

much applauded, and his successor [James Ingram] 
I am persuaded will justify the choice of the Uni- 
versity by his knowledge, his activity, and his judg- 
ment. I have not heard whether Dr Hunt or Dr 
White, read lectures in the Oriental languages, nor 
am I sure that such lectures would have been of great 
use according to the method in which those languages 
are now learned. But I know that both the Profes- 
sors just now mentioned hold a very high rank in the 
estimation of foreign scholars. Dr Hunt supplied 
many valuable notes to the Praelectiones Hebraicae of 
Dr Lowth ; he read in the schools, and then printed, 
one Oration de A ntiquitate elegantia et utilitate linguae 
Arabicae, 1738; and another De usu Dialectorum Ori- 
cntalium et praecipue Arabicae in Hebraico Codice 
interpretando in 1748. He, in 1744, addressed to 
Oxford Students, "A Dissertation on Proverbs vii. 
22, 23," and this Dissertation, in 1755, was republished 
by Dr Kennicott, who added to it critical observations 
of Dr Hunt on other passages in Proverbs, and two 
very learned Sermons on two very difficult subjects. 
Dr White was always ready to assist young men who 
applied to him for instruction. He is author of a 
very judicious Sermon upon the Septuagint. He 
published an inaugural -speech.... He translated and 
edited in two vols. 4to., the Syriac Version of part of 
the New Testament, which belonged to Dr Gloucester 
Ridley. He is said to be now engaged in preparing 
the Epistles. He long ago completed... what Pocock, 
j unior, left unfinished in the translation of A bollatipJis 
Egyptian History. He has lately done signal service 

in the Eighteenth Century. 87 

to young clergymen by an edition of the received 
Text of the New Testament, with the most important 
variations in Griesbach, and by a Diatessaron, drawn 
up in conformity to the Chronology applied by Arch- 
bishop Newcome; and to his professorial studies, he 
in his Bampton Lectures was much indebted for the 
happy choice of a subject, and for the very masterly 
manner in which it has been treated.' 

It will be observed that Dr Parr makes no men- 
tion of the Oxford Professors of Civil Law (French 
Laurence), Medicine (Will. Vivian), Greek (Will. 
Jackson), Margaret Prof, of Divinity (Septimus Col- 
linson), Natural Philos. and of Anatomy (Tho. 
Hornsby), Geometry (Abram Robertson), Music 
(Will. Crotch), Botany (Geo. Williams), Modern Hist, 
and Mod. Languages (Tho. Nowell), and the Clinical 
Professor (Martin Wall), — (an Oxonian perhaps could 
have given a better account of them) ; — and while he 
plainly shows that the Universities were by no means 
altogether dens of idleness, there was then, as now, 
a great part of the instruction of younger men 
which was not covered by the efforts of the Univer- 
sity Professors. This deficiency was supplied in part 
by the work of College tutors, or of ' pupil-mongers,' 
of whom we shall have occasion to speak by and by. 
But whether they did their work conscientiously or 
no, there was not that intercourse between the senior 
and junior members of the Universities that once 
had been. 

In the earliest stage of the University community 
poor students, who were not inmates of halls, clubbed 

88 University Society 

together, two or three or more in a party, to hire 
a common room ('camera') 1 . Hence they were dis- 
tinguished from the regular inmates by the names 
' camera degentes,' ' chamber-dekyns,' or ' chums.' The 
last name lost its opprobrious signification in Eliza- 
bethan times, and was then applied to those com- 
panions who shared a common room in College. 
For in those days, when it was the custom to enter 
at the University at the age when boys now go to 
a public school, it was no longer lawful for a student 
to lodge without the college walls : and since that 
time most of those societies have . enlarged their 
buildings, and are yet enlarging. In those days 
scholars were content to 'lodge' in College, not to 
'keep 2 ;' they were content to share a single chamber; 
no one dreamt of the luxury of rooms: commora- 
bantzir non habitabant. 

By the Elizabethan statutes of Trinity College, 
Cambridge (cap. 26, de cubiculorum distributione, a 
chapter important in the case of Dr Bentley), a 
Doctor of Divinity is to have a whole chamber to 
himself; the share of a Fellow below a Doctor's 
degree is half a Doctor's; the Scholar's or Sizar's 
share is half that of a Fellow; the Pensioner's and 
Subsizar's half a Scholar's or Sizar's. So that a 

1 See Mi- Jeaffreson's Annals of Oxford, 1870, I. ch. iii. Prof. 
Maiden's Origin of Universities, 1835, PP- 3 2 , 85. 

2 'habere' in the old College Statutes of Trinity College, Camb. 
(Eliz.) cap. xxvi. (See also Stat. Coll. Diui Joh. Euang. Cant. cap. 
xxxii.) The Cambridge local use of the word to keep, however, will be 
found in the letter from Mede quoted below in the text. Compare 
also Gradus ad Cantabrigiam, 1802,. quoted in the notes. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 89 

B.A. Fellow designate should have for his chamber- 
fellows either a B.A. Fellow, or two Scholars, or 
a Scholar and a Sizar, with two Pensioners or Sub- 
sizars. Where a chamber contained undergraduates 
there should be four of them if possible, one being 
a scholar or sizar. Bentley says (Corresp. II. 682) 
that this ' has been obsolete time out of mind, since 
the College has enlarged itself with a second large 
Court.' It appears that the graduates had the use 
of a key. At St John's (Statut. cap. xxxii.) every 
Doctor, preacher, and member of the Seniority, was 
to have one chamber to himself with two scholars 
if he pleased. Two Fellows at most were to be in 
one room, or four scholars. The Fellows, scholars, 
and students who were above fourteen years of age 
were to sleep alone, or two in a bed, according to 
the judgment of the Master and Seniors. The elder 
students were to superintend the conduct of their 
junior 'chums' (concubicularii). And if a Fellow 
were at any time introduced into the chamber of 
which they had been head, they were to surrender 
to him the library or study (' musaeum! This is the 
word which Z. C. von Uffenbach applies to T. Baker's 
'keeping room' in 1710), and other furniture of the 
room. Three chambers might be set apart to the 
use of Fellow-Commoners. According to the origi- 
nal Statutes of Corpus Christi Coll. Oxon. a scholar 
slept in a truckle-bed below each Fellow. Hist. 
MSS. Commission 2, p. 126, 1871. See notes. 

The following extract from a letter from Mede 
to sir Martin Stuteville (Mar. 26, 1625) will illustrate 

90 University Society 

the arrangement which had to be gone through. 
' I have no way left but to get one of my Bachelors 
(March), who keeps in the same building, to keep 
with the Master of Arts, and let yours have the use 
of his study, though it be not in so good a chamber.' 

In 1662 the famous John Strype 1 , then a scholar 
of Jesus College, Camb., writes to his mother; 'as 
yet I am in a Chamber that doth not at all please- 
me. I have thoughts of one, which is a very hand- 
some one, and one pair of stairs high, and that 
looketh into the Master's garden. The price is but 
20J. per annum, ten whereof a knight's son, and 
lately admitted into this College, doth pay: though 
he did not come till about Midsummer, so that I 
shall have but \os. to pay a year: besides my income 
which may be about 40^. or thereabouts... At my 
first coming I laid alone : but since my Tutor desired 
me to let a very clear ' lad lay with me and an 
Alderman's son of Colchester, which I could not 
deny, being newly come : he hath laid with me now 
for almost a fortnight, and will do till he can provide 
himself with a Chamber.' 

It appears from Abraham de la Pryme's account 
of the suicide of his friend, Mr Bohun, ' of the year 
above me,' in 1692, that he and another student 
shared a 'chamber,' or sleeping-room, of which the 
bedmaker had a key, and a 'study.' His 'chum... 
say'd that he went to bed and slept very well till 
the morning, and arising then he put on his studdy- 

1 Cooper's Annals, III. 505. Ellis's Letters of Eminent Literary 
Men, 177. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 91 

ing gown and cap and his stockings and shoos, and 
going into his studdy lock'd the dore after him.' 
Surtees Society, 54, p. 26. 

Necessity thus often made strange chamber-fellows. 
Henry Sacheverell shared a room with Addison at 
Magdalen College, Oxford. Archbishop Tillotson 
was chum of Francis Holcroft, who was afterwards 
ejected from his Fellowship at Clare, and having 
been imprisoned several times, joined with Joseph 
Oddie 1 (ejected Fellow of Trinity) in founding in- 
dependent congregations in Cambridge. 

Evelyn 2 , who was a Fellow-Commoner in Balliol, 
when in his 19th year had his brother Richard to be his 
chamber-fellow. The custom was not extinct in 171 1, 
when Ambrose Bonwicke 3 arranged for his brother 
Phil, and another chum to share his room; but it was 
not universal, nor (what is most important for our 
present point) do we hear of any senior member 
of a College sharing a chamber with an under- 
graduate. This was owing in a great measure to 
the change which was passing over University 
society. The social aristocracy, which had prevailed 
in the Universities in the days of George Herbert 
and Francis Bacon, of sir Henry Wotton and the 
Norths, had grown well-nigh extinct there at the 
end of the XVlIIth century, and the remnant which 
remained no longer coalesced with the bulk of the 

1 See Robinson's Church-book ap. Dyer's Life of Rob. Robinson, 

P- 37- 

2 Evelyn's Diary, Jan. 11, 1640. 

s Life of Ambrose Bonwicke, (ed. 1870) pp. 34—38, 44, 64; and 182, 
Mr Mayor's note. 

92 University Society 

community. The unhappy divisions in the country 
and in the University made it no longer possible 
for that intimacy to exist between tutor and pupil 
which had been so admirably exemplified in the 
martyr, Nicholas Ridley, when he had been tutor in 
Pembroke Hall, and of whom his pupil bears witness 
that ' his behaviour was very obliging, and very pious, 
without hypocrisy or monkish austerity: for very 
often he would shoot in the Bow or play Tennis 
with me' 1 . It will be remembered also how later 
in the XVIth century Roger Ascham loved to prac- 
tise Archery in St John's at Cambridge, in accord- 
ance with the Statutes of his College, and how well 
he preached what he practised, in his Book of 

In earlier times the relation between tutor and 
pupil at the Universities, had been similar to that 
which has of late so happily grown up in higher 
schools between boy and Master. And indeed the 
'children ' of the 16th, the ' boys'" and the 'schollers'' 
of the 17th, and the 'lads' of the 18th century, 
differed little in age or discipline from the public 
school-boys of the present day. While they had 
been under their Udalls and Busbies they had 
learnt not less of latin and hebrew and of greek 
(as they were then known) than the upper-school boy 
of our public schools : or if any young Paston or 

1 Letter from W. Turner, Physician to Protector Somerset, and Dean 
of Wells, to Foxe the Martyrologist— translated by Strype, Memorials 
III, 229. 

'Boys,' circa 1660, Life of Matt. Robinson (Mayor) 1856. 32, 107. 

a <1 

in the Eighteenth Century. 93 

William Page would make no progress in the world 
with his book, he was sure to be 'trewlybelasschyd' 1 
(or ' preeches ' as Sir Hugh Evans would say) for his 
lack of pains : the same boys when they arrived 
at Oxford or Cambridge in the 1 6th or 17th cen- 
tury, still found the birch at the buttery-hatch : but 
they also found more liberty than they had en- 
joyed at Winchester or Westminster, at the Charter- 
house or Merchant Taylors. They found, that is, 
at the University, much the same amount of liberty 
as those who are now Bachelors of Arts found 
when they went from a private to a public school. 
There was still the same regularity of hours ; morn- 
ing and evening prayer in the Chapel, early dinner 
and supper in a common room, — dormitories neither 
with complete privacy, not yet entirely open to 
all comers, but arranged with some view to pleasant 
or profitable neighbourhood of sleepers. They found 
among the less respectable of their comrades a craving 
for ale, and for tobacco smoke, as soon as it was 
to be had. They found also, in earlier times, those 
' menne not werye of theyr paynes, but very sorye 
to leue theyr studye,' who being without fire were 
' fayne to walk or runne vp and downe half an 
houre to gette a heate on their feete whan they 
go to bed.' 

These assuredly had chosen the better part; but 
we cannot suppose that in the middle of the 16th 

1 See Errands to London of Agnes Paston, 28 Jan. 1457: 'and so 
ded the last mastyr and y e best that eu«-he had att Caumbrege ' — Fenn's 
Paston Letters, I. 144, ed. 1787. No. xxxv. 

94' University Society 

century, there were none who (like Ascham a few 
years earlier) fitted themselves for a better atten- 
tion unto their ' reasonyng in problemes or vnto 
some other studye,' by some more healthful and 
refreshing bodily exercise, than walking or running 
up and down ' to gette a heate on their feete whan 
they go to bed.' 

Of the relaxations we will speak again hereafter. 
At present enough has been said to show that the 
condition of the undergraduates in earlier times was 
very different from what the last century has made 
for ourselves. 

Although such cases as that of William Wotton* 
(who went to Catharine-Hall in 1676), or George 
Grenville (Id. Lansdowne) who in 1667 entered as 
a nobleman at Trinity, before they were ten years 
old, must not be taken as anything but exceptions; 
yet they prove at least that a precocious boy could 
enter at an age at which now-a-days he would be 
not only discouraged, but practically inadmissible. 
Yet as late as 1806 we find Keble admitted scholar 
of C. C. C, Oxon, when he had just turned four- 
teen years and a half. Swift went to Dublin at 
fourteen. Gibbon entered at Magdalen, Oxford, as 
a gentleman commoner (April 1752) before he had 
completed his 15th year. And, that entries at that 
early age were contemplated as possible, is evident 
from the fact that there was a regulation at Oxford 
which provided that students who entered at an 

1 Heame Bliss, I. 6: (and so took his M.A. degree at thirteen) 
Johnson's Life of Granville. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 95 

earlier age should not subscribe the xxxix Articles 
on their matriculation, but should wait till they 
had completed their 15th year. Out of a dozen 
cases taken at random, of men who studied at the 
Universities in the last century (not including Gibbon) 
I find three who entered at 15 years of age, two 
at seventeen, three at eighteen, and four at nineteen. 

If this be a fair average of the age at which ma- 
triculations took place, it would seem that students 
were admitted, on the whole, at a later age than they 
had been in earlier time. In which case, this will be 
one of the causes which led to the discontinuance of 
the intimacy which had existed between tutors and 
pupils. Be this as it may, there can be little doubt 
but. that the violence and suspicion which prevailed, 
the offspring of those party struggles which, as we 
have seen, were very rife in the early part of the last 
century, — together with the spirit of self-indulgence, 
which was let loose after the Restoration, and fell 
down in the stupor of repletion to doze and glut itself 
and doze again after the Revolution, (and intensified, 
perhaps, by the very intimacy of the orders which, 
when ill-directed, had brought on at Cambridge the 
laxity of discipline resulting in the 'New Regulations' 
strife in 1750) — were thoroughly successful towards the 
end of the last century in bringing about an estrange- 
ment between the older and the younger men 1 : dons 

1 A Plain and Friendly Address to the Undergraduates of the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge, particularly to those of Trinity-College, on the 
following important Topics: Associates,... By a late Undergraduate, 
London : Printed for J. Dodsley, Pall-mall, 1786. (pp. 40. Gough. 
Camb. 65 in Bodleian) p. 11. 

96 University Society 

not caring for the society of undergraduates, and 
undergraduates avoiding dons. The writer of ' Con- 
siderations on the expediency of making, &c. the late 
Regulations at Cambridge,' p. 47 (175 1), states his 
opinion, that the intimate connexions and friendships 
between Tutors and the young students led to laxity 
of Discipline. See, however, a writer in ' the Student, 
or Oxford and Cambridge Monthly Miscellany' of 
the same year, II. 301. 

If we have found the word donnishness in the 19th 
century, the thing was the invention of the last. Not 
that there were none in the latter part of the 18th 
century that were free from it (such, for instance, as 
Thomas Baker, the gentle antiquary and socius eiectus 
of S. John's, who hastened his death in 1740 by the 
unselfish spirit in which he welcomed his grand-nephew 
when he came up as a freshman from Eton '), nor yet 
that there was ever a time, since the universities were 
founded, when the world has been without the hard- 
ness, pride, and selfishness, in a man, that makes him 
' farther off from heaven than when he was a boy.' 
Most men, it seems, are liable to this disease; but 
none more so than the Resident at the university. 
Being constantly in the position of a critic, he is, like 
all students, tempted to forget that there are matters 
in which he ought always to be a learner; and then 
he is apt to become proud, self-sufficient, and super- 

We have lately seen some bright examples to the 
contrary at Cambridge among eldest members of the 
1 Masters' Memoirs ofT. Baker, 1784, p. 90. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 97 

University; and, I believe, at Oxford there is no want 
of pleasant intercourse between 'don' and under- 

In the last century at Cambridge (and, I believe, 
at Oxford,) there were great difficulties arising from 
the social condition of the members of the Universi- 
ties. It is well known that the number of Fellow- 
Commoners or Gentlemen-Commoners was far greater 
in proportion to the total number of residents than it 
is at present, or than it was five years ago. There 
were two main divisions of the undergraduates at 
Cambridge in the last century ; gentlemen of fortune, 
and poor scholars. The former class included the 
' generosorum, nobilium, et magnatum liberi / noble- 
men, that is, and fellow-commoners {pensionarii ma- 
tores, Ashton's Collectanea, fol. 70, or even 'pensio- 
narii ;' ibid fol. 62, on Univ. Stat. 50 § 5, pensio?iarii 
in commeatum sociorum admissi. Stat. Coll. SS. et 
Indiv. Trin. cap. XIV. de pensionariis). The latter 
comprised scholars proper on the foundation [discipuli 
scholares) ; sizars (sizatores, quadrantarii, Dr Ashton's 
Collectanea), who were then in a much better condition 
than the servitors at Oxford, .who continued to per- 
form many menial offices until late times ; lastly, 
the Pensioners, in our modern sense of the term (i. e. 
' Commoners' at Oxford ;— pensionarii minor es, Ash- 
ton's Collectanea ;— pensionarii in commeatu discipu- 
lorum, included in the term discipuli in Statut. Trin. 
Coll. Cant.). These last were generally exhibitioners 
either in connection with their college, or with some 
L. B. E. 7 

98 University Society 

school or corporation (see Gradus ad Cantabrigiam, 
1803, s. v. 'Pensioners'). 

It appears from statistics, which are given in the 
notes, that at the opening of the 19th century, the 
numbers of Fellow-Commoners, foundation Scholars, 
and Sizars, at Cambridge, were equal to one another; 
while the Pensioners proper equalled in numbers the 
other three combined. 

Though this is a larger proportion of Fellow-Com- 
moners than we have now, the Lesser Pensioners had 
increased in strength to an extent that would pro- 
bably have astonished the framers of the early statutes 
if, when they provided for the admission of ' socii stu- 
diorum' and pupils in the Master's Lodgings, they 
had known to what a goodly body they would grow. 

In the eighteenth century, as with us at present, 
the Pensioners were scarcely distinguishable from the 
Scholars ; but in the eighteenth century both Pension- 
ers and Scholars were, to a great extent, taken from a 
lower social grade than they are at present. 

The Fellows were elected from the Scholars ; more, 
apparently, from the Sizars. Any one who glances 
at the pages of a dictionary of Biography will see in 
how great a degree we are indebted to this class for 
our great men in Church and State. At the same 
time we cannot wonder if some cases were found of 
young men whose heads were turned by a sudden 
revulsion from poverty into a 'comfortable indepen- 
dence.' What wonder if some of them were tempted 
to become vain and silly 1 , while some others (like Sir 
1 Tlie Student, 1751, Vol. 11. p. 189. 

tn the Eighteenth Century. 99 

Pertinax Macsycophant in Macklin's Man of the 
World) were unable to 'stond straight i' th' presence 
of a great mon, but always boowed and boowed and 
boowed as it were by instinct' 

Certain it is that we constantly find complaints 
of undue indulgence and deference paid to Fellow- 

'Fellows and Tutors of almost every College,' 
says a writer in 1792, 'join frequently without scruple' 
in the extravagant parties, and occasionally in the 
excesses, of their richer pupils. {Strictures upon Dis- 
cipline, p. 11.) 

So too the great Wilberforce, when, as a good- 
natured Undergraduate at St John's, Camb. (1776- 
1 779)i he was at any moment ready to receive visitors, 
who found the great Yorkshire pie always inviting 
their attack ; was foolishly encouraged in idleness by 
some of the Fellows of his College, because forsooth 
he was a talented young man of fortune and did not 
need to work to earn his bread! But this was not 
universally the case. 

Just as in Evelyn's time the 'Fellow com'uners' in 
Balliol were no more exempted from exercise than 
the meanest Scholars there, {Diary, anno 1637); and 
as in Nov. 1721, Erasmus Phillips 'Fellow Com- 
moner' of Pembroke, Oxon. took his Essay on Pride 
to the Master, and had to declaim publickly in the 
hall on 'Virtutem amplectimur Ipsam Praemia si 
tollas' {N. and Q., 2nd S., ; x. 443), so towards the 
close of the 18th century in the first College examina- 
tions which were held in Cambridge; — the first, that is, 


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which required the attendance of all the members of 
the society, and which employed them all at once in 
a way in which the old College disputations could 
not do: — we find that Fellow-Commoners were obliged 
to be present 1 , and some of them (e.g. Lord Powis in 
Sophocles) acquitted themselves creditably. 

This will be seen in the extracts which we purpose 
to give in the next part of this Essay from a MS. Report, 
in the Bodleian, of the Examinations at St John's 
College, Cambridge, in Dr W. S. Powell's time, 
1773— 5- 

Nevertheless there was, even at that time, in some 
quarters, a decided feeling against Fellow-Common- 
ers; so that in 1788, we find a scheme for the abolition 
of their order published by the writer of 'Remarks on 
the Enormous Expense in the Education of Young 
Men' in Cambridge, which will be noticed at length in 
an Appendix to Part I. of the present Essay 8 . 

Such protests were not without their fruit; for, 
Philalethes, answering Vicesimus Knox, in behalf of 
Oxford, in 1790, writes: 'that in all the Colleges, a 
more rigorous discipline is enforced upon Noblemen 
and Gentlemen Commoners, than what even your 
amendments propose: and that in several Colleges, 
the heirs of the first families in the kingdom submit 
to the same exercises, and to the same severity of 
discipline with the lowest member of the society.' 

1 Cp. Cambridge in the iyt/1 Century. Mayor, 1855. pt. I. p. 7. 
(Life of N. Ferrar). N.B. Strype, ap. Cooper, Annals, in. p. 505. 

* See also the 5th query proposed by the Chancellor in 1675, and 
the answer of the V. C. and Heads of Cambridge. Cooper, Annals 
in. 568. ' 

in the Eighteenth Cenhiry. 101 

When Simonds D'Ewes 1 came up as a fellow-com- 
moner to St John's in 1618, his subsizar, one Thomas 
Manning (the son of a clergyman who had been 
silenced by Whitgift's Three Articles), entered with 
him. He used to call him in the morning and to 
carry letters and messages for him into the town. 

It appears from an entry in the Trinity College 
Conclusion Book, Jan., 1660 — 1, (quoted by Dr Edles- 
ton 'Correspondence of Newton and Cotes,' 1850, p. 
xli., and transcribed in a note on p. 18, of Brewster's 
1st Vol., of the Life of Newton, i860) ; that Sizars 
then waited upon their Tutors, and even fetched their 
quantum from the Butteries. 

In Baker's Comedy, 'an Act at Oxford', 1704, one of 
the characters is 'Chum ('whose Father's a chimney- 
sweeper, and his mother a poor ginger-bread woman 
at Cow-Cross'}, a gentleman-serviter at Brazen-Nose 
College,' whose business is to wait upon Gentlemen- 
Commoners, to dress and clean their shoes and make 
their exercises. In the drama he takes the place of 
the faithful slave in the old heathen comedy; and, by 
personating a rich lover, wins Berynthia for his master 
Smart. The poor fellow, whose Fortune was 'soon 
told — the reversion of old shoes which Gentlemen- 
commoners leave off, two Raggs call'd shirts, a dog's 
eard Grammar, and a piece of an Ovid de Tristibus,' 
— is rewarded by a present of 500 guineas. 

The descriptions in the ' Servitour: a poem, written 
by a Servitour of the University of Oxford, and faith- 
fully taken from his own Original Copy, &c, London, 
1 Diary, p. 4. 

102 University Society 

printed and sold by H. Hills in Black-Fryars, near the 
water-side, 1709/ is yet more dismal. He is depicted 
as 'Emerging from a Skittle-Yard' in his rusty round 

Like Cheesy-Pouch of Shon-ap-ShenJan, 

His Sandy Locks, with wide Hiatus, 

Like Bristles seem'd Erected at us. 

Clotted with Sweat, the Ends hung down; 

And made Resplendant Cape of Gown; 

Whose Cape was thin, and so Transparent, 

Hold it t' th' Light, you'd scarce beware on't. 

'Twixt Chin and Breast contiguous Band, 

Hung in an Obtuse Angle, and — • 

It had a Latitude Canonick, 

And was as short as Stile Laconick. 

His Coat so greasy was, and torn 

That had you seen it, you'd ha' sworn 

'Twas Ten Years old when he was born. 

His Buttons fring'd, as is the Fashion, 

In Gallick and Britannick Nation : 

Or, to speak like more Modern fellows, 

Their Moulds dropt out like ripe Brown-shellers. 

His Leather Galligaskins rent, 

Made Artless. Music as he went ; 

His Holey Stockins were ty'd up, 
One with a Band, one with a Rope. 

He is described as the son of an aspiring husband- 
man who hopes 

If he can get Prevarment here, 
Of Zeven or Eight — Pounds a Year, 
To preach and sell a Cup of Beer 
To help it out, he'll get good Profit 
And make a pratty Bus'ness of it. 

When he first comes up ; 

He struts, pulls off his Cap to no-Man; 
And to conceaj,, betrays the Plow-mans 

in the Eighteenth Century. 103 

But checkt for 's Insolent Behaviour, 
And fearing to be out of Favour, 

His Duty h'as so much Regard of 
He'll Cap a Master twenty Yard off: 
To whom such Fear is him upon, Sir ; 
When spoken to, he dares not Answer. 
I' th' Morn when call'd to Prayer-Bell, 
Doleful to him as Passing- Knell ; 
From Garret lofty he descends 
By Ladder, which dire Fate portends. 

'Bout Dinner-time down comes the Lubber, 
When 's Belly (hungry Dog) cries Cubbord, 
To get a Mess of Broth i' th' Kitchen, 
Where he sees Dainties so bewitching, 
As Turkies, Capons, Ribs of Beef, 
No wonder if he plays the Thief; 
And, like a Fox to Fowl Insidious, 
When Cook has turn'd his Back, perfidious- 
ly—whips off Liver, or a Gizzard, 
From pinion'd Wing of Bird; for 'tis hard 
To suffer Tantalus his Fate- 
To see, and smell, and yet not eat. 
Poor Scraps, and Cold, as I'm a Sinner, 
Being all that he can get for Dinner. 

Once out of Curiosity 

What Lodging th' had, I needs must see; 

A Room with Dirt, and Cobwebs lin'd, 

Which here and there with Spittle shin'd; 

Inhabited, let's see— by Four; 

If I mistake Hot, 'twas no more. 

Two Buggy-beds . . . 

Their Dormer Windows with Brown-paper, 

Was patch'd to keep out Northern Vapour. 

The Tables broken Foot stood on, 

An Old Schrevettous Lexicon, 

Here lay together, Authors various, 

From Homer's Iliad, to Cordelkis: 

And so abus'd was Aristotle, 

He only serv'd to stop a Bottle, 

Or light a Pipe, of which were many, 

On Chimney-piece, instead of Cheney ; 

• io4 University Society 

Where eke stood Glass, Dark-Lanthorns ancient 
Fragment of Mirrer, Penknife, Trencher, [sic] 
And forty things which I can't mention. 
Old Chairs and Stools, and such-like Lumber, 
Compleatly furnisht out the Chamber. 

Some forty years earlier John Eachard, Master 
of Catharine Hall, had remarked in his sprightly 
' Grounds and Occasions of the Contempt of the 
Clergy and Religion Enquired into,' 1670, pp. 

'All this may seem at first sight to be easily 
avoided by a strict examination at the Universities, 
and so returning by the next carrier all that was sent 
up not fit for their purpose. But because many of 
their relations are oft-times persons of an inferiour 
condition, and who either by imprudent counsellours, 
or else out of a tickling conceit of their son's being, 
forsooth, an University scholar, have purposely 
omitted all other opportunities of a livelihood, to 
return such would seem a very sharp and severe 
disappointment. Possibly it might be much better, 
if parents themselves, or their friends, would be 
much more wary of determining their children to 
the trade of learning. And if some of undoubted 
knowledge and judgment would offer their advice : 
and speak their hopes of a lad about thirteen or 
fourteen years of age : (which I'll assure you, Sir, 
may be done without conjuring) : and never omit to 
enquire whether his relations are able and willing to 
maintain him seven years at the University, or see 
some certain way of being continued there so long, 
by the help of friends, or others ; as also upon no 

in the Eighteenth Century. 105 

such condition as shall in likelihood deprive him of 
the greatest part of his studies. 

'For it is a common fashion of a great many to 
complement and invite inferiour people's children to 
the University, and then pretend to make such an all- 
bountiful provision for them, as they shall not fail of 
coming to a very eminent degree of learning. But 
when they come there, they shall save a servant's 
wages. They took, therefore, heretofore a very good 
method to prevent sizars over-heating their brains : 
bed-making, chamber-sweeping, and water-fetching 
were doubtless great preservatives against too much 
vain philosophy. Now certainly such pretended 
favours and kindnesses as these are the most right 
down discourtesies in the world. For it is ten times 
more happy both for a lad and the Church, to be a 
corn-cutter, or tooth-drawer, to make or mend shoes, 
or to be of any inferiour profession, than to be invited 
to, and promised the conveniences of a learned 
education, and to have his name only stand airing 
upon the college tables, and his chief business shall 
be to buy eggs and butter.' 

When Erasmus was at Queens' his servitor's rooms 
were close above his own. He was wholly at his master's 
command, and sometimes at his mistress's. We are 
further reminded, by one of the papers on ' Oxford 
during the Last Century,' which appeared in the 
Oxford Chronicle in 1859, of Aubrey's description of 
Willis (the discoverer of the chalybeate properties of 
Astrop Wells), who, when servitor to Dr. lies, Canon 
of Christ Church, studied in his blue livery cloak at 

106 University Society 

the lower end of the hall by the door, and assisted his 
master's wife in mixing drugs. In 1728, George 
Whitefield 1 , as a servitor at Pembroke, Oxon., was 
winning popularity in that office by reason of the 
experience which he had previously gained as drawer, 
at his home, the Bell Inn, Gloucester. Nor was this a 
single instance : Hearne tells of one Lyne, son of a 
clergyman, and grandson of the Town Clerk of 
Oxford, who was drawer at the King's Head Tavern, 
in that city, in 1735 ; his elder brother being Fellow 
of Emmanuel, and his younger an eminent scholar of 

Dr Johnson, writing to Tom Warton, Nov. 28, 1754, 
alluding to the delay in a work on Spenser caused by 
the number of his correspondents, and pupils at Ox- 
ford, says : ' Three hours a day stolen from sleep and 
amusement will produce it. Let a servitor transcribe 
the quotations, and interleave them with references, 
to save time.' And at the beginning of this 
century 2 Dr Hyde complains that 'some in the 
University have been very troublesome in pressing 
that their servitors may transcribe manuscripts for 
them, though not capable of being sworn to the 

At Oxford in 1733, Shenstone (as we learn from his 
friend and biographer Ri. Graves, author of the 
Spiritual Quixote) could only visit Richard Jago 
(author of Edge Hill, a poem in four Books) in 

1 Southey, Coleridge, and Southey's Life of Wesley, 1. 47, ed. 3. 
Philip's Life of Whitefield, p. 27. 

2 Oxford during the Last Century. Reprint, 1859, P- 5*- 

in the Eighteenth Century. 107 

private, as he wore a servitor's gown ; it being then 
deemed ' a great disparagement for a commoner to 
appear in public with one in that situation.' 

At Cambridge the position of the Sizar was, 
perhaps, preferable to that of the Oxford servitor. 
In 1687 we find William Whiston in intimate con- 
nection with the Senior Fellow, Dr Nat. Vincent, 
who kindly took the lad into Norfolk on account of 
his health. There the Doctor preached a ' Court- 
Sermon.' After their return, ' it soon happened that 
the Prince of Orange came to our deliverance, and 
the Cambridge mob got up, and seized Dr Watson, 
the Bishop of St David's, of much the same character 
with Dr Vincent, and threatened Dr Vincent himself, 
who thereupon thought of saving himself by going 
out of the College for awhile \ Accordingly he called 
for me, as then his Sizar, to assist him in preparing 
for his removal.' Zachary Conrad von Uffenbach, in 
his Travels 2 , says that he learnt that at Cambridge 
(28 July, 1710) 'the Lords' sons of quality, and others, 
are so wealthy, and are called Fellow-Commoners, 
take the poor men who wait on them as servants.' 
He got his information from his cicerone Ferrari, an 
Italian, and his visit was paid in the long Vacation, 
when students and professors had gone off to the 
country or to London. It is noteworthy that the 
writer of ' Considerations on the Oaths required by the 
University of Cambridge at the Time of Taking 
Degrees and on other subjects which relate to the 

1 Whiston's Autobiog. 1749, I. pp. 21, 23. 
i Ulm, 1754, Vol. m. p. t. 

108 University Society 

Discipline of that Seminary, by a Member of the 
Senate. London: printed for and sold by jf. Deighton, 
Holborn. Sold also by F. Hodson, Cambridge, 1788. 
price eighteen pence' (8vo. pp. 56. Bodl. Gough, 
Camb. 65.) p. 11. remarks that the distinctions of 
Fellow-commoner and Sizar were a matter of great 
offence ' to many, especially to foreigners' 

The concluding lines of Kit Smart's Tripos on 
Yawning shew that in 1742 the custom of Sizars 
waiting at' the high table had not yet gone out of the 
University of Cambridge: 

Haud aliter. Socium esuriens Sizator edacem 
Dum videt, appositusque cibus frustratur hiantem ; 
Dentibus infrendens nequicquam lumine torvo 
Saepius exprobrat; nequicquam brachia tendit 
Sedulus officiosa dapes removere paratus. 
OUi nunquam exempta fames, quin frusta suprema 
Devoret et peritura immani ingurgitet ore ; 
Turn demum jubet auferri ; nudata capaci 
Ossa sonant, lugubre sonant, allisa . catino. 

Bishop Ri. Watson of Llandaff in the Anecdotes of 
his Life, written before 1814 1 , says that in his own 
time (at Trinity, in 1755) 'the sizars were not so 
respectfully looked upon by the pensioners and 
scholars of the house as they ought to have been, 
inasmuch as the most learned and leading men in the 
University have ever arisen from that order.' We 
may instance at once, Newton, Trin.; Bentley, St 
John's ; Ri. Dawes and Joshua Barnes, Emman. 

By a College Order in the St John's Conclusion 
Book 2 , 18 Mar. 1765, it was 'agreed that 9 of the 

1 Edit. *, 1818, 1. p. 13. 2 Baker-Mayor, p. 1071, 1. 19. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 109 

■Sizars be appointed to wait at the president's 
table,' etc. 

I am unable to say when the great change in 
the social position of Sizars was wrought at Cam- 
bridge. The Article on that word in the Gradus 
ad Cantabrigiam, published in 1803, contains a pro- 
test against the vulgar opinion, that Sizars were as 
badly off as Oxford Servitors. It is then stated 
that ' whoever has resided any little time at Cam- 
bridge must know that, in point of rank, the dis- 
tinction between Pensioners and Sizars is by no 
means considerable. Between Commoners and Servi- 
tors there is a great gulph. Nothing is more com- 
mon than to see Pensioners and Sizars taking sweet 
counsel together and walking arm in arm to St 
Mary's... In respect to their academical habit: At 
Trinity College, the Sizars wear precisely the same 
dress with the Pensioners. At other Colleges, the 
only difference is that their gowns are not bordered 
with velvet. At Peterhouse, the Pensioner's gown 
is the same as is worn by the Bachelors of Arts ; 
and the Sizars is the same as is worn by the 
Pensioners of St John's, Emmanuel, &c. In every 
College, the Sizars invite, and are invited by, the 
Pensio?iers to wine parties ; and some of them (the 
former) endeavour to vie with the latter in fashion- 
able frivolity.' 

In 1807 Southey puts into the letters of Espriella 
(no. XXXII. ii. p. 73) complaints of the Oxford system 
of servitors 'tolling the bell, waiting at table, and 
performing other menial offices.' While in the Life 

no University Society 

of Wesley (1820), he holds up to Oxford the ex- 
ample of Cambridge, where the distinction of dress 
and service had been done away. 

As I have spoken of the change in the connec- 
tion between tutor and pupil ; and have also been 
drawn on to speak of the Professors' Lectures, it 
may be as well to treat the subject of Lectures as 
part of the social life of the Universities instead of 
considering them in the next part of this compila- 

In the early days of the Universities, the tutorial 
system was unknown. It was not (says Professor 
Henry Maiden in his essay on tlie Origin of Uni- 
versities 1 *) till the time when Leicester was chancel- 
lor [at Oxford, in 1564] that the University under- 
took to regulate who might be tutors ; and it was 
not till the chancellorship of Laud [in 1630], that 
it was made necessary to enter under a tutor resi- 
dent in the same College or Hall with the pupil 2 . 
Laud therefore may be regarded as the author of 
the system of College tuition. The duty of these 
College Tutors was to superintend the moral and 
religious discipline of their pupils, rather than to 
instruct them in their studies. But when stricter 
attention was paid to the performance of Exercises 
for degrees, and above all when the Examinations 
were enforced, there grew up a class of private Tu- 
tors ; the offspring in the main of the system of 

1 1835, p. 86. 

2 Edin. Rev. cvi. p. 392, comparing Wood, A.D. 1581, and Corp. 
Statut. /. iii. s. 2. 

in the Eighteenth Century. in 

competitive Examination. Their use, as Dr Whewell 
shews, has a tendency to become abused when the 
same persons may exchange the office of private 
tutor for that of examiner, within a very brief 
period \ We shall presently have occasion to speak 
of an abuse of this kind at Oxford, which survived 
till the first years of this century. It was usual in 
Dr Johnson's time'' for College Tutors to lecture 
both in the Hall and in their own rooms, as well 
as to set weekly themes for composition. When he 
was at Pembroke, Oxford," in 1728, Undergraduates 
generally depended entirely upon the Tutor to guide 
all their reading. His first tutor Jordan was like a 
father to his pupils, but he was intellectually incom- 
petent for his important position. For this reason 
Johnson recommended his old schoolfellow Taylor 
to go to Christ Church on account of the excellent 
lectures of Bateman then tutor there. Just when 
Johnson quitted Pembroke through penury in 1731, 
Jordan was succeeded by Adams (afterwards Master), 
a man of considerable ability. Thus we see how 
cautiously we must form a general opinion of the 
efficiency of a College from its character at any 
particular moment. Gibbon's experience in the mat- 
ter of Tutors at Magdalen was similar to that of 
the other at Pembroke. The idea which Uffenbach 
formed of our lectures in his visit at the Vacation- 

1 ' Of a Liberal Education .. . with particular reference to .. . Cambridge, ' 
1845, p. 217, U 268. See also Dean Peacock on the Statutes, 1841, 

pp- i53» fo11 - 

2 Boswell's Johnson, Philip's Whitcfidd, p. 20. 

H2 University Society 

time in 1710 is amusing. 'We were surprised that 
there are no lectures [Collegia] given : and only in 
winter three or four lectures given by professors to 
the bare walls, for no one comes in. On the other 
hand the "Scolars'' or Students have some of them 
a professor or old Socmm Collegii, whom they call 
Tutorem, who instructs them, as then the noble- 
men and others are so rich, and are called " Fellow- 
commoners," as to take to them the poor men who 
wait on them as servants. In summer, however, 
hardly anything is done* both Students and Pro- 
fessors being in the country or in London V 

That Tutors at Cambridge used to direct their 
pupils' studies, will be seen from the scheme drawn 
up by Waterland, which will be printed in analysis 
in an appendix to the second part of this work. 
We may gather also from a letter written by 
Ambrose Bonwicke to his father 2 six weeks after 
Uffenbach's visit, that it was unusual for the Tutor 
at St John's to omit to speak to his pupils ' about 
a method, &c.' 

Before the century with which we have to do, 
there had grown up a natural practice of flocking 
to certain favourite Tutors, or 'pupil-mongers' as 
they were called. Indeed when a Student found, 
like John Evelyn ' Fellow-com'uner in Balliol' in 
1637, that the Tutor to whom his father had sent 
him was too much occupied with college animosi- 
ties, it was high time for him to 'associate' him- 

1 Reise, III. p. 2. 

s A. Bonwicke, by Mayor, 1870, p. 21. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 113 

self with 'a young man of the Foundation, 
afterwards a Fellow of the House, by whose learned 
and friendly conversation I received great advan- 

Several persons are mentioned as regular 'pupil- 
mongers.' James Tunstal in Baker's time 1 ; in 17 15 
Dr Chr. Anstey the elder 2 : at St John's. Another 
famous diarist, Ralph Thoresby of Leeds, came up 
to Cambridge in 17 14 (July 8th) to see for a Tutor 
for his son. He 'visited Dr Bentley, Master of 
Trinity; then at Clare-hall, to visit and consult the 
famous pupil-monger Mr Laughton [Dr Ri. Laugh- 
ton one of the first teachers of the Newtonian 
philosophy. Dr John Laughton of Trinity was 
University Librarian], to whom I was recommended 
by the bishop of Ely ; and after at Queens' College 
with the ingenious Mr Langwith (a native of York) 
recommended by Mr Baker of St John's, and pre- 
ferred rather than any of his own College. The 
Lord direct me in this matter of so great concern 
to the temporal and eternal interest of my son 
Ralph. Whether Clare Hall or Queens' College I 
cannot determine,' &c. 

On the 27th of Feb. 172 1-2, upon a petition 3 of 
forty-two Tutors, it was agreed that each Pensioner 
should pay a fee of 30?. a quarter, and others in pro- 
portion. Other regulations were made as to ' caution 
money' for security in case of debts. The insuffi- 

1 Life of Baker, 1 784, p. 1 14. 

2 Life of Bonwicie, 1870, p. 172. 

3 Cooper's Annals, IV. 167. 

L. B. E. 8 

114 University Society 

ciency of tuition fees had long been notorious. In 
1 71 3 it was even mentioned in a paper (No. 94) of the 
Guardian. As late as 1790 it is observed by Phila- 
lethes in a pamphlet, that Knox in his 7th Amend- 
ment said, ' that the Tutors' stipends are at present 
too little;' while in his Treatise on Education (p. 165) 
he asserted that the office of Tutor was lucrative. On 
the 14th of Nov. 1767, the tuition fee was raised on a 
petition from the Tutors {£2 for a Pensioner 1 ). 

As early as 1759 the employment of private tutors, 
as examiners, was found to be a cause of unfairness. 
It was said, for instance, that ' when the Johnians had 
the disposal of the honors, the second wrangler was 
always looked upon as the first 2 .' Bishop Watson 
himself was acting as a private tutor 3 in 1756 when 
only a junior soph. This was a practice of question- 
able expediency ; but about the other there could be 
no question; and on June 21, 1777, a Grace was 
passed 4 threatening with deprivation any tutor who 
should be examiner to his own pupil. 

The practice, nevertheless, gained ground. Charges 
of partiality were brought, which were, according to 
the late Mr Gunning 6 , 'not without some foundation; 
and (he adds) I have been informed by a wrangler of 
the year 1781, who was perfectly satisfied with his 
own situation, that no doubt was entertained in the 
University, that Catton of St John's, who was fourth 

1 Cooper's Annals iv. p. 350. 

8 Bp. Watson's Anecdotes, 1818, I. p. 29. 

3 Ibid. p. 16. 

4 Whewell, On a Liberal Education, H 269. 
6 Reminiscences, 1854, 1. p. 258. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 1 1 5 

Wrangler, ought to have been the Senior. This opi- 
nion was confirmed by the first Smith's Prize being 
adjudged to him.' 

Accordingly, on June 25 of that year, a Grace was 
passed forbidding any candidate for the degree of 
B.A. to read with any private tutor in the course of 
the two years preceding his final examination. This 
(says Dr Whewell 1 ) was for a time effectual. He 
suggests that a certificate of the fact should be 

The writer of ' Considerations on the Oaths re- 
quired by the University of Cambridge... 1788. [Bodl. 
Cough, Cantb. 65.] p. 15, states that the unsuitable- 
ness of lectures to men of different capacities had 
rendered private tutors 'absolutely necessary to every 
one who wished to make any tolerable figure in the 
Senate:' [this expression occurs again in the Pamphlet 
where we should now say 'Senate-house'] at the 'ad- 
ditional expense of at least ^20 a year.' He men- 
tions that when the Grace of 178 1 was proposed, a 
petition on the other side, signed by 82 undergradu- 
ates, was presented to the Caput, but it was of no 
avail; and the solitary four members of St John's 
College, who ventured to sign it, 'were persecuted for 
it with wonderful acrimony.' 

The period of two years was gradually reduced in 
1807 and 1815, till in 1824 it dwindled down to six 
months. Dr Whewell, in 1845, conceived it to be 
still possible and desirable to enforce it. Professor 

1 Liberal Education, H 27 r. 


n6 University Society 

Pryme 1 says, that it was repealed after he ceased to 
be Fellow. He says also that in 1799, owing to that 
regulation, the system of private tuition had not be- 
come common, and the lectures of the tutors during 
term-time were by many of the students (himself in- 
cluded) deemed sufficient. 

Since then, however, the employment of private 
tutors or 'coaches' at Cambridge has become more 
common, though it has at times received checks by 
such events as the establishment of ' composition ' or 
of 'inter-collegiate' lectures. But with candidates 
for the Mathematical Tripos, the tutor is often as 
important an agent as themselves; so that William 
Hopkins, of Peterhouse*, could boast in 1849, that 
'from January 1828 to January 1849, inclusive, i. e. in 
twenty-two years, I have had among my pupils 175 
Wranglers. Of these 108 have been in the first ten, 
44 in the first three, and 17 have been Senior Wran- 

As to the effect upon young tutors themselves, 
William Wordsworth wrote in 1833 to a young gra- 
duate of Cambridge, ' I have only one observation to 
make, to which I should attach importance, if I 
thought it called for in your case, which I do not, 
I mean the moral duty of avoiding to encumber 
yourself with private pupils in any number 3 . You 
are at an age when the blossoms of the mind are 
setting to make fruit; and the practice of pupil-mon- 
gering is an absolute blight for. this process.' 

1 Antobiog. Recoil. 1870, pp. 48, 49. 

2 Gunning, lieminisc. 1854, n. p. 359. 3 Memoirs 1851, ch. XLIX. 

in the Eighteenth Cenfary. nj 

Of the college lectures in 1755, bishop Watson 1 
says: ' It was then the custom in Trinity College (I 
am sorry it is not the custom still) for all undergradu- 
ates to attend immediately after morning prayers the 
college-lectures at different tables in the hall during 
term-time. The lecturers explained to their respective 
classes certain books, such as Puffendorf de Officio 
Hominis et Civis, Clarke on the Attributes, Locke's 
Essay, Duncan's Logic, &c, and once a week the 
head-lecturer examined all the students.' 

So we find young Ambrose Bonwicke 2 , in the Oc- 
tober term 171 1, receiving 'more than ordinary satis- 
faction in being returned to this pleasant seat of the 
muses, when I find my books and all things in a very 
good condition, and myself happy at the ethic-table 
at morning lectures in the hall.' In the St John's 
College Conclusion Book 3 is the entry 21 Jan. 1737 
-8: 'Agreed that the two logick tables be join'd.' 

As to the staff of lecturers: there was at Peter- 
house elected yearly a Prselector, a Rhetoric, Greek, 
Ethics, and Logic Lecturer : the Hebrew lecture- 
ship being vacant. But in some colleges from time 
to time (and this was the real occasion for pri- 
vate tuition), the tutors were not up to their work. 
Thus in 1752 Gibbon, at Magdalen College, Oxford, 
was tacitly allowed to abstain from attending any lec- 
tures; while, in 1764, Sir William Jones, the Oriental 
Scholar, complaining of the dulness of lectures, and 

1 Watson's Anecdotes, I. p. 12. Ed. 1818. 
* Life (Mayor), 1870, p. 33. 
3 Baker-Mayor, p. 1035, 1. 32. 

1 1 8 University Society 

of the barbarous Latin in which they were read, was 
formally excused attendance 1 , and set to work by 
himself to read 'all the Greek poets and historians 
of note, besides the entire works of Plato and Lucian,' 
as well as Arabic. 

Besides these early lectures, and those after break- 
fast, which, as now, were common at least towards the 
close of last century 2 , there were afternoon lectures 
after the early dinner. Hierocles, for instance, and 
other greek prose authors were read in lecture at 
St John's on Monday afternoons in 1710. So- too, 
later in the century, Professor Busick Harwood de- 
livered his Anatomical lectures in the afternoon. In 
the evening, as we shall see, there were even papers 
set for the mathematical tripos. 

But the college halls had other uses. It was not a 
very uncommon thing for some refractory Scholar (or 
even Fellow) to have to make recantation or con- 
fession of faults therein. 

It was agreed at a College meeting in St John's, 
19 Dec. 1764, 'that if any undergraduate make any 
disturbance in the hall at the time when any other 
undergraduate is reading an acknowledgment of his 
offences by order of the deans or a superior officer, 
he who makes such disturbance shall be rusticated.' 
In the preceding century at Peterhouse, Novem. 7, 
1663, Sir Gosnal was to make a recantation in Hall 
for his former great extravagances; and about a year 
later, his time of probation being finished, he was 

1 Life by Ld. Teignmouth, 18 15, pp. 39 — 41. 
s Bonwicke-Mayor, 1870, p, 21. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 119 

judged by the Master unfit to be admitted to his 
Fellowship. In 1698 Charles Squire, of the same 
House, had to confess in Hall his ' madness and 
profligacy, and to beg pardon of God Almighty, 
of the Visitor y e Master, y Society and Students, 
w ch I hope will not be deny'd to a serious convert' 
Two years later he was expelled, and took with him 
some of the College plate. 

In that century it was not uncommon for scholars 
on certain foundations to put in the hands of the 
President at Hall-time some epigram or set of verses 
in Greek or Latin. So in 1792 there was a classical 
recitation from Homer, Virgil, &c, called a narrare, 
made at Trinity College, Oxon. by some undergra- 
duate standing by the ' Griffin's head ' while the dons 
were finishing dinner. Among Dr Ri. Newton's Rules 
for Hertford College, 174.7, p. 27, there is one pro- 
viding that two undergraduates a week should deliver 
Narrations (recitations of Elegant Extracts) instead 
of their Theme or Translation. 

The College fare was simple, i.e. it consisted of less 
variety of viands than at present. In his sermon 
at Paules crosse in 1550, Thomas Lever, Fellow and 
Preacher of St John's, told of those 'menne not werye 
of "theyr paynes ' at Cambridge, whose first meal was 
when ' at ten of the clocke they go to dynner, whereas 
they be contente wy* a penye pyece of byefe amongest 
iiii., hauyng a fewe porage made of the brothe 
of the same byefe, wy th salte and otemell, and no- 
thynge els.' Their only other food was taken at ' v. of 
the clocke in the euenyng, when as they haue a supper 

120 University Society 

not much better then theyr dyner.' It was one of 
sir Tho. More's humorous proposals to his children 
when he resigned the Chancellorship to retrench 
their expenses by degrees from Lincoln's Inn diet 
to the new Inn fare, and so on at last to the Oxford 
fare, 'which if our power stretch not to maintaine, 
then may we like poore schollers of Oxforde goe 
a begging with our bags and wallets and sing salve 
regina at rich mens doores, where for pitie some 
goode folkes will give us their mercifull charitie ; and 
so keep companie and be merrie togeather 1 .' 

The 1 6th of Sundry Queries concerning the Univer- 
sity of Oxon., &c. London, Printed by Thomas Creeke, 
1659, asks 2 , 'Whether the Canons of Christ Church 
ought not to eat the bread of affliction and drink 
the water of affliction; since they refuse to eat the 
same bread and drink the same drink with the rest 
of the college, which indeed is so bad as never was 
worse eaten or drunk but by the same canons before 
they came to be canons.' A similar question was 
asked with no less vehemence in 1865. 

In his thoughtful letter, written to his mother in 
1662, John Strype, the ecclesiastical historian, whilst 
a student of Jesus College, gives a curious account 
of Cambridge fare 3 : 

'Do not wonder so much at our Commons: they 
are more than many Colleges have. Trinity itself 

1 Life of More by Ro. Ba.; Wordsworth, Eccl. Biog, n. pp. 81, 
82. Ed. 3. 

2 Misc. Harleian, VI. p. 91. 

s Cooper's Annals, III. pp. 504, 505. Sir H. Ellis, Letters of Emi- 
nent Literary Men, p. 177. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 121 

(where Herring and Davies are), which is the famous- 
est College in the University, have but three half- 
pence. We have roast meat, dinner and supper 
throughout the weeke ; and such meate as you know 
I had not use to care for; and that is Veal: but 
now I have learnt to eat it. Sometimes neverthe- 
lesse, we have boiled meat, with pottage; and beef 
and mutton, which I am glad of: except Fridays 
and Saturdays, and sometimes Wednesdays; which 
days we have Fish at dinner, and tansy or pudding 
for supper. Our parts then are slender enough. But 
there is this remedy; we may retire into the But- 
teries, and there take a half-penny loafe and butter 
or cheese; or else to the Kitchen and take there 
what the Cook hath. But, for my part, I am sure, 
I never visited the Kitchen yet, since I have been 
here, and the Butteries but seldom after meals ; un- 
lesse for a Ciza [or Size, or Sue] that is for a Farthing- 
worth of Small-Beer: so that lesse than a Peny in 
Beer doth serve me a whole day. Neverthelesse 
sometimes we have Exceedings: then we have two 
or three Dishes (but that is very rare): otherwise 
never but one: so that a Cake and a Cheese would 
be very welcome to me: and a Neat's tongue, or 
some such thing; if it would not require too much 
money... Mother I kindly thank you for your Orange 
pills you sent me. If you are not too straight of 
money send me some such thing by the Woman, and 
a pound or two of Almonds and Raisons...We go 
twice a day to Chapel ; in the morning about 7, and 
in the evening about 5. After we come from Chapel 

122 University Society 

in the morning, which is towards 8, we go to the 
Butteries for our breakfast, which is usually five 
Farthings; an halfepenny loafe and butter and a cize 
of beer. But sometimes I go to an honest House 
near the College, and have a pint of milk boiled 
for breakfast.' 

Of the monotony of Cambridge dinners in 1710 
Uffenbach 1 complained; as well as of the closeness 
of Trinity College Hall, which smelt so of bread and 
meat that he was sure he could not eat a morsel in 
it. Francis Burman, who was there in 1702, mentions 
that at a grand dinner the dishes with few excep- 
tions were square wooden platters : (still partially 
used at Winchester). 

The Hon. Roger North, writing, I suppose, be- 
tween 1720 and 1730, compares the state of the 
University in his own days with that when his elder 
brother, the Hon. and Rev. Dr John North, was 
Fellow of Jesus Coll., Cambridge, befoife he succeeded 
Dr Barrow as Master of Trinity : 

' The Doctor conformed to all the orders of the 
college, seldom ate out of hall, and then upon a fish- 
day only, being told it was for his health. He was 
constantly at the chapel prayers, so much as one may 
say that, being in town [Cambridge] he never failed. 
This, in the morning, secured his time; for he went 
from thence directly to his study without any sizing 
or breakfast at all.' 

I gather from the Cook's accounts at Peterhouse 
that in the 17th century rarely more than one joint 
1 Seise, 1754, p. 85. Ibid. p. 3. 

in the Eighteenth Centitry. 123 

appeared at the Fellows' table, and on Fridays fish 
only. It was, perhaps, the Master of that House, 
Dr Cosin, or Dr Sterne of Jesus, who represented 
to Abp Laud in 1636 that ' upon Frydays and all 
Fasting days, the victualling houses prepare Flesh 
good store for all Schollers and others that will come 
or send unto them,' and the Tutors allow double 
money for suppers on those days. At Peterhouse, 
after the Revolution, the custom of eating fish on 
Fridays remained, but it was in addition to the 
ordinary provision of meat As Johnson's Idler (No. 
33 1 , in 1758) has commemorated the dinners of this 
College, it may be as well to give in. a note the 
ordinary bill of fare for a day when Gray and 
Cavendish dined in Hall; also another of a grand 
feast on Bp Cosin's Commemoration Day (St An- 
drew's, Nov. 30) in 1779. 

'It was the custom for colleges, and indeed for 
most other people, till towards the middle of the 
17th century, to dine at ten or eleven o'clock in the 
forenoon. "With us (says the preface to Holingshed) 
the nobilitie, gentrie, and students, do ordinarilie go 
to dinner at eleven before noone, and to supper at 
five, or between five and six, at afternoone. The 
merchants dine and sup seldome before twelve at 
noone and six at night, especiallie in London. The 
husbandmen dine also at high-noone, as they call it, 
and sup at seven or eight; but out of the terme in 
our universities, the scholers dine at ten 2 ." ' 

1 By T. Warton. 

2 Oxoniana, I. 231. 

124 University Society 

The gradual change in the dinner hour was a matter 
of great groaning to the conservatives. 

On Feb. 10, 1721-2, Plearne wrote in his diary 
'Whereas the university disputations on Ash- Wednes- 
day should begin at 1 o'clock, they did not begin this 
year 'till two or after, which is owing to several col- 
leges having altered their hours of dining from 1 1 to 
12, occasioned from people's lying in bed longer than 
they used to do.' So a year later he laments that 
whereas Oxford Scholars were summoned to meals 
at 10 o'clock on Shrove Tuesday by the pancake-bell 
at S. Mary's, and at 4 o'clock; at Edmund-hall dinner 
was now at 12 and supper at 6, and no fritters. 
'When laudable old customs alter 'tis a sign learning 
dwindles.' So on Christmas Day, 1732, the Uni- 
versity Sermon was, by order of the Vice- Chancellor, 
advertised not to begin till 11 o'clock, 'the reason 
given was sermons ' in coll. chapels. This reason 
might also have been given formerly. But the true 
reason is that people might lye in bed the longer. 
They used formerly to begin in chapels an hour 
sooner, and then they were ready for the university 
sermon. The same reason, viz. lying a-bed the longer 
hath made them in almost all places in the university 
alter the hours of prayers on other days, and the hour 
of dinner (which used to be 11 o'clock) in almost 
every place (Christ Church must be excepted) in the 
university where ancient discipline, and learning, and 
piety, strangely decay.' 

In 1747, Dr Ri. Newton's Rule for Hertford College 
(p. 70) was dinner at 1, supper at 7. He proposed 

in the Eighteenth Century. 125 

to provide lib. of meat per man, value not exceeding 
threepence (which was double the existing price, pp. 
6"], 115). He attempted also to obviate an abuse 
such as he had witnessed where the ten seniors would 
eat all, and leave the ten juniors to dine 'abroad in 
Public-Houses at four times the Expence attended 
with Other Inconveniences' (p. 1 14). 

At Cambridge in 1755, and for many years after 1 , 
every College dined at 12 o'clock, and the students 
after dinner flocked to the philosophical disputations 
which began at 2. At St John's, in 1799, it was 
'agreed that the hour for dinner be 2 o'clock during 
non-term.' In D'Ewes' time, 1620, during Sturbridge 
fair they swallowed down their dinner at 9 o'clock 
'and having quickly ended by reason of short com- 
mons, the greater part of the undergraduates did run 
presently to the fair.' At Emmanuel 2 the hour was 
changed from 1 to 3 about the year 1785. This 
arrangement tended to thin the attendance in the 
divinity schools when Dr Watson was moderating. 
At Trinity, in 1800, it was at 2h. 15 m. On Sundays 
it was a't a quarter past 1, and the sermon at St 
Mary's, which was well 'attended by students, was at 
3 o'clock. The Vice-Chancellor's weekly dinner parties 
were at 1.30, and all his company accompanied 
him to St Mary's 3 . At Oxford 4 , in 1804, 1805, those 
colleges which had dined at 3 advanced to 4, those 

1 Bp. Watson's Anecdotes, 1S18, I. p. 35. 

2 Gunning, Reminisc, 1854, II. p. 48. 

3 Autobiog. Recoil, of G. Pryme, p. 42. 

4 Oxford in the Last Century (from the Oxford Chronicle, 1859,' 
p. 49 reprint,). 

126 University Society 

which had dined at 4 to 5. In 1807, Southey's 
Espriella (letter xxxii.) speaks of dining with a> 
friend in hall:' 'instead of assembling there at the 
grace, we went into the kitchen, where each person 1 
ordered his own mess from what the cook provided, 
everything having its specific price. The students 
order their messes according to seniority; but this 
custom was waived in our friend's favour, in courtesy 
to us strangers.' This was at Balliol. 

Breakfast was a meal which saw strange revolu- 
tions: it became a more serious meal as the dinner- 
hour waxed later. 'Whilst Dr John North was at 
Jesus College, Cambridge 1 , coffee was not of such 
common use as afterwards, and the coffee-houses but 
young. At that time, and long after, there was but 
one, kept by one Kirk. The trade of news also was 
scarce set up; for they had only the public gazette 
till Kirk got a written news-letter circulated by one 
Muddiman. But now [cir. 1725], the case is much 
altered ; . for it is become a custom, after chapel, to 
repair to one or other of the coffee-houses (for there 
are divers) where hours are spent in talking; and less 
profitable reading of newspapers, of which swarms are 
continually supplied from London. And the scholars 
are so greedy after news (which is none of their busi- 
ness), that they neglect all for it ; and it is become 
very rare for any of them to go directly to his cham- 
bers after prayers, without doing his suit at the coffee- 
house; which is a vast loss of time grown out of a 
pure novelty, for who can apply close to a subject 
1 B.A. in 1663. 

tn the Eighteenth Century. 127 

with his head full of the din of a coffee-house? I 
cannot but think [continues John North's brother and 
biographer Roger— Lives of the Norths, ed. 1826, iii., 
PP- 3°9. 3!o], that since coffee with most is become a 
morning refreshment, the order, which I once knew 
established at Lambeth House, or somewhat like it, 
might be introduced into the Colleges; which was for 
the chaplains and gentlemen officers to meet every 
morning in a sort of still-house, where a good woman 
provided them their liquors as they liked best; and 
this they called their coffee-house.' 

In 1737, Thomas Gray, of Peterhouse, and Walpole, 
of King's, who drank nothing but tea, — were out of 
the fashion of the day. 

The breakfast of the old stagers was simple. In 
the earlier editions of the Oxford Sausage (1764) is a 
picture of a student, whose square cap lies on the 
floor, sitting in his garret with his hand upon a tank- 
ard, while duns flock around him (one of them being 
a barber with his chafing-dish). Below the cut is 
Tom Warton's ' Panegyric on Oxford A le.' 

Nor Proctor thrice with vocal Heel alarms 
Our Joys secure, nor deigns the lowly Roof 
Of Pot-house snug to visit : wiser he 
The splendid Tavern haunts, or Coffee-house 
Of James or Juggins, where the grateful Breath 
Of loath'd Tobacco, ne'er diffus'd its Balm... 

Let the tender Swain 
Each morn regale on nerve-relaxing Tea, 
Companion meet of languor-loving Nymph : 
Be mine each Morn with eager Appetite 
And Hunger undissembled, to repair 
To friendly Buttery; there on smoaking Crust 

128 University Society 

And foaming Ale to banquet unrestrained, 
Material Breakfast ! Thus in ancient Days 
Our Ancestors robust, with liberal Cups 
Usher'd the Morn, unlike the squeamish Sons 
Of modern Times. 

The ladies also considered a man who breakfasted 
on Toasts and Ale a very vulgar fellow 1 . 

Tea was a luxury. I have seen the bill of a Cam- 
bridge man who, in 1772, paid 3-y. for 4 oz. of Sou- 
chong. In 1650 it cost eight times as much. 

A letter from an undergraduate of Trin. Coll., Oxon. 
in 1792, who used to breakfast at 8.30 with his neigh- 
bour, — 

Friend Warren takes accustomed seat 
Pours tea on sugar very sweet 
And cream not over rich; 
And rolls he cleverly does spread 
Or from brown George toasts slice of bread, — 

speaks of a change in habit. ' Brown George' is 
the name for a loaf in a poem of Sam. Wesley the 
elder. In Espriella, no. xxxiii., it appears as ' George 
Brown. [George Bruno, probably some kind of roll, 
so called from its first maker, like the Sally Lunn of 
Bath.— Tr.]' 

Suppers in Hall have always met with varying 
popularity. In his Rules for Hertford College (p. 
126), Dr Newton says, 'The general hour of supper 
throughout the University [of Oxford] is six. This 
meal, if it be at all regarded (for it is much grown 
into disuse [1747]), is over in less than half an hour. 
The members of societies then dispose of themselves 
for the remainder of the evening. I would hope by 
1 The Guardian (1713), No. 34. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 129 

far the greatest part of them would spend their even- 
ings chiefly with one another of the same society ; 
the summer evenings, if the weather invite, in walking 
abroad; the winter in each other's rooms, as they 
should choose to sort themselves together.' He had 
mentioned seven as the hour for supper (p. 70). 

At the close of the last century it was usual at 
Cambridge to take some relaxation after dinner, to 
go to Chapel at half-past five, then to retire to their 
rooms, shut the outer door, take tea, and read till 10 
or 11 o'clock. 

At Trinity there was Supper in Hall at a quarter 
before 9 o'clock, but very few partook of it 1 . There 
was always Supper on Sunday evening at Cambridge 
(often in the Combination-room) for the benefit of 
those clerical Fellows who had been 'taking duty* in 
the country. This is still kept up at King's as the 
'Samaritan Supper? It was also called, from the 
only dish (of mutton) which was provided, 'Neck or 
Nothing! At St John's it was known as ' the Cu- 
rates' Club:' at Christ's the meeting was designated 
'the Apostolic:' there the Supper was always tripe 
dressed in various ways 2 . 

With undergraduates, Supper was the favourite 
meal of sociality. 

At 8 P.M. the ' Sizing Bell' was rung to shew that 
the 'Sizing Bill' was ready. This was a bill of fare 
for the evening, with the prices marked. Each guest 
of the ' Sizing-party' ordered, at his own expense, 

1 Autobiog. Recoil, of G. Pryme, p. 42. 
s Gunning's Reminisc. I. 181. 

L. B. E. 9 

130 University Society 

whatever he fancied, to be carried to the entertainer's 
rooms;-^-' z. part of fowl' or duck; a roasted pigeon; 
' a part of apple pie/ &c. The host supplied bread, 
butter, cheese, and beer, a 'beaker,' or a large tea-pot 
full of punch, which was kept upon the hob. ' These 
tea-pots were of various sizes (some of them enor- 
mous), and supplied by the bed-makers, who charged 
according to size. Nothing could be more unexcep- 
tionable than these meetings.' Wine was not al- 
lowed 1 . 

A supper at Trinity, Oxon., in 1792, is described 
as commencing at 9 o'clock (after tea at 6) with 

Boiled fowl, salt herrings, sausages, 
Cold beef and brawn and bread and cheese 
With Tankards full of Ale. 

There it was the custom for men, of the same col- 
lege as the host, to pay for his own share of the des- 
sert at a wine party. 

One custom prevailed at both Universities, — a cus- 
which has become obsolete,— that of regularly dress- 
ing for dinner. Everyone arrayed himself in white 
waistcoat, and white stockings, and low shoes; (for 
boots or gaiters were not allowed to be worn at din- 
ner-time at Trinity, or at St John's, even in the early 
part of the present century) ; and his wig— or, latterly, 
his own hair — was combed, curled, and powdered. 

The University Barber in old days was no mean 
practitioner. At Oxford, theirs was the only trade 
which might be followed by matriculated persons; 

» Gunning's Reminisc. 1854, II. pp. 44, 45 . Gradtcs ad Cantab., 
1803, s.v. Sizing-bell, Sizing-party. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 131 

and the Members of the Company of Barbers 1 , which 
existed till 1859, dined once a year with the Vice- 
Chancellor, and supped annually with the Proctors. 
They had been incorporated by the Chancellor in 
1 348 s : one stipulation being that they should main- 
tain a light before the image in our Lady's Chapel 
in St Frideswyde's ; another, that they should not 
work on Sundays, only on the market Sundays in 
harvest-time, nor shave any, but such as were to 
preach or do a religious act, on the Sundays in any 
part of the year. In the Bodleian (Gougk, Oxford, 
90) is a copy of an " Address to the Worshipful Com- 
pany of Barbers in Oxford, occasioned by a late 
infamous Libel intitled 'Tu Barber ad Fireworks, a 
Fable, highly reflecting on one of the Honourable 
Members.' By a Barber. Psalm Hi. 3. The third 
edition. Oxford, printed in the year 1749," pp. 12. 
It is signed by 

John Tubb, Master 

John C — 1c — t) 

Joseph M — ss ' ' 

of the Worshipful Company of Barbers at the George 

Inn assembled. 

We learn (p. 8) that the Barbers of Magd. Hall 

(K — ne), and of Exeter (H — rn — r), were also college 

Butlers. Others were Lay Clerks and Manciples of 


To painted Peruke and long Pole 
Jo. F — wl — r joins a gilded Scroll ; 

1 Recollections of Oxford, by G. V. Cox, 1868, pp. 16, 17. 

2 Oxoniana, IV. pp. 156, 157. 


132 University Society 

Whose Lines declare his House is handy 

For Coffee Chocolate Wine Rum Brandy: 

And Scholars say he's not a worse Man 

Than F — rtn — m, or the smart James H — rsem — n. 

We find that they were also Phlebotomists and 

In the Peterhouse Order-book is the following con- 
clusion: 'March 24, 1739. The Barber's place being 
void by the death of John Elbonne; his widow, Anne 
Elbonne, was nominated to the said place by the 
Master ; cum Consilio Decanorum'. Other notices of 
female barbers are given by Hone {Every-Day Book 
i., col. 1272). 

It was the duty of the College Barber, who was 
a regular servant of the society, to attend to the 
tonsure of the clerks of the foundation. In the 
Elizabethan Statutes of St John's College in Cam- 
bridge, in the chapter ' Of College Servants' (cap. 19) 
it is said 

' Est et pernecessarius Collegio tonsor ; qui ma- 
gistro, sociis, scholaribus, et discipulis prout cuiq: 
fuerit opus caput et barbam hebdomadatim radat 
vel tondeat. Neq: minus necessariu est, ut vestes 
omnes lineae tam illae quibus in mensa quam aliae 
quibus utuntur alias hebdomadatim abluantur.' 

In post-reformational times, this functionary ap- 
peared daily before Hall-time to powder the Fellows' 
wigs. As lately as 1775 there was a barber's shop 
just within Trinity gate near the Bishop's Hostel, 
where their wigs were dressed; whence a wag ab- 
stracted them one Saturday night and placed them 

in the Eighteenth Century, 133 

upon the heads of the statues on the roof of the 
Library. This must have been especially mortify- 
ing to their owners, because Sunday was a great 
occasion for the display of capillary attraction * : 
so much so that in 1728 the Vice-chancellor had 
issued a programma ' to All and Singular Barbers,' 
forbidding them to ply their trade upon that day: 
just as ' His Highness the Lord Protector ' had 
done some 85 years earlier ; when by a Proclama- 
tion he also forbade ' vainly and profanely walking ' 
on the Sabbath. 

Mr Donagan of Trinity Street still designates 
himself as 'Hairdresser by Appointment to Trinity 
College:' and the Peterhouse barber, Bendall, is 
still alive. He used t6 come round the College 
in the morning till within three or four years ago, 
to wake the men for Chapel, and to shave them, 
— the lazy ones as they lay in bed. Every Fellow 
of the society on admission still pays a fee of 
Js. gd. to this officer. 

When Shenstone the poet was at Pembroke Coll. 
Oxon. it was with some personal inconvenience that 
he transgressed the reigning fashion of wigs, by 
wearing his own long hair 2 in the way which was 
afterwards practised at Cambridge by prince William 
of Glo'ster to whom, as to others who did the 
same, was applied the nickname Apollo*. But in 
Shenstone's time few at Oxford would visit him; 

1 Autobiog. Recoil, of G. Pryme, 1870, p. 44. 

a Cp. The Student, or Oxf. and Camb. Monthly Misc. II. 189, in 1 751. 

3 Gradus ad Cantab., 1803, s.v. Ajmllo.. 

134 University Society 

and it was therefore perhaps with some personal 
bitterness of feeling that he wrote the 'Extent of 
Cookery,' Aliusque et idem, 

When Tom to Cambridge first was sent 
A plain brown Bob he wore, &c. 

or the ' Many ways of dressing a Calf s Head.' 

A year or two before he and Johnson had lain 
in the ' perfect nest of singing-birds,' another emi- 
nent man at the same college, George Whitefield * 
the servitor, had gone with unkempt hair from a 
very different motive, — because he 'thought it un- 
becoming a penitent to have it powder' d.' So too 
his exemplar, John Wesley of Christ Church, had 
saved barber's fees to give to the poor; and it is 
recorded z that the only instance of his deferring to 
the advice of another was when his brother Sam 
persuaded him to have the ends off. But until the 
fashion of crops grew up in 1795, the college bar- 
ber had his hands full. It was well for all parties 
that Rob. Foster could ' fly ' with foot and hand, 
as well as tongue : for in those days, when the 
decorous custom of dressing for 2 o'clock Hall pre- 
vailed, each undergraduate was impatient to have 
his head powdered: and Erskine, when 'ruthless Coe' 
failed him, preferred to ' cut Hall,' rather than that 
his upper extremity should disaccord with the regu- 
lar white stockings and shoes : he therefore spent 
his time in reviling the faithless barber in a parody 
on Gray's Bard. 

1 Philip's Whitefield, p. 34. 
8 tiouthey's Wesley, l. 117. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 135 

The following description is from an unpublished 
letter by an Oxoniaii in 1792 : 

A quarter wanting now of three 
On entering gates of Trinity 

For dressing will suffice; 
As Highland Barber, far-famed Duffi 
Within that time will plenty puff 

Of lime in both my eyes. 

Speaking of skating, I declare, 
His motions far more rapid are, 

Whilst up and down he runs : 
At least he thirty has to dress, 
Who all at the same instant press, 

As clamorous as duns. 

The following is the barber's bill of Francis Dawes, 
Fellow of Peterhouse and Esquire Bedel in 1771. 

£ s. d. 

'Mr Daws, Dr Tho. Randall. To a Quarter 

Dressing, due Lady-day. Pins and Sope... on i 

A Quarter Dressing due Midsummer. A Fillet o 15 6 

A Quarter Dressing due at Michaelmas o 10 6 

Received the contents in full by me Thos. 

Randall 1 17 2' 

Again in 1772, 

'A Quarter dressin March 25th o 10 6 

Powder o o 4' 

I have mentioned Rob. Foster: he was- quite a 
character in Cambridge, where he was known as the 
Flying Barber. Hone gave him a paragraph in the 
Year-Book (columns 1507, 1508) as he did to Nichol- 
son {Maps) and Jemmy Gordon. * Forster', he says,. 
' died at the end of 1799. During many years he 
was hair-dresser to Clare Hall, and an eccentric 

136 University Society 

but honest fellow. He was allowed to be so dex- 
terous in his profession, and trimmed his friends 
so well that, some years before his death, the 
gentlemen of the University, by subscription, bought 
him a silver bason ; and he was so famous, that 
it was no light honor which enabled a stranger to 
say, he had been shaved out of " Forster's bason." 
A striking likeness was etched of him in full trim 
without his hat ; for, having lost the only one he 
possessed, many years before he died, he never 
wore one afterwards. The etchings have become 
scarce, or one would have accompanied the likeness 
of " The Major." Nemo.' 

Mr Elijah Johnson of Trinity Street has two en-, 
gravihgs of this worthy. The first with the motto 

saepe velut qui 
Currebat fugiens hostem 

represents him as a thin elderly man with bason 
and towel his arm, and running, chafer (for 
hot water) in hand. 'Pub. Jan. 1, 1787, by J. K. 
Baldrey, Cambridge.' 
The other is inscribed 

'Tonsor ego-^Tonsoris opem si forte requiras 

Mappa subest — ardet Culter — et Unda tepet, 
Des nummos — uno tibi Barba evanuit ictu, 
Si male tolle obolum; si bene plura refer. 

'Pub. Feb. 23, 1785, by J. K. Baldrey, Cambridge.' 
Drawn by Bearblock, a Fellow of King's. It repre- 
sents a young Student in tye-wig and brown stock- 
ings, sitting in a chair covered with the barber's 
involucrum. Foster strides across one of the knees 

in the Eighteenth Century. izj 

of his victim ; slightly raises the lathered chin with 
his left hand ; leans back at his long arm's-length 
and contemplates the field on which his open rasor, 
which he holds above his head, will flash down and 
perform its office instantaneously. 

Dyer gives a different version of the epigram, which 
he ascribes to Gilbert Wakefield (Dyer's Privil. of 
C. ii. supplement 2 to Hist. Camb. p. 91) : 

Tonsor ego: vultus radendo spumeus albet, 

Mappa subest, ardet culter, et unda tepet. 
Quam versat gladium cito dextra, novacula laevis 

Mox tua tarn celeri strinxerit ora manu. 
Cedite, Romani Tonsores, cedite Graii ; 

Tonsorem regio non habet ulla parem. 
Imberbes Grantam, barbati accedite Grantam ; 

Ilia polit mentes; et polit ilia genas. 

The Flying Barber is evidently celebrated in the 
second of the Tripos verses Comitiis prioribus, Feb. 10, 
1785. The motto is 

Ille vel intactae segetis per summa volaret 
Gramina; nee teneras cursu laesisset aristas. 

It appears from a characteristic story told by Gunning 
[Reminisc. i. p. 179, 1854) that Bob Foster was barber 
to Dr Farmer, of Emmanuel, among others. Charles 
Lamb writes to Manning, a Cambridge Mathematical 
tutor, whom he tries to bring home from China by a 
fictitious narrative of the changes which have taken 
place in his absence : ' We will shake withered hands 
together, and talk of old things, of St Mary's Church, 
and the barber's opposite where the young students 
in mathematics used to assemble. Poor Crips, that 
kept it afterwards, set up a fruiterer's shop in Trumping-' 

138 University Society 

ton -street, and for aught I know resides there still, 
for I saw the name up in the last journey I took there 
with my sister just before she died.' The barber's 
shop, probably, was in reality no more extinct than 
Mary Lamb. The whole letter is as fabulous as that 
mischievous one which he wrote to H. C. Robinson in 
1829 {April 10) when he pretended that he had the 
rheumatism. He mentions Crips in another humorous 
letter relating to a present of brawn which he had 
received from a college servant. 

Another Cambridge barber has been celebrated by 
Hone (Year-Book, columns 1507, 1508): he calls him 
Jacklin ; but I am assured by Mr. Smith, the verger of 
St Mary's, that his name was Tomlinson. He was 
known as 'the Major,' in a club called the 'sweet, 
Sixteen.' He died in 1824, and as his history belongs 
to the present rather than to the preceeding century 
I will simply refer the curious to the passage and 
caricature in Hone. 

The barber's was not the lounger's only refuge: he 
had another rendezvous, no less a favourite then, and 
no less obsolete at the present time. 

A hundred years earlier Sam. Purchas ' knew well 
what was Coffee, which they drink as hot as they can 
endure it ; it is as black as soot (says he), and tastes 
not much unlike it ; good, they say, for digestion and 
mirth :' 

Coffee which makes the politician wise 

And see through all things with his half-shut eyes. 

Then in the middle of the 17th century an enter- 

in the Eighteenth Century. 139 

prising Turkish merchant of England opened a house 
for the retail of the ' coffee-drink :' and by the opening 
of the 1 8th century such establishments were more 
numerous and flourishing than ever, in spite of the 
suspicion in which they were held in some high 
political circles. 

Already each class of society had its peculiar haunt 
The' Grecian for the literary man ; for the clergy, 
Child 's in Paul's Churchyard ; Lloyd's for the auctions; 
St James', the Cocoa-tree and Wills for the man of 
fashion, the poet, and the politician. Further than 
this ; the company changed almost every hour. At 
6 in the morning Beaver, the haberdasher, would hold 
his own ; at 8 the young lawyers would come dropping 
in ; — some, who lodged near, in dressing-gown and 
slippers; — at noon the business-man and the idler were 
brought into contact by different influences : later in 
the day the wit and the politician would drop in to 
dispute and discuss, each in the measure of his natural 
vivacity, the news, the politics, the business, and the 
Spectator of the morning. These coffee-house debates 
were, as might be supposed, irregular and un- 
systematic ; the disputant often in the heat of argu- 
ment omitting the more forcible reasons which cooler 
moments would suggest. 'There is not one dispute 
in ten ' (says Addison) ' which is managed in these 
schools of politics, where after the three first sentences 
the question is not entirely lost. Our disputants put 
me in mind of the scuttle-fish that, when he is unable 
to extricate himself, blackens all the water about him 
until he becomes invisible.' 

140 University Society 

Some years after the first establishment of coffee- 
houses, there was provided another place of refuge 
for the homeless. The Chocolate-house, though of 
the same nature as the earlier establishment, was 
restricted to more elegant and refined society; and 
here it was that the gamester found a place. Of this 
class was White's, from which house the fashionable 
intelligence of the Tatler was dated, and here 'Sir 
Thomas,' the despotic head-waiter, reigned supreme. 
{Tatler, 16, 17, &c, Spectator, 49.) 

Dryden had had his winter and his summer seat at 
Will's coffee-house : Addison had frequented Button's, 
'on the south side of Russell-street, about two doors 
from Covent-garden,' which was named after the 
owner, who had been in the family of his spouse the 
countess of Warwick. Tom's coffee-house in Corn- 
hill was noted for 'the best Bohea Green Tea and 
Coffee:' and there were ethers of the same name. 
Johnson himself paid frequent visits to the Turk's 
Head. And the Wits and their successors were not 
the only favoured persons: the Templar had his place - 
of fashionable resort, and even the Universities were 
not without their coffee-houses. 

In 1675, the Cambridge Heads had made answer 
to a Quaere proposed in his Ma tie ' s name, that 'the 
Coffea-houses are daily frequented, and in great num- 
bers of all sorts (the Heads of houses and other Doc- 
tors excepted) at all hours, especially morning and 
evening:' and the account of Roger North, already 
quoted, testifies no less to the popularity of these - 
places of entertainment. (P. 126.) 

in the Eighteenth Cenhtry. 141 

In 1710, there was the house where Uffenbach met 
Whiston and read the Athenian Oracle. It was 
called 'the Greeks' from the nationality of its proprie- 
tor. He appears from Rud's diary (ed. Luard, i860, 
Camb. Antiq. Soc, p. 2), to have set up a 'coffee- 
booth' at Sturbridge-fair in 1709. Mr Laughton, the 
senior proctor, visited it, and was abused by 'the 
Grecian.' In like manner another was set up at the 
fair about 1770, by Dockrell (Hone's Year-Book, 
col. 1543), where there was first-rate milk-punch to be 
had. At the regular establishment in Trumpington- 
street, Paley used to spend his evenings when an 
undergraduate. The Masters of Arts used to occupy 
the upper, the Bachelors and Undergraduates the lower 
parts of the room. And later, when he was tutor 1 , he 
went at 9 o'clock 'to supper at Dockerell's coffee- 
house', or elsewhere.' In the Gradus ad Cantabrigiam, 
1803, is the following article, 'Master of Arts' Coffee- 
house. It is sufficient to announce, that there is such 
a place, where M A.'s meet together to take their coffee 
like other men ! — read the papers, and relate anecdotes 
of "the men of our College.'" 

A good idea of the appearance of the interior of a 
coffee-house may be gathered from the frontispiece to 
'the Coffee-house,' a Play, 1737. {Camb. Univ. Lib. 
xxiii. 17, 22). From a set of Tripos verses {Comitiis 
posterioribus, Mar. 9, 1780), it seems that the game of 
chess was sometimes played therein. Another set 
{Com. posterior., Mar. 6, 1788) gives a description 
of the Union Coffee-house, under the motto Concordia 
1 Meadley's Mtmoirs of Wm. Paley, pp. 16, 17, 70. 

142 University Society 

discors. It depicts the rednosed-keeper, half barber, 
half landlord, looking with his keen eyes from his den 
among the jugs. The company consists of a parson 
hunting in the papers for vacant preferment : but the 
'fast' riding-man, who can scarce speak of anything 
but horses, tells him some one else has been before-, 
hand with him. There are, besides, two sportsmen, 
who boast of nights spent alone in the fens in otter 
hunting. There too in a corner sits the ' questionist,' 
who is anxiously awaiting the 'act' which he must 
'keep' to-morrow. He spends the time in drawing 
mathematical diagrams on the table with a wet spill 
or match, till he jumps up and runs off to read Locke 
and Newton in his rooms. In front of the fire stands' 
a Nugax or Lounger with his arm beneath his coat-: 
skirt, the other hand dallying with his toothpick. 
You would know him anywhere by his huge pow^ 
dered wig : he affects the spleen, and has most tender 
nerves. After a sufficient amount of noise and drink-, 
ing, the less reputable part of the company adjourn to 
a still noisier reunion at the Bear 1 (which stood where 
the Master's Hostel of Trinity now stands, but which, 
in 1788, was known as Adkin College*, from a noisy 
fellow-commoner of Corpus who lodged and gave 
dinners there, and who, in 1788, assaulted James 
Wood, of St John's, at the Union Coffee-house), 

1 Hi gaudent vino et strepitu risuque jocoque 
Laseivo, inter quos heros princepsque tumultus 
Extat pacatis sedibus [sic] qui pulsus ad Vrsum 
Collegos sociare novos, dicique Magister 
Jura negans sibi nata, suis circumdatus audet. 
a Gunning, Reminisc. 1854, I. p. 59. Cooper's Annals, IV, 432. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 143 

There is, however, a reading-man's club or coffee- 
house designated 'Caryophylli' (perhaps the Cocoa 

' A Plain and Friendly Address to the Undergrad- 
uates ' &c. 1786, complains (p. 17) that 'we shall be 
called upon to walk, to dress for dinner, ox-^-to take 
a dish of coffee at the Union! At the end of the list 
of College Servants in the Cambridge University 
Calendar for 1 802, comes ' Master of the Union Coffee- 
House, Frank Smith.' 

Mention is sometimes found of other Coffee-houses 
in Cambridge, e.g. 'The Johnian Coffee-house in AH 
Saints' Yard,' in 174.0. Professor Pryme says (Auto- 
biog. Recoil. 1870, p. 43), ' there were two Coffee-houses 
in the town, where men used to take tea or coffee 
on summer evenings when there was no fire in their 
rooms. Frank Smith kept one in Bridge Street, 
opposite the Round Church. The other was at a 
room in the Rose Inn, set apart for that purpose, 
facing the Market Place.' This was in 1799. 

In 1763, a Coffee-Room was 'opened next to 
Emmanuel College, in a pleasant garden, where 
different Languages (French in particular) will be 
one of the principal Studies, and made easy and 
familiar by conversation.' Harangues were occa- 
sionally to be delivered against the follies of man- 
kind. ' None but the free, generous, debonnaire, and 
gay, are desired to attend.' Morality was to be 
enforced by Prints and Diagrams. 'In order to 
prevent Intemperance, no Spirituous Liquor will be 
admitted, unless meliorated and duly authorized 

144 University Society 

according to Law ; but harmless Tea, Lacedemonian 
Broth, and invigorating Chocolate, comforting Cakes, 
with cooking Tarts and Jellies, &c.' John Delaport, 
the proprietor, offered also advice to persons in legal 
difficulties from the hour of 10 to noon. 'The best 
of Tea, with Rolls and Butter, at Sixpence per 

'A Library of Books is now in the Coffee-room, 
which will be increased ; and for the entertainment 
of such Gentlemen who are musically inclined, In- 
struments will shortly be provided.' 

Mr Delaport found that Emmanuel Coffee-house 
was made a public promenade : he therefore insti- 
tuted admission by ticket, and held out additional 

' A person will attend, to gather the Fruit, Pease or 
Beans, for such as choose to take a Dinner or Supper.' 
There was to be a musical performance on Monday, 
afternoons, weather permitting. French lessons, fish- 
ing, and perukes were also to be had on the pre- 
mises. 1 

Though coffee was introduced at Oxford very early, 
I know little of the Coffee-houses there in the 18th 

Anthony Wood relates how in 1650 'Jacob, a Jew, 
opened a Coffey-house at the Angel, in the parish of 
S. Peter in the East, Oxon. and there it was by 
some, who delighted in noveltie, drank. When he 
left Oxon. he sold it in Old Southampton buildings 
in Holborne, near London, and was living there 1671.' 
1 Cooper's Annals, IV. 328, 329. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 145 

' 1654, Cirques Jobson, a Jew and Jacobite, borne 
neare Mount-Libanus, sold coffy in Oxon. in an' 
house between Edmund-hall, and Queen's Coll. 
corner.' In commenting on the former passage from 
Wood's autobiography, Dr Bliss writes : ' The fashion 
of drinking coffee in public, prevailed in Oxford 
immediately upon its introduction into England, and 
continued to a late period. I am told by a venerable 
friend, now (Feb. 1848) in his 93 rd year, that he well re- 
members the time when every academic of any fashion 
resorted to the coffee-house during the afternoon : 
Tom's, nearly opposite the present market, being 
frequented by the most gay and expensive ; Horse- 
man's, also in the High-Street, nearly opposite the 
house of the principal of Brasenose, received the mem- 
bers of Merton, All Souls, Corpus, and Oriel ; Har- 
per's, the corner house of the lane leading to Edmund 
Hall, those of Queen's and Magdalen ; Bagg's, the 
stone-house (built, by the way, out of the surplus 
materials from Blenheim by Sir John Vanburgh, who 
built also a similar house in New Inn Hall Lane, now 
occupied by Mr Walsh, and another in St Aldates, 
near Folly bridge, pulled down some twenty years 
since) at the corner of Holywell, facing the King's 
Arms, used by New College, Hertford, and Wadham ; 
and Malbon's, a diminutive tenement some feet be- 
low the present street at the north-east corner of the 
Turl, was filled from Trinity, and by the members 
of the neighbouring colleges.' 

The line from ' the Lounger' in the Oxford Sausage, 

L.B.E. I0 

146 University Society 

Dinner over to Tom's or to James's I go : 

stood in the Student, II. 279, 175 1, 

Dinner over to Tom's or to Clapham's I go, 

and a note describes them as 'Noted coffee-houses 
in Cambridge.' James' is mentioned in Warton's 
Panegyric on Oxford Ale, in the Oxford Sausage, as 
an Oxford house. 

We see that the coffee-houses frequently took some 
political connexion. Thus K. Charles II. once made 
the experiment of closing them by Proclamation in 
1675 (I. D'Israeli, Curios, of Lit); and they were 
often looked upon with suspicion, as likely to harbour 
sedition. In the Bodleian (Godwin, Pamph., No. 1686) 
is a copy of a notice by the Vice- Chancellor of Oxoa, 
Tho. Brathwaite, dated Oxon. the 27th day of July, 
171 1, prohibiting all Stationers, Booksellers, Hawkers, 
Keepers of Coffee-houses, other Publick Houses, &c, 
from publishing, &c, ' the Medley; number 41, which 
was a libel upon the Lower Houses of Commons and 
of Convocation, or ' the Laity's Remonstrance] in obe- 
dience to the Charge, given by Mr Justice Powell, at 
Assize. But we must pass on. 

Of earlier Oxford coffee-houses, Wood mentions 
also that, in 1655, 'Arth. Tillyard, apothecary and 
great royallist, sold coffey publickly in his house 
against All-soules Coll. He was encouraged to do 
so by som royallists, now living in Oxon. and by 
others, who esteem'd themselves either virtuosi or 
wits; of which the chiefest number were of Alls. Coll., 
as Peter Pett, Thorn. Millington, Tim. Baldwin, Chris- 
top. Wren [Sir Chr. Wren], Georg. Castle, Will. Bull, 

in the Eighteenth Century. 147 

&c. There were others also, as Joh. Lamphire, a 
physician, lately ejected from New Coll., who was 
sometimes the natural droll of the company, the two 
Wrens, sojournours in Oxon, Matthew and Thomas, 
sons of Dr Wren, bishop of Ely, &c. This coffey- 
house continued till his majestie's returne and after, 
and they became more frequent, and had an excise 
set upon coffey.' In 1677 he asks, 'Why doth solid 
and serious learning decline, and few or none follow 
it now in the University? Answer, because of coffea- 
houses, where they spend all their time ; and in en- 
tertainments at their chambers, where their studies 
and coffea-houses are become places for victuallers ; 
also great drinking at taverns and ale-houses, spend- 
ing their time in common chambers whole afternoons, 
and thence to the coffea-house.' 

This disease spread in the Universities no less than 
in the country at large. Whereas Mr Harris (after- 
wards the first Ld. Malmesbury) says of his career at 
Merton in 1762, 'Our life was an imitation of High 
Life in London. Luckily, drinking was not the 
fashion ; but what we did drink was claret; and we had 
our regular round of evening card parties to the great 
derangement of our finances. It has often been a 
matter of surprise to me that so many of us made 
our way so well in the world, and so creditably:' 
in 1785 (Mr Gunning says, Reminisc. I. xx. 24, 50), 
drinking was almost universal. Professor Pryme re- 
collected (pp. 49—51) a similar state of affairs in 
1799. 'It was usual to invite a large party to par- 
take of wine and a moderate dessert after hall. The 

10 — 2 

148 University Society 

host named a Vice-President, and toasts were given. 
First, a lady by each of the party, then a gentleman, 
and then a sentiment. I remember one of these lat- 
ter: "the single married, and the married happy." 
Some of them were puns. Every one was required 
to fill a bumper to the toasts of the President, the 
Vice-President, and his own...." Buzzing," unknown in 
the present day, was then universal [see Gent. Maga- 
zine, Vol. 64]. ...If any one wished to go to chapel, he 
was pressed to return afterwards.' 

The vice was of old standing. Hearne relates 
{Diary, Bliss, ed. 2. II. 269) that about the year 1704 
a commoner of Magdalen Hall Oxon., a son of Dr 
Inett, was found dead from drinking ale and brandy 
in company with three others, all of whom had fallen 

The writer of ' Advice to a Son in the University 
(London; printed by Edm. Powell in Blackfryars, 
near Litdgate, and are to be sold by John Morphew, 
near Stationers' -Hall, 1708.') [Bodl. Gough, Camb. 
66.] warns him against drinking, as against a fashion- 
able vice. (See Swift's 'Project for the Advancement 
of Religion.') 

We read of disgraceful scenes of debauchery even 
in the common and combination-rooms. In the days 
of early dinners, the effect of such orgies must have 
been more than ever degrading. In some colleges 
there seem, even at that time, to have been common- 
rooms for Bachelors of Arts, as at Exeter, Oxon., in 
I 7S4- (The Conduct of ...College Consider 'd, &c. 1754; 
Bodl. Gough, Add". Oxfordshire, 4to, 31.) 

in the Eighteenth Century. 149 

Against the habit of students giving private din- 
ners, there was a loud outcry 1 : and it was complained 
that non-attendance at Hall was frequent. 

Another abuse was the custom of turning Fast- 
days into feasts : the dinner hour being simply post- 
poned till after chapel. (Pryme, A utobiog. Recoil., p. 93.) 

I have observed that while Peterhouse was stricter 
than most Colleges in adhering to the fish dinner on 
Fast-days in the 17th century; after the Restoration 
the custom was there dropped, the intermediate stage 
being to have meat, in addition to fish ; and latterly, 
flesh instead of fish. 

The taverns were frequently the scenes of great 
disorder, inflamed sometimes, as we have seen, by 
party quarrels. At Cambridge, the Tuns, kept by 
Wish, had a noisy reputation. It bore a name fa- 
mous in the University, from the days of Nevile's 
Poor Scholar, a play in 1662 (Act II. sc. 6). 

Its namesake at Oxford was the rendezvous of the 
'Poetical Club; which is ridiculed by Nicholas Am- 
herst in April, 1721 {Terrae Filius, Nos. 25, 26). The 
meetings there .are thus described by one more fa- 
vourable to them. '1721, July 13. Went to the 
Tuns with Tho. Beale, Esq. (Gent. Comoner), Mr 
Hume, and Mr Sylvester, Pembrokians, where mot- 
to'd, epigrammatiz'd, &c.' 'Aug. 17. Went with Mr 

1 The Expence'of the Univ. Education Reduced, p. 23, ed. 4, 
1 741, written in 1727 by Dr R. Newton; also his Statutes of Hert- 
ford Coll. p. 68. Remarks on the Enormous the Univ. 
of Cambridge, Sec. 1788, pp. 6, 36. Strictures upon the Discipline of 
the Univ. of Camb. 1792, p. 14. Advice to a Young Man of 
Quality, &c. 1760, p. 29. 

150 University Society 

Tristram to the Poetical Club (whereof he is a mem- 
ber) at the Tuns (kept by Mr Broadgate), where met 
Dr Evans, Fellow of St John's, and Mr Jno. Jones, 
Fellow of Baliol, members of the Club. Subscribed 
5-r. to Dr Evans's Hymen and Juno (which one mer- 
rily call'd Evans's Bubble, it being now South Sea 
Time). Drank Gallicia wine, and was entertained 
with two Fables of the Doctor's Composition, which 
were indeed masterly in their kind: but the Dr. is 
allowed to have a peculiar knack, and to excell all 
mankind at a Fable.' (Diary of Erasmus Phillips, 
' Fellow-Commoner' of Pembroke, Oxon., N. and Q., 
2nd S., x. 366, 443.) 

There was the ' Nonsense Club \' which Geo. 
Colman, Bonnel Thornton, and Lloyd founded about 
1750 : there was the ' Jelly-bag Club *,' so called from 
the famous Epigram on an Epigram ascribed to Ralph 

' Make it at Top both wide and fit 
To hold a Budget-full of Wit, 
And point it at the End.' 

The Terrae Filius of 1733, in his speech, which was 
prohibited, proposed thus to satirize the Fellows of 
All Souls. ' I would next willingly pay a visit to their 
college, if I could find it out ; it used to stand on the 
right hand above Queen's, but if we may judge from 
the resort of its members we should judge it to be 
translated over the way, and that the Three Tuns 

1 Oxford during the Last Century, p. 64 (from the Oxford Chronicle, 

3 Oxford Sausage, 1764. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 151 

Tavern was All Souls' College ; did not the effigies 
of the good Archbishop over the door convince us to 
the contrary.' The Fellows of St John's Oxon., we 
are told by Amherst in his Terras Films essays 
(No. 34), 'valu'd themselves for having the best single 
and double COLL. {i.e. College ale) in the University.' 

There was another class of houses common about 
Oxford, which are thus described in a paper in The 
Student, or Oxf. and Camb. Monthly Miscellany, 
175 1, II. 373 ("anticipating Tom Warton's facetious 
' Companion to the Guide, and Guide to the Com- 
panion, being a Supplement to all the Accounts of 
Oxford, hitherto published. l2mo. 1762'). 

' It is well known that before colleges were esta- 
blished, our members were scattered about and lodg'd 
at private houses : at length, places were set apart for 
their reception, and dignified by the names of hospitia, 
or halls, or (in the modern dialect) inns or tippling- 
houses. We must not therefore be surpriz'd to find 
several remaining which retain their ancient occupa- 
tion, not only in the body but in the skirts of the 
town ; such as Fox-hall, Lemon-hall, Feather-hall, 
Stump-hall, Cabbage-hall, Caterpillar-hall, &c, &c. 
But there is one that deserves particular notice, 
situated N.N.E , a little way out of town, known by 
the name of Kidney-hall; which has long been a very 
noted seminary 1 ' Hearne used to solace himself with 
his antiquarian researches, ' sometimes at Heddington, 
sometimes at Iffley, sometimes at Blind Pinnocks 
[at Cumnor], sometimes at Antiquity Hall' (1718-19). 

1 Oxoniana, III. 107. 

152 University Society 

The last, which bore the sign of Whittington and 
his Cat, was near Rewley, and was known in earlier 
times as the Hole in the Wall. It was a favourite 
haunt of ' honest ' antiquaries. 

A no less famous hostel was Louse Hall, which was 

kept by a venerable matron, Mother Louse, ' at the 

further end of a row of tenements, at the bottom of 

Headington Hill, near the lane leading to Marston, 

now, not unaptly, called Harpsichord Row. Granger, 

in his Biographical History of England [describing a 

print by Loggan], informs us that she was probably 

the last woman in England that wore a ruff. Mother 

George [whose name is associated with hers in 

Wood's Life, anno 1673] lived in Black Boy Lane, 

and afterwards in the parish of St Peter's in the 

Bailey, where she died [in her 119th year, July 12, 

1691] by an accidental fall which injured her back... 

She used to thread a very fine needle, without the 

help of spectacles, and to present it to her guests, 

who in return gave her some gratuity towards her 

support 1 .' Granger states that Cabbage-hall (situated 

directly opposite the London road on Heddington 

hill) was founded by a tailor. 'Caterpillar-hall, the 

name of the house higher up the hill, was no doubt a 

complimentary appellation, intimating to posterity 

that, on account of its better commons, it had drawn 

away a great number of students from its inferior 

society, or, in other words, that the caterpillar had eat 

up the cabbage 2 .' 

1 Oxoniana, I. 111. 

2 Life of Wood, Bliss, a. *.. 1673. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 153 

Having mentioned two good ladies of the 17th 
century, it is but fair to refer to the portrait of one of 
the 1 8th. There is a caricature of 'Mother Goose of 
Oxford, Dighton ad vivam delt: pubd. July, 1807, 
by Dighton, Charing Cross.' The worthy lady is 
represented in a slate-coloured hat and gown, a white 
kerchief, stockings and apron, long white mittens, tye 
shoes and roses ; and is carrying a cloth in a large 
gardener's basket. 

Of Clubs at Oxford (in addition to the Constitution, 
and the Club, with others which I have already men- 
tioned), there were the following : the Banterers, whom 
A. Wood describes (1678) as 'a set of scholars so- 
called, some M.A., who make it their employment 
to talk at a venture, lye, and prate what nonsense 
they please, if they see a man talk seriously they talk 
floridly nonsense, and care not what he says; this is 
like throwing a cushion at a man's head, that pretends 
to be grave and wise.' There were the Freecynics in 
I 737> ' a kind of Philosophical Club... who.. .have a 
set of symbolical words and grimaces, unintelligi- 
ble to any but those of their own society 1 .' There 
was also the High Borlace, a tory club which had a 
convivial meeting held annually at the King's 
Head tavern in Oxford, on the 18th of August 
(or, if that fell on a Sunday, on the 19th, as in 1734), 
on which occasion Dr Leigh, Master of Balliol, was 
'of the High Borlace,' and the first clergyman who 
had attended. It seems to have been patronized by 
the county families, and it is not improbable that 

1 From Dr Rawlinson's MSS. Oxoniana, iv. 246. 

154 University Society 

there was a ball connected with it. The members 
chose a Lady Patroness: in 1732, Miss Stonhouse; 
1733, Miss Molly Wickham, of Garsington ; 1734* Miss 
Anne Cope, daughter of Sir Jonathan Cope of Bruern. 
On that occasion, Mr Moseley 1 , of Merton, was pro- 
posed as a member of the said Borlace, but rejected, 
probably because he was a member of a whig college. 

1749. I have already quoted the remonstrance 
against Oxford jacobitism as manifested, among other 
things, in the 'sort of People... most caressed at... 
your High Borlace', in the pamphlet entitled ' Oxford 

1 75 1. This date is engraved with the motto 
HIGHBOR LACE on the gold back of 'an ancient 
brooch richly enamelled, and jewelled with about 
fifty rubies ; [which] has a St Andrew's cross worked 
in white and blue enamel, with a sort of love-knot 
encircling it; and underneath this cross is a motto 
worked in white enamel.' It bears 'the names of two 
persons, one of whom is designated "Lady Patro- 
ness.'" This notice in Notes and Queries, 2nd S., 
IV. 248, col. b, was answered by various conjectures. 
'D. B.' suggested that it might be 'a Cornish motto 
composed of the name of the person who adopted it.' 
'F. C. H.' thought it might be 'merely intended for 
Highborn Lass : on p. 317 the quotations from Hearne 
were given. 

1763. Letter from the North Briton to the Cocoa- 

'The Earl of Westmoreland was succeeded by Lord 
1 Hearne, Bliss, m. 103, 150. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 155 

Litchfield, and your party [the tories] gentlemen 
grew so greatly in favour that Oxford now gave us 
chancellors for courtiers, and of her doctors we made 
chancellors ; for the remarkable year teemed with the 
dire omen of the same doctor made Chancellor of the 
Exchequer and comptroller of the high borlace club.' 
(Gent. Mag. xxxiii. 66). 

1765. Monday, Aug. 19, 'was held at the Angel 
inn, at Oxford, the High-Borlase, when Lady Harriot 
Somerset was chosen Lady Patroness for the year en- 
suing.' {Gent. Mag., 1765.) 

The import of the name is still open to conjecture. 
In addition to the suggestions already recounted we 
may propose, 

' Hebolace. A dish in cookery, composed of onions, 
herbs, and strong broth' (Halliwell's Archaic and 
Provincial Dictionary). 

'Hispanis Burlar est jocari, ludere, Vasconibus Bur- 
laze, Occitanis Bourlos ludus, jocus, illusio.' 

{Du Cange, gloss, s.v. Burlare, cp. 'Burlesque.') 

But I should be inclined to content myself with 
supposing that some member of the old Cornish 
family of Borlace, Borlase, or Borlass, several of whom 
were Oxonians and staunch Jacobites, gave his name 
originally to the meetings. My friend, Mr William 
Copeland Borlase, of Castle Horneck, informs me 
that a member of a wealthy branch of the family 
situated at Great Marlowe com. Bucks was at Oxford 
in the latter part of the xvilth century : he seems to 
have been a person of genial temper and a firm ad- 
herent to the Stuarts. 

156 University Society 

At Cambridge also there were several Clubs. The 
Old Maids' 1 who met at a coffee-house after evening 
chapel for the benefit of literary conversation. Of 
this party was Dr Middleton, Mr Baker the antiquary, 
Dr Dickens the celebrated Professor of Civil Law, 
Dr Tonstal and others. 

Of a different nature were the meetings of such 
clubs as the Westminster and the Charterhouse. Of a 
disturbance connected with the former in 1750, 1 have 
spoken above. Richard Laughton, of Clare 2 , when 
proctor in 1709, had laboured to suppress several clubs 
of a noisy character. We have also caught a glimpse 
of a society of university-politicians, the Associators, 
who asserted the right of Appeal from the Vice- 
chancellor's Court, and who met (like the Westminster 
Club) at the Tuns tavern in 1751. 

Gunning {Reminisc. II. 153) mentions a very ex- 
pensive club, to which several King's men belonged, 
about the year 1790, and 'Turk' Taylor of Trinity, 
who was supposed to have killed a drayman in a 
'Town and Gown row' in 1788. There were 12 
members of the club, who wore ' coats of bright 
green, lined and bound with buff silk, with buttons 
made expressly, and upon which Sans Souci was 
elegantly engraved ; the waistcoat, curiously adorned 
with frogs, was buff, with knee-breeches of the same 
colour. The members met at each others' rooms 
one evening in the week, when they played for 

1 Dyer's Priv. of Camb. II.; Supplement to Hist. II. pp. 135, 136. 

2 Monk's Bentley, I. 286. Mr Mayor's account of R. Laughton in 
his Cambridge under Queen Anne will contain some curious information 
on this matter. 

zn the Eighteenth Century. 157 

very high stakes ; also they dined together once 
a month, when each member was allowed to invite 
a friend ; and in conclusion, they had a grand anni- 

Professor Pry me speaking of his early days (Au- 
tobiog. Recoil, 117), about 1799, says: 'The "Cam- 
bridge Union " did not exist. The only clubs that 
I can recollect were " The True Blue" said tradi- 
tionally to have existed from the time of the revo- 
lution of 1688, and to have taken its colour in 
opposition to the Orange of King William. An 
especial dress, including a blue coat, was worn by 
the members, who were few in number, and it was 
confined to Trinity College. It was reputed to be 
a hard-drinking club. The other called "The Specu- 
lative',' after a great debating society at Edinburgh, 
met once a week in term time, and consisted of 
twenty members ; Pattison (afterwards Judge), Sum- 
ner (Bp. of Winchester), and Pearson (afterwards 
Archdeacon, and son of the eminent surgeon of 
that name), and I, belonged to it. The present 
"Union" was formed in 1815, as its name implies, 
by the junction of two rival societies. It first met 
in a small room at the back of the Red Lion Inn, 
and afterwards removed to premises which had been 
formerly used as a dissenting chapel' 

On the 10th of December, 1725, was established 
at Cambridge a literary society called the Zodiack 
club 1 , consisting of 12 members denominated from 

1 Cooper's Annals, IV. 187; Nichols' Lit. Anecd. VI. 228; Oxford 
Undergraduates' Journal, 1867, p. 158. 

158 University Society 

the 12 signs. In 1728, 6 planets were added. The 
members were pledged to present, recommend, and 
elect to all offices none but such as belonged to the 
Society \ 

The Hyson club was established by the Wranglers 
of 1758. (Milner's Life of Milner.) Among the. 
extracts from a diary which will be printed in an 
Appendix to this compilation will be found notices 
of a Literary Society to which S. T. Coleridge and 
Chr. Wordsworth (afterwards Master of Trinity) &c. 
belonged in 1795. 

The Progress of Discontent by T. Warton (written 
in 1746, printed in the Student, 1750, and the Oxford 
Sausage, 1764, &c.) gives the following summary of 
the life of a don without worthy aspirations : 

What endless pleasure 
I found in Reading or in Leisure ! 
When calm around the Common Room 
I puff'd my daily Pipe's Perfume ! 
Rode for a Stomach, and inspected, 
At annual Bottlings, Corks selected : 
And din'd untaxed, untroubled, under 
The Portrait of our pious Founder! 
[When, for Amusement, my tyrannic 
Sway could put Freshmen in a Panic;] 
When Impositions were supply'd 
To light my Pipe — or sooth my Pride! 

Too fond of Liberty and Ease 

A Patron's Vanity to please, 

Long Time he watches, and by Stealth, 

Each frail Incumbent's doubtful Health ; 

At length — and in his fortieth Year, 

A Living drops — two hundred clear] 

1 Cooper's Annals, iv. 298. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 159 

To the diary of the ' genuine Idler' {Idler No. 33, 
said to have been written by Tom Warton, as also 
Nos. 93,96), in 1758, reference has been made already. 
Another sketch is given in a Parody on Gray's 
Elegy which appeared in the Oxford Sausage, 1764., 
under the title ' An Evening Contemplation in a 
College.' A portion of it is subjoined: 

Within these Walls, where thro' the glimm'ring Shade 

Appear the Pamphlets in a. mould'ring Heap, 

Each in his narrow Bed till Morning laid, 

The peaceful Fellows of the College sleep. 

The tinkling Bell proclaiming early Prayers, 

The noisy Servants rattling o'er their Head, 

The calls of Business and domestic Cares, 

Ne'er rouze these Sleepers from their downy Bed. 

E'en now their Books from Cobwebs to protect, 
Inclos'd by Doors of Glass in Doric Style, 
On fluted Pillars rais'd, with Bronzes deck'd, 
They claim the passing Tribute of a Smile. 
Oft are the Authors' Names, tho' richly bound, 
Mis-spelt by blund'ring Binders' Want of Care ; 
And many a Catalogue is strew'd around, 
To tell th' admiring Guest what Books are there. 

Reports attract the Lawyer's parting Eyes, 
Novels Lord Fopling and Sir Plume require ; 
For Songs and Plays the Voice of Beauty cries, 
And Sense and Nature Grandison desire. 
For thee, who mindful of thy lov'd Compeers 
Dost in their Lines their artless Tales relate, 
If Chance, with prying Search in future Years, 
Some Antiquarian shall enquire thy Fate, 
Haply some Friend may shake his hoary Head, 
And say, ' Each Morn unchill'd by Frost, he ran 
With Hose ungarter'd, o'er yon turfy Bed, 
To reach the Chapel ere the Psalms began. 
There in the Arms of that lethargic Chair, 
Which rears its moth-devoured. Back so high, 

160 University Society 

At Noon he quaffed three Glasses to the Fair, 
And por'd upon the News with curious Eye. 
Now by the Fire, engag'd in serious Talk 
Or mirthful Converse, would he loit'ring stand; 
Then in the Garden chuse a sunny Walk, 
Or launch the polish'd Bowl with steady Hand. 
One Morn we miss'd him at the Hour of Pray'r, 
Beside the Fire, and on his fav'rite Green; 
Another came, nor yet within the Chair, 
Nor yet at Bowls, nor Chapel was he seen. 
The next we heard that in a neighbouring Shire, 
That Day to Church he led a blushing Bride.' 

Tobacco seems to have been taken at Cambridge as 
early as 1614 — 15; for the 10th order for preparations 
against King James' coming at that time provided 

'That no Graduate, Scholler, or Student of this 
Universitie, presume to resorte to any Inn, Taverne, 
Ale-howse, or Tobacco-shop, at any tyme dureing the 
abode of his Majestie here; nor doe presume to take 
tobacco in St Marie's Church [at the Act] or in Trinity 
Colledge Hall [at the performance of Aemilia, Ignora- 
mus, A Ibumazar, and Melanthe\ upon payne of finall 
expellinge the Universitie.' 

At Oxford, dean Aldrich of Ch. Ch. was a habitual 
smoker. It is well known that he wroje '« Catch to be 
sung by four Men smoking their Pipes, not more diffi- 
cult to sing than diverting to hear' A student once 
visited the dean at 10 A.M., having laid a wager that 
he would find him in the act of smoking. The dean 
said good-humouredly, 'You see sir, you've lost your 
wager, for I'm not smoking, I'm filling my pipe.' 

Tho. Baker, of St John's, Cambridge, 'used gene- 
rally to fetch a clean Pipe about 3 o'clock' in the 

in the Eighteenth Century. 161 

afternoon. He was found dead with one lying broken 
at his side in 1740. 

In 1786, Gunning says {Reminisc i. 44), smoking 
was 'going out of fashion amongst the junior members 
of our combination-rooms, except on the river in the 
evening, when every man put a short pipe in his 

Prof. Pryme states (Autobiog. Reminisc, p. 51) that 
in 1800 ' Smoking was allowed [as now] in the Trinity 
combination-room after supper in the twelve days of 
Christmas, when a few old men availed themselves 
of it [' with the wine, pipes and tobacco-box were laid 
on the table. Porson was asked for an inscription 
for the latter (a large silver one), and he said "tc5 
Bdicx<p,'" ibid. p. 86, s. a. 1808]. Among us under- 
graduates it had no favour, and an attempt of Mr 
Ginkell, son of Lord Athlone (a Dutch family men- 
tioned in Macaulay's History of England), to intro- 
duce smoking at his own wine-parties failed, although 
he had the prestige of being a hat-fellow-commoner.' 

Gunning 1 relates how Busick Harwood used to 
spend his evenings in Emmanuel parlour, which, under 
the presidency of Dr Farmer, was always open to 
those who loved pipes and tobacco and cheerful con- 

At Peterhouse, it was by a College Order, 'April 
3rd, 1735, agreed at a Meeting of the M sr . and Fel- 
lows, that the person attending the Parlour be allow'd 
forty shillings, p an. to be placed under the Head of 
Expensae Mri. et Soc.:' 'Oct. 31, 1749, a fire to be 

1 Reminisc. I. 54. 
L. B. E. lX 

1 62 University Society 

made in the Combination at noon, to continue till 
two o'clock in the afternoon from the Audit till lady- 

It is called 'the Common-room' {as at Oxford), in an 
Order made March rst, 1749 — 50. 

The ordinary name for the college parlours at 
Cambridge, 'Combination-room,' is said by a good 
authority to be derived, not from the convivial meet- 
ings held there, but from their sterner use for business, 
not for pleasure: inasmuch as there were drawn up 
the 'First Combination Paper,' a list of the Preachers 
of the Sunday morning university Sermons, a certain 
number of whom were appointed (as the Proctors and 
Moderators are) by each college in turn (excepting 
Trinity Hall), according to the Prior Combinatio ; 
and of the preachers on Saints' days and Sunday 
afternoons, according to the order of names in the 
Registrary's book, — the Posterior Combinatio : a sub- 
stitute for one of the latter set received two guineas. 

In the Combination-room there was always a seed 
cake ready, and a bottle of sherry sack (or dry sherry) 
for those engaged in Acts for the higher degrees, and 
thither came the maces to conduct the disputants to 
the Schools. 

The frequenting of taverns and the lounging at 
coffee-houses was at once an effect and a cause of a 
lack of healthy exercise. If some of us are too stren- 
uous in our diversions now-a-days; in the preceding 
century there was a want of vigour and falling-off 
from the days of the Book of Sports, from the trials 
of strength in the merry England of good queen Bess, 

in the Eighteenth Century. 163 

and from the long-bow of our more distant ancestry. 
The Hanoverian dynasty seems to have brought in, 
along with certain good things, a sort of triumph of 
Pudding, Turnips, and muddy Ale, over the Lace, 
Maypoles, Champagne and Burgundy of the preced- 
ing period. For riding the Great Horse, we have 
schemes in phaetons to Blenheim or Madingley: 
instead of bell-ringing there is beer, and billiards 
played lazily at Chesterton. 

The following account of amusements at Oxford, in 
1667, is taken from Oxcnium poema, some Latin 
verses [Bodl. Gough, Oxford, 90], ' authore F. V. 
[ernon], Ex Aede Christi, Oxon. : Typis W. Hall. 
Impensis Ric. : Davis, 1667,' pp. 26. In 'the mar- 
gent' is a running argument indicating the different 
topics of the descriptions; among them are 'Schollars 
that dispute as they walk,' 'Authors quoted in dis- 
pute' [Burgersdicius, Brerewood, Aristotle Organon, 
Smiglecius, Scotus, Aquinas, Suarez, Vasquez, Schei- 
blerus, Herebordus, Combachius, Magirus, Isendor- 
nus, &c.]. 

Then comes a description of Oxford in spring, 
'Swimming in Merton Pool and Schollars Pool, Turn- 1 
bling in the Hay.' Another watches ' Frogs swim- 
ming;' while a third tells 'Stories under a Hay-mow.' 
But the more sad student on his way to the river 
'will repeat Virgil or the lines of the great Horace.' 
There is also 'Leaping, Wrestling, Playing at Quoits,' 
as well as the more pastoral occupation of 'making 
Trimtrams with Rushes and Flowers.' Another party 
sits on the bank and 'non regressuros educit arundine 

II— 2 

164 University Society 

pisces;' while a stray Piscator looks out for the lurking 
den of the ravenous Luce or Pikerel. Others search 
in the mud for 'Chubs and Craw-fish:' but they 
will be startled by shrew mice, 'Water-ratts, toads, 
snakes,' or owls. The poem concludes with prayers 
for a blessing on Oxford : 

' Surplices] Nempe tuae niveo memorantur ab agmine laudes? 

It must be remembered that this is a description 
of the pastime of boys. The recreations of youth are 
recounted in ' The Compleat Gentleman : Fashioning 
Him absolute in the most Necessary and Commend- 
able Qualities concerning Mind, or Body, that may 
be required in a person of Honor. By Henry Peach- 
am, Mr of Arts, Sometime of Trinity Colledge in 
Cambridge... 1661' [ed. 1. 1622]. Chapter XVII., 'Of 
Exercise of the Body, Horsmanship, Tilting and 
Torneaments, throwing, leaping, and wrestling (not 
so well beseeming Nobility), running, leaping, swim- 
ming, shooting, as in that excellent Book of Mr As- 
chams intituled Toxophilus, wherein you shall finde 
whatsoever is requisite to be know of a compleat 

Bell-ringing was an amusement which had not been 
unknown in the earlier days. Thus, Sir Symonds 
D'Ewes in 1618, on the morning of St Thomas' day, 
amused himself by taking the rope from the hands 
of the subsizar at St John's, whose duty it was to 
ring, and pulled till he fell down the stairs exhausted, 
and was stunned. This amusement received a great 
impetus at the time of the rejoicings at the Restora- 

in the Eighteenth Century. 165 

tion in 1660. It bears a curious part in Bunyan's 
Life and writings (Grace Abounding, §§33, 34. Life 
and Death of Mr Badman, ch. VII. [Offor, III. p. 625] ; 
Holy War, passim ; also Clark's Looking Glass for 
Saints and Sinners, 1657, 568 — 9). Uffenbach, when 
at Cambridge in 17 10 (Reise, III. 63), says that the 
English performed poorly on all instruments but the 
organ, yet they pride themselves on their chimes, 
and 'aim at an artistic style of ringing; but we could 
not fancy the clatter, rather were annoyed to hear it 
so often : for the scholars or young students mount 
the towers and ring when they please, often for hours 
together. Accidents often happen in bell-ringing, 
some students being struck, or falling down and 
breaking leg and arm.' [Mr Mayor's translation.] 
In his sober years, R. Dawes, the critic, took to bell- 
ringing at Cambridge about 1733, as he did to boat- 
ing at Heworth in 1750. He was a member of the 
' Cambridge Youths' in 173 1. On the 3rd of August, 
1724, 'was established the Society denominated the 
Cambridge Youths, instituted for the purpose of 
change-ringing on Great St Mary's Bells (a new peal 
often being put up this year). Several distinguished 
members of the University [10 are enumerated, 1725 
— 73] have belonged to this Society, which still ex- 
ists' (Cooper's Annals, IV. 185, published 1852). 

At Oxford, Hearne took great interest in the ring- 
ing matches 1 1733 — 5 (as Ant. Wood had done in 
1656, when he, with his mother and brothers, sub- 

1 Bliss, Hearne, ed. 2. III. 96, 104, 109, 121, 133, 145, 154, 180. 

1 66 University Society 

scribed towards the founding of Merton bells: and 
though they were not satisfactory to ' the curious and 
critical hearer,' he plucked at them often with some 
of his fellow-collegians for recreation sake). 

Mr G. V. Cox (in his Recollections, 1 868, p. 30) says, 
that at Oxford 'bell-ringing, a fashionable exercise 
some twenty years before, was, in 1797, voted vulgar.' 
It gave place to the more aristocratic door-bell and 
knocker wringing. The following account of amuse- 
ments in Oxford in 175 1 is taken from the Student 
(II. 374), where the burlesque account of 'Several 
Public Buildings in Oxford, never before described,' is 
given. 'The several gymnasia constructed for the 
exercise of our youth, and a relaxation from their se- 
verer studies, are not so much frequented as formerly, 
especially in the summer : our ingenious gownsmen 
having found out several sports which conduce to the 
same end, such as battledoor and shuttlecock, swinging 
on the rope, Sec, in their own apartments; or, in the 
fields, leap-frog, tag, hop-step-and-jump, and among 
the rest, skittles; which last is a truly academical ex- 
ercise, as it is founded on arithmetical and geometrical 
principles.' The introduction of gymnasiums into 
England seems to have taken place at a comparatively 
recent date. Hone, in his Every-Day Book (1. 19, 
1315, II. 653—8), 1826—7, records the rise of the ex- 
ercise under the advocacy of Mr Clias, and the super- 
intendence of Herr Voelker, in New Inn Road, and 
in Finsbury Square ; and by the formation of a ' Lon- 
don Gymnastic Society.' 

But 'the Great Horse' of the 17th and 18th centu- 

in the Eighteenth Century. 167 

ries was a very different creature from that of the 
present gymnasts. In an appendix to this compila- 
tion will be found an account, abridged from Gutch's 
Collectanea Curiosa, of a Letter from a Friend of the 
Universities, in reference to the new Project for riding 
'the Great Horse,' written probably by Dr Wallis in 
the year 1700. The proposal was for a riding-school, 
which was to serve almost as many purposes of edu- 
cation as Emmanuel Coffee-house mentioned above. 
It was intended 1 'to devote the profits of Clarendon's 
History to supporting a riding-school.' Hearne {Reli- 
quiae, in. 90, Bliss) tells us that when Mr Lewis Maid- 
well had his proposal for supporting a publick school 
(designed, amongst other things, for the sea-service of 
the nation), his petition delivered into the House of 
Commons, Feb. 3, 1699, upon mature deliberation was 
thrown out chiefly by Wallis, whose MS. was offered 
to Hearne for publication. He adds, 'The project 
then on foot was for an academy of exercises in the 
University, such as riding the great horse, fencing, &c. 
I well remember the thing to have been much talked 
of in the. University : I think it was wisely stopped, 
because, without doubt, 'twould have utterly ob- 
structed all true learning.' 

In his Cheape and Good Husbandry, Book I. pp. 
8—31, (in his Way to get Wealth, ed. 10, 1660) 
G[ervase] M[arkham] gives a treatise ' of the great 
Horse', with full directions for Cherishings (' as cry- 
ing holla so boy, there boy there') for performing the 

1 N. and Q. 1st S., x. 185, XI. 31 ; 2nd S., x. 74. 

1 68 University Society 

Corvet, Capriole, Terra Terra, Caragolo, Serpeigiare; 
Incavellare, Chambetta, the Carere, the Gallop Galli- 
ard, as well as instructions for ' Riding before a 

This had been a fashionable amusement. Ben 
Jonson's Hedon 'courts ladies with how many great 
horse he hath rid that morning' [Cynthids Revels, 
II. i.). Riding, though discouraged by the Univer- 
sity authorities, was a favourite, but expensive 
amusement. We have indeed, in Cobb's Tripos 
speech (described below), as early as 1 701 — 2, an 
instance of a don (Awbery, the junior proctor) dis- 
tinguishing himself by his unskilful riding on the 
Hills Road. So too 'the Female Student' (in the 
Student, II. 302, 1751) describes the life of a Mas- 
ter of Arts as ' confin'd to those of his own 
standing: and the college-hall, the common-room, 
the coffee-house, and now and then a ride on the 
Gog-magog-hills, is all the variety he has a taste 
for enjoying.' We may compare also [Warton's] 
'Diary of a genuine Idler' in 1758 {Idler, No. 33). 
It is recorded in Remarks on the Enormous Expence 
in the Education of many young men in the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge... &c. 1788 [p. 39, Bodl. Gough, 
Camb. 65] that ' a Horsekeeper, one James Barrow, 
who in 1773 was not worth .£10, died in 1786 
worth £3000, which he had acquired by letting 
and selling horses to the young men of the Univer- 
sity. The charges at present [1788] are I think as 
follows : 

in the Eighteenth Century. 169 

I s. d. 

Fox and Stag hunting 150 

Hare ditto 15 o 

New Market meeting per day I I o 

The Amusement of most mornings' Racing at 

the Hills 10 6 

A common Bide 4 6 

The price given for Horses is from ,£18 to£l20. 

Another man, one Fordham a butcher, who with- 
in four years has raised a fortune by horses, has 
lately built a prodigious range of Stables near the 
County Hall' 

In the Pleasure of being out of Debt (which ap- 
peared in the Student, I. 114, 1750, and afterwards 
in the Oxford Sausage, 1764) is noted as a piece 
of liberty, that a man 

on a. spurgall'd Hackney runs 
To London masquerading. 

As late as 1797, according to Mr G. V. Cox 
(Recollections, p. 30), it was no uncommon thing ' for 
a "gentleman" (the Oxford tradesman's designation 
of a member of the University) to ride a match 
against time from Oxford to London and back again 
to Oxford (108 miles) in twelve hours or less with, of 
course, relays of horses at regular intervals. In one 
instance this was done in 8 hours and 45 minutes.,. 
Betting was, no doubt, the first and chief motive; 
a foolish vanity the second ; the third cause was 
the absence at that time in the University of a 
better mode of proving pluck and taming down the 
animal spirits of non-reading youngsters... Hunting 
then, as now, was an expensive amusement, only 

170 University Society 

to be enjoyed by a few, and by them only for a 
part of the year ; racing had not then been thought 
of... To ride well is indeed an accomplishment be- 
fitting a gentleman, but a gentleman need not learn 
to ride like a jockey.' 

Fox-hunting is the theme of one of the sets of 
Tripos verses for 1791. 

By the 9th of the celebrated ' Orders and Regula- 
tions ' of 1 750, riding on horseback was forbidden 
to persons in statu pupillari at Cambridge, unless 
they had special leave. But in 1807 the decree 
which forbade ' driving out in carriages drawn by two 
or more horses,' prohibited riding only on Sundays. 
In 1798 there had been a decree against driving, 
especially in the streets. 

Walking regularly for the sake of exercise is a 
modern refinement. 

It is, mentioned in W. Gilpin's Posthumoics Dia- 
logues on various subjects, 1807, p. 310. In 1799, 
Daniel Wilson writes to his father, that very few 
days passed when he did not walk for about an 

The practice of making short tours was earlier. 

Dr Tho. Blackwell, Professor of Greek at Aber- 
deen, and principal of Marischal College, writes on 
June 25, 1736, to beg Warburton to accompany 
Middleton and their 'common friend, Mr Gale,' in a 
tour in Scotland for two months in the summer 
during the long Vacation. At the same time it was 
not very uncommon for Fellows and Students (especi- 
ally Sizars, as Sam. Jebb at Peterhouse, and Bp. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 171 

Watson at Trinity) to live for several years together 
without sleeping a night out of Cambridge. The 
writer of 'Advice to a young man of Quality upon 
his coming to the University ; London, printed for 
C. Gay in Newgate Street, 1760/ advises him to 
travel in the neighbourhood of the University in- 
stead of hunting; and to spend the vacations in 
tours in Britain, visiting manufactories, interesting 
buildings, and antiquities. R. Gough, when a Fel- 
low-Commoner of Bene't College (now Corpus Chr.'sti, 
Camb.), in July 1756 visited Peterborough, Croyland 
and Stamford. (Nichols, L. A. vi. 268.) 

In 1742, Tho. Townson started for a 3 years' tour 
in France, Italy, Germany and Holland, with Daw- 
kins, Drake, and Holdsworth 1 . 'On his return from 
the Continent he resumed in College [Magd. Oxon.] 
the arduous and respectable employment of tuition, 
in which he had been engaged before he went abroad.' 

William Wordsworth took walking tours in France 
in 1790 — 91 (at a time no less awfully interesting than 
that which the country has been now passing through) 
before and after taking his degree. In the first in- 
stance he was accompanied by his college friend Rob. 
Jones, with about ^20 apiece in their pockets. 'Our 
coats which we had made light on purpose for the 
journey are of the same piece' (he writes); 'and our 
manner of carrying our bundles, which is upon our 
heads, with each an oak stick in our hands, contri- 
butes not a little to the general curiosity which we 
seem to excite.' He speaks of the Swiss innkeepers 
1 Churton's Townson, I. pp. xii. xiii. 

172 University Society 

even then, as ' corrupted by perpetual intercourse with 

In Hone's Table Book (I. 138) are quoted some 
lines which show that as early as 1826 visitors wrote 
'in the book at Rigi, in Switzerland;' and stayed 
there for the sunset and sunrise, and were disappointed. 

Wordsworth's tour was pedestrian, excepting that 
they bought a boat at Bale and floated down the 
Rhine to Cologne {Memoirs, ch. VII., where there is 
given their Itinerary from July 13 to Sept. 29). 

'Reading-parties' belong to the 19th century. In 
1 80S, bp. Watson complained of the constant flux of 
Lakers (or tourists) in Westmoreland. University 
men did not begin to go there in parties till later: our 
university leading the way, so that when the first 
Oxford party settled in those regions (about 1830) 
they were called by the natives 'the Oxford Cantabs.' 
Wordsworth's Guide through the District of the Lakes 
was enlarged from an essay published by him as an 
Introduction to Wilkinson's Views, and printed in 
1820 with 'Sonnets on the River Duddon, &c.' 

The amusements of sir Erasmus Philipps, when a 
'Fellow-Commoner' of Pembroke, Oxon., in 1720, 
seem to have been fox-hunting, attending cock-fight- 
ing and horse-races, giving and frequenting balls, 
riding to Woodstock, Godstow, Nuneham, &c, occa- 
sionally attending meetings of the Poetical club at the 
Three Tuns, learning the violin, listening to declama- 
tions in hall or speeches in the schools, or convers- 
ing with the 'Arabick criticks,' Mr Solomon Negri of 
Damascus, and others. He seems to have stayed in 

in the Eighteenth Century. 173 

Oxford through what is now the long Vacation, and 
to have gone down at Christmas for about the same 
period as we do now. 

The following extracts from his Diary (given in N. 
and Q., 2nd S., X. 366) may be found interesting: — - 

'172 1. July 4. Went up the river a fishing with 
Mr Wilder, Mr Eaton, Mr Clerk, Mr Clayton (Gent. 
Commoner), Mr Sylvester, and Mr Bois, all Pembrok- 
ians, as far as Burnt Island. Whereon we landed 
and dressed a leg of mutton, which afterwards we 
dispatched in the wherry. The passage to this dimi- 
nutive Island is wonderfully sweet and pleasant.' 

'1721. April 14. Rode with Mr Wilder, Fellow 
and Vicegerent of Pembroke, and Mr Le Merchant to 
Newnam, where dined upon Fish at the pleasant place 
mentioned, page 107. Coming home a dispute arose 
between these two gentlemen, whom, with great diffi- 
culty, I kept from blows.' 

Swimming (though forbidden 1 in ancient times) 
was common in the 18th century. Rowland Hill, in 
1768, swam against the stream from Cambridge to 
Grantchester. In Charles Simeon's diary occurs the 
following entry: 1784, 'May 28th, went into the 
water, and shall continue it at 5.' It would seem as if 
he bathed early in the Cam in King's College grounds. 

Fishing was not a very common recreation, though 
sometimes it formed a pleasant amusement in the 
water-parties of the time. 

Will. Pattison, the poet of Sidney Sussex Coll., used 

1 See Cooper's Annals, anno 1571. 

174 University Society 

to fish at Cambridge in 1724. He was compelled to 
retire from the University. 

Gunning says that in 1788 he does not think there 
were ten men in the University who were regular 
anglers, although the Rev. Mr Pemberton gave every 
encouragement to fishermen. He mentions fishing 
parties at Upware, and pond-netting at Dimmock's 
Court [Reminisc. 1. 43, 116). 

The Thames had been made navigable to Oxford 
in the reign of James I., when dean King of Christ 
Church was Vice-chancellor (1608 — 10) : and there 
had been an 'Act for making the River Cham alias 
Grant, in the County of Cambridge, more navigable 
from Clay-Hithe-Ferry to the Queen's Mill,' Sec, in 
the year 1702 (it was extended in 18 13); yet rowing 
was not made a regular exercise till the present cen- 
tury. Southey, who used to say that he 'learnt but 
two things at Oxford, to row and to swim,' gives the 
following picture of a scene on the Isis, in his Espriella, 
1807, Letter xxxii. : 'A number of pleasure-boats 
were gliding in all directions upon this clear and rapid 
stream ; some with spread sails ; in others the caps and 
tassels of the students formed a curious contrast with 
their employment at the oar. Many of the smaller 
boats had only a single person in each; and in some of 
these he sat face forward, leaning back as in a chair, 
and plying with both hands a double-bladed oar in 
alternate strokes, so that his motion was like the path 
of a serpent. One of these canoes is, I am assured, 
so exceedingly light, that a man can carry it; but 
few persons are skilful or venturous enough to use it.' 

in the Eighteenth. Century. 175 

Speaking of 1799, Prof. Pryme says (p. 43), 'Row- 
ing on the river was not then the custom, but we took 
a boat one day, rowed down to Clayhithe, hired a net 
to fish with, and rowed back in the evening. This 
was my only excursion during my first term.' 

Boat races were unheard of in Mr G. V. Cox's day 
(about 1 790) ; ' boating had not yet become a systematic 
pursuit in Oxford. Men went indeed to Nuneham 
for occasional parties in six-oared boats (eight-oar'd 
boats were then unknown), but these boats (such as 
would now be laughed at as " tubs ") belonged to the 
boat-people ; the crew was a mixed crew got up for 
the day, and the dresses worn anything but uniform. 
I belonged to a crew of five, who were, I think, the 
first distinguished by a peculiar (and what would now 
be thought a ridiculous) dress; viz. a green leather 
cap, with a jacket and trowsers of nankeen !' 

At Cambridge about the year 18 10 a few men 
would take a boat from the locks, or at Chesterton ; 
and sometimes two rival boats would sally forth 
together; not so much for a race as for a splashing 
match ! 

In the Classical Journal, V., 412—414, is printed, at 
the request of Sir Walter Scott, a set of Tripos 
verses signed V. L. 1 , ' in Comitiis posterioribus, March 
12, 1812.' They contain an account of the students 
working, and of the manner of spending the day 
among the undergraduates : 

' comites vocat, et rogat adsint 
Aut ad equos, aut si placeat ad flumina cymbae.' 

1 Chas. Val. Le Grice. 

176 University Society 

In the 6th number of the Tatler in Cambridge, 
1 87 1, is an amusing account of early boating from 
the year 1822, seven years before the earliest inter- 
university race. 

Shooting was a favourite sport in the days before 
the fens near Cambridge were drained. 

In Cooper's Annals (IV. 423) is given a facetious 
notice to trespassers, which was printed by the tenant- 
farmers of Grantchester in 1787. Mr Gunning writes 
{Reminisc. I. 40) that about the same period ' in going 
over the land now occupied by Downing Terrace, you 
generally got five or six snipes. Crossing the Leys, 
you entered on Cow-fen ; this abounded with snipes. 
Walking through the osier-bed on the Trumpington 
side of the brook, you frequently met with a par- 
tridge, and now and then a pheasant. From thence 
to the lower end of Pemberton's garden was one 
continued marsh, which afforded plenty of snipes, 
and in the month of March a hare or two. If you 
chose to keep by the side of the river, you came to 
Harston-Ham, well known to sportsmen ; and at no 
great distance from this you arrived at Foulmire 
Mere, which produced a great variety of wild fowl. 
The heavy coach changed horses at the Swan, and 
would set you down, between seven and eight o'clock, 
at the Blue Boar. If you started from the other 
corner of Parker's Piece, you came to Cherryhinton 
Fen ; and thence to Teversham, Quy, Bottisham, and 
Swaffham Fens. In taking this beat, you met with 
great varieties of wild fowl, bitterns, plovers of every 
description, ruffs and reeves, and not unfrequently 

in the Eighteenth Century. 177 

pheasants. If you did not go very near the mansions 
of the few country gentlemen who resided in the 
neighbourhood, you met with no interruption. You 
scarcely ever saw the gamekeeper, but met with a 
great number of young lads, who were on the look- 
out for sportsmen from the University, whose game 
they carried, and to whom they furnished long poles, 
to enable them to leap the very wide ditches which 
intersected the Fens in every direction.' 

This seems almost as strange to us now, as the 
account of London given in Macaulay's History, when 
a woodcock might be found where Regent-street 
is now. 

The Tripos verses for 1788, and 1795, bear witness 
to the taste for shooting in Cambridge at the time. 

In the Oxford University Statutes among pro- 
hibited games are mentioned ' every kind of game in 
which money is concerned, such as dibs, dice, cards, 
cricketing in private grounds or gardens of the towns- 
people:' and then 'every kind of game or exercise 
from which danger, injury, or inconvenience might 
arise to other people, such as hunting of beasts with 
any sort of dogs, ferrets, nets, or toils ; also any use 
or carrying of muskets, cross-bows, or falcolns : neither 
rope-dancers, nor actors, nor shows of gladiators are 
to be permitted without especial sanction ; moreover 
the scholars are not to play at football, nor with 
cudgels, either among themselves or with the towns- 
folk, a practice from which the most perilous con- 
tentions have often arisen 1 .' 

1 Htiber, ed. Newman, ii. II. 427. 
L. B. E. 12 

178 University Society 

At Cambridge the Elizabethan Statutes (cap. 47) 
forbade dice, and (except at Christmas) cards : daily 
resorting to the town : vain clubbing of money : sword- 
playing, fencing, and dancing-schools: gaming-houses: 
cockfighting, bear or bull-baiting : quoits : or looking 
on at any of these. 

The 5th of the Orders- and Regulations of 1750 
provided that ' every person in statu pupillari who 
shall be found at any coffee-house, tennis-court, 
cricket-ground, or other place of publick diversion 
and entertainment, betwixt the hours of nine and 
twelve in the morning, shall forfeit the sum of 10s. 
for every offence.' 

D'Ewes, in 1620, played at tennis at Christ's coll. 
He also mentions the Tennis-court in St John's. 
(Halliwell I. 109.) There is a Tennis-court marked 
in a map (dated 1688, in Loggan's Cantab. Depictd), 
as standing to the west of Peterhouse Grove. Rac- 
quets is mentioned in an Epistle to a Fellow-Commoner 
(Pelham) in 1750. 

Fives is mentioned by Amherst in his Terrae Filius, 
No. 34, 1 72 1 (or Fifes, as it is printed, ed. 1726), when 
he complains that the old Ball-court has been im- 
proved away. 

Of a later time Mr G. V. Cox remembered {Recoil. 
P< 53. 54), that 'the game of cricket was kept up 
chiefly by the young men from Winchester and Eton, 
and was confined to the old Bullingdon Club which 
was expensive and exclusive. The members of it, 
however, with the exception of a few who kept horses, 
did not mind walking to and fro.' Football was not 

in the Eighteenth Century. 179 

I think, played much in the last century; though it 
had once been carried on with vigour. Symonds 
D'Ewes speaks of a match which ought to have come 
off on Sheep's Green, on March 29, 1620 (?) between 
the Trinitician and the Johnian 'faction.' The for- 
mer did not appear. They played also sometimes on 
'Trinity Green,' near the Nevile Court. 

Though Sir P. Sidney speaks of women playing at 
the game, it was not a gentle one. About 1632, John 
Barwick 1 at St John's, 'would frequently recreate 
himself with bodily exercises and those violent enough, 
such as pitching the Bar, and playing at Football, at 
which latter game, having the misfortune to break a 
player's collar-bone, he would never play again.' 

'There was a decree 2 ' Perne Procan. [1574] 'that 
scholars should only play at football upon their own 
coll' ground, &c, and not admit Strangers or other 
Scholars under Penalty of 5-r. the first offence.' 

In 1579, the scholars, when playing, were assaulted 
by the men of Chesterton, and Dr Perry, of Peter- 
house, made another order as Justice of the Peace. 

At Oxford 3 , it was ordered by the Chancellor in 
1584, that 'no minister or deacon shall go into the 
fields to playe at foot-ball, or beare any weapon to 
make any fraye or maintain any quarrel.' 

Sir T. Overbury, in his character of 'a meere 
Scholar,' 1616, notes as a characteristic, that 'the 
antiquity of his University is his creed, and the ex- 

1 Barwick's Life of Barwick, ed. 1724, pp. 9, 10. 

2 Ashton's Collectanea, fol. 56, in Stat. Acad. cap. 46. Cooper's 
Annals, 11. 321, 371, 382. 

* Oxoniana, IV. 176. 

12 — 2 

180 University Society 

cellency of his Colledge (though but for a match at 
foot-ball) an article of his faith.' 

The writer of Advice to a Young Man of Quality, 
&c, 1760, recommends him to strike out of his ac- 
counts all his 'expenses for servant, for horses, for 
tennis and billiards, for coffee-houses and taverns, 
and for entertainments of dinners and suppers at your 
private chambers ' (p. 29). 

Gunning says [Reminisc. I. 44), of their evening 
water-parties in 1786, 'when we arrived at Chesterton, 
two or three of our party would sometimes leave the 
boat and stop to play at billiards ; but this was 
generally disapproved of, and the billiard-players 
were seldom admitted into our future parties.' 

Chesterton continued to be the resort of billiard- 
players far on into the present century; and it is a 
good thing that the game is now tacitly admitted to 
be played in Cambridge, where, at least, the moral 
atmosphere is less stifling. 

The bowling-greens of the Colleges were favourite 
places of resort. D'Ewes, in 1620, amused himself 
with running, jumping, pitching the bar, and bowls on 
the green. The 'Evening Contemplation in a Col- 
lege' has been quoted already; and it will be remem- 
bered that Addison wrote some elegant latin verses, 
entitled Sphaeristerium. 

Though cardplaying was forbidden by the Statutes 
of the University and of some of the Colleges, except 
at Christmas, and then only in the College-hall, and 
with moderation: it was complained in 1792, that 
cards were played in private rooms, and even in the 

in the Eighteenth Century. 181 

Combination-room 1 . In 1760, the Advice to a young 
man of Quality is (p. 29), not to refuse to play cards 
occasionally, if invited. We learn 2 that whist was 
played at Caius in 1730, from Taylor's Musick Speech. 
In 1620, D'Ewes played shovel-groat and cards at St 
John's, and the shovel-board was in use at Corpus, 
Oxon., till the beginning of the present century. 

D'Ewes also played chess sometimes, and the game 
is mentioned in the Tripos verses for 1780, as being 
played in a coffee-house at Cambridge. 

In 1727, Dr Rawlinson 3 notes 'Apr. 4. A great 
disturbance between the scholars of the University 
and the townsmen of Heddington at a bull-baiting, at 
which some scholars were beaten.' 

This was a fashionable sport. Uffenbach mentions, 
while in London, in June, 1710, that he went in the 
evening to a bull-baiting; and that almost every Mon- 
day, baiting went on at two places ; a bear was also 
baited, and an ass ridden by a monkey. 

In 1620 an intended bull-baiting and 'Olympic 
games' was put down at Commencement-tide (as 
D'Ewes relates), by order of the Vice-Chancellor. It 
was to have taken place on the ' Hogmagog hills.' 
There is in the Bodleian \_Gough, Cambr. 103.] a Cam- 
bridge programma ; 

'Dec. 27, 1763. Whereas, there have been several 
Bull-baitings lately in the Town of Cambridge, to the 
great annoyance of the University and Inhabitants of 

1 Strictures on the Discipline of the University of Cambridge, <&¥. 
p. 22- 

3 Nichols' Lit. Anecd. IV. 529. 
8 Oxoniana, IV. 340, 241. 

1 82 University Society 

the said Town; and Information has been given to 
the Vice-Chancellor that many Scholars of the Uni- 
versity have been present at, and given encourage- 
ment to the same, contrary to the Rules and Statutes 
of the said University: We, the Vice-Chancellor and 
Heads of Colleges, whose Names are hereunto sub- 
scribed, do hereby strictly require that no Scholar of 
what Rank soever, be for the future present at any 
such Bull-baitings, upon pain of being proceeded 
against with the utmost severity. 

' And whereas great Confusion and Disorder in this 
University have been introduced by Scholars appear- 
ing in Coffee-Houses and in the Streets without their 
Academical Habits, and great Offence has been oc- 
casioned thereby: We do further strictly charge all 
Scholars under the Degree of Master of Arts, that 
for the future they presume not to appear anywhere 
in the precincts of the University without their re- 
spective Statutable Habits, as they will answer the 
contrary at their peril. 

«W. Elliston, Vice-C, &c. &c.' 

Uffenbach, in 1710, mentioned Cockfighting also as 
an English sport, ' though to a stranger it seems very 
childish.' On the 18th of June he bought some silver 
cock-spurs as a curiosity. Gunning tells [Reminisc, 11. 
65, n.) that about 1795 matches between the gentle- 
men of Cambridge and Suffolk were frequently an- 
nounced. This reminds us of Miss Neville's reading 
of Tony Lumpkin's letter. The 'basket,' mentioned 
by Gunning as the pillory of the insolvent gamester 

in the Eighteenth Century. 183 

(and noticed in Grose's Diet, of the Vulgar Tongue), 
is indicated by its shadow on the floor of the cock-pit 
engraved on Hogarth's Pit-ticket. Thefe also is re- 
presented a foreigner turning up his nose at the sport. 
Cooper mentions {Annals, IV. 188) that, in 1726 — 7, 
the Vice-Chancellor (Joseph Craven) gave orders to 
prevent Students from frequenting the cock-fighting 
(qy. cock-shying) at Market-hill on Shrove Tuesday. 
In 1 72 1 — 2, Erasmus Philipps of Pembroke, Oxon., 
went to the great Cock-match in Holywell. 

Gambling, says Gunning {Reminisc. I. 22), was not 
the vice of Cambridge in 1785, with a very few excep- 
tions. But, in 1 72 1, Amherst asserted [Terrae Filius, 
No. 47) that ' of late years the spirit of gaming has no- 
where prevailed more than at Oxford, and (what is 
more remarkable) amongst the seniors of the Uni' 

In 1782, the Act for licensing lotteries especially 
excepted Oxford and Cambridge, where it could not 
be applied. However, the private accounts of Dr 
Fras. Barnes, Master of Peterhouse (written in some 
spare pages of a 17th century Fellows' Exit Book), 
shew that he dabbled in lotteries between the years 
1795 and 1803. In 1783 — 5, three prizes of 50 gui- 
neas each were gained by Dr Ri. Hey, of Magdalene, 
for his Essays on Gambling, Duelling, and Suicide. 

In 1790, C. Moore published a treatise on Gaming, 
deploring the vicinity of Newmarket to Cambridge. 
For notices of Horse-racing at Oxford on Portmead, 
see the Diary of Erasmus Phillips, 'Fellow-Com- 
moner' of Pembroke \_N. and Q. 2nd S., X. 365, 443, 

184 University Society 

passim] circa 1720; also, Uffenbach (Reise, III. 158) 
in 1710. ' 

Nov. 23, 1791. Mr Rycroft was mortally wounded 
in a duel near Newmarket by another undergraduate 
of Pembroke. The Vice-Chancellor (Postlethwaite) 
published an edict against duelling, under the 42nd 
Statute, and T. Jones, tutor of Trinity, preached a 
University Sermon in December {Exod. xx. 13) on 
the subject. Nevertheless, though prevalent in 'higher 
circles,' duelling met with no encouragement in Cam- 
bridge 1 . 

In December, 1729, the Vice-Chancellor of Oxford 2 
stopped a prize-fight which the Mayor had licensed. 
No doubt some of the English students took lessons 
in boxing from Broughton 3 and Figg in town; but, 
at Dublin, self-defence may be called almost a part 
of the regular course: for not only was Phil. Skelton 4 , 
when sizar there in 1725, an excellent boxer and 
' very dexterous in the small sword, and a complete 
master in the back sword. He could come up to a 
St George, throw an out and cut an in, save himself, 
and strike his antagonist:' not only did he win the 
hat for cudgel-play at Donybrook fair while still at 
college (where he rejoiced in ' throwing the stone, the 
sledge, long-bullets,' &c, and in dancing): but even 
old Baldwin, the Provost of Trinity, Dublin, and 
Skelton's enemy, thought it his duty to lead the van 
in one of the skirmishes between the students and the 

1 Gunning, Reminisc. 1. 249 — 51. 

2 Hearne, Bliss, III. 45. 

3 1747, Tom Jones, xi. 5, n. Paul Whitehead's Gymnasiad, 1744. 

4 Lives, edited by Chalmers, 11. 267—281. Rivingtons, 1816. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 185 

butchers in Patrick's market on one of the Sundays 
in Lent. 

In Advice to a Young Man of Quality, 1760 (p. 31), 
dancing is enumerated among the 'occasional ex- 
penses ' which may reasonably be incurred in mode- 

In 1637 Evelyn says in his Diary, when at Oxford, 
'I was admitted into the dauncing and vaulting 
Schole, of which late activity one Stokes the master,, 
set forth a pretty book, which was publish'd with 
many witty elogies before it.' ['The Vaulting Mas- 
ter, or the A rt of Vaulting, reduced to a method com- 
prised under certain Rules. Illustrated by examples 
and now primarily set forth by Will. Stokes. Printed 
for Richard Davis in Oxon. 1655.'] In the next 
century the vaulting had given place to the dancing. 
' The Art of Dancing explained by Reading and 
Figures ; whereby the manner of performing the 
Steps is made easy by a new and familiar method; 
being the original Work first designed in the year 
1724. And now published by Kellom Tomlinson, 
Dancing-master. In Two Books. Tulit alter Ho- 
nores! [Printed by Bowyer 1735.] 

Sir Will Jones (who had played little as a school- 
boy) in his vacation (circa 1765) daily attended An- 
gelo's riding and fencing schools in London. [Life, 

p. 42.J 

At Oxford in 1798 the University Volunteer corps 
or 'Armed Association' was much stronger than that 
; of the City: there were enrolled 'about 500, com- 
manded by Mr Coker of Bicester, formerly fellow of 

1 86 University Society 

New College. Such indeed was the zeal and spirit 
called forth in those stirring times by the threat of 
invasion that even clerical members did not hesitate 
to join the ranks... Some also of the most respectable 
college servants were enrolled with their masters... 
The dress or uniform was of a very heavy character 
but also very imposing : a blue coat (rather short but 
somewhat more than a jacket) faced with white \ 
white duck pantaloons, with a black leathern strap or 
garter below the knee, and short black cloth gaiters,* 
The head-dress was also heavy ; a beaver round- 
headed hat surmounted by a formidable roll of bear* 
skin or fur of some kind 1 !' 

There was one institution which kept Cambridge 
in amusement in the month of September. This was 
Stirbridge Fair, which before the days of goods trains 
and sample posts was most important, not only to 
the Eastern Counties, but to a great part of England. 
In early days it had even been used as the spot for 
feeling the political pulse of the nation. I have 
neither time, nor space, to enter at length into the 
delights and the curiosities of the gathering : the 
pomp and feasting in the Tiled Booth, with which the 
Vice- Chancellor and Proctors opened it : the topo- 
graphy of the booths : ' Garlic row,' ' Cook's row,' ' the 
Duddery;' and other rows as numerous as those of 
Vanity Fair: — the Book auction (where Newton 
bought a book of Judicial Astrology, 1662) : the 
drinking-booths, classically inscribed Quod petis hie 
est, where geese were as plentiful and as savoury as 
1 G. V. Cox, Recollections, 33, 34. 

in the Eighteenth Cenhiry. 187 

sucking-pigs at Bartlemy. For an account even of 
the admission of greenhorns to the freedom of the 
fair, of their mock-solemn nicknaming by ' Lord 
Tap,' the ancient functionary ' arm'd all over with 
spiggots and fossets, like a porcupine with his quills, 
or looking rather like a fowl wrapt up in a pound of 
sausages ; ' — for these, and for the rest, I must refer 
the curious reader to the account in Hone's Year 
Book (pp. 1538 — 1548) relating to the year 1762, to 
Gunning's Reminiscences (1st ed. I. 162 — 173), and to 
Mr J. E. B. Mayor's full account of the bibliography 
of the Fair in his Notes to the Life of Ambrose Bon- 
wicke (1870, pp. 153 — 165). Suffice it to say that 
lectures and everything gave way for it, and everyone 
gulped down his dinner to hurry to it, save a very few, 
like Bonwicke, in 17 10, who preferred his studies, or 
like Gray of Peterhouse, in 1738, who wrote to his 
friend West : 

' I am coming away all so fast, and leaving behind 
me, without the least remorse, all the beauties of 
Sturbridge Fair. Its white bears may roar, its apes 
may wring their hands, and crocodiles cry their eyes 
out, all's one for that ; I shall not once visit them nor 
so much as take my leave. The University has pub- 
lished a severe edict against schismatical congrega- 
tions, and created half-a-dozen new little procterlings 
to see its orders executed, being under mighty appre- 
hensions lest [Orator] Henley and his gilt tub should 
come to the fair and seduce their young ones: but 
their pains are to small purpose, for lo, after all, he 
is not coming.' 

1 88 University Society 

But there is one point which I do not wish to pass 
over : the dramatic entertainments there. 

In 1533, there were bonfires and music at the 
fair; in 1555 'the vagabonds naughtie and jolly- 
persons. ..are farr more in numbre...then hath been 
sene in tymes past:' in 1592 the University com- 
plains of the distraction caused to study by players 
at Chesterton during the fair. Sir John Harrington 
writing (about 1597) in a Treatise on Playe {Nugce 
antiquce Harrington: ed. 1804, I. 191), says 'for my 
part I commend not such sowere conjurers, but I 
thinke in stage-playes may bee much good, in well- 
penned comedies, and specially tragedies ; and I 
remember in Cambridge, howsoever the presyser 
sort have banisht them, the wyser sort did, and 
still doe mayntayn them.' 

About 1536 Aristophanes' Plutus was acted in 
St John's College, with Smith and Cheeke's pro- 

The Elizabethan Statutes of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1535, lay down {cap. 24) that the nine 
lecturers of the house shall, for the edification of 
the Scholars, act tragedies and comedies at Christ- 
mas, two and two together : except the chief lecturer, 
who shall act one comedy or tragedy by himself. 
These they shall exhibit on the 12 days of Christmas, 
or shortly after, at the discretion of the Master and 
8 seniors, privately in the Hall, or in public, or in 
case of default shall pay 10s. totiens quotiens. 

There was of course no such provision in the 
Statutes of ' the pure house of Emmanuel.' 

in the Eighteenth Century. 189 

In 1544 Pammachius was acted at Christ's Col- 

At Cambridge in 1557, on Sunday, May 23, *my 
lord of Norfolkes players played in the hall and at 
the folkon.' 

On the evening of Sunday, Aug. 6, 1564, the Aulu- 
laria of Plautus was performed before Queen Eliza- 
beth in King's College Chapel. Dido, and Hezekiah 
by Nic. Udall, were acted in King's Chapel on this 

In 1580, the Vice-Chancellor declined on account 
of the plague to accede to the recommendation, 
from Lord Burleigh and others, of the Earl of Oxford's ■ 

In 1586 — 7 Richard the Third (by Legge) was per- 
formed in Trinity. (See C. H. Cooper, Camb.Ant. S. XL.) 

In 1590 the tragedy Roxana was acted in the 
hall of Trinity College with such life-like passion, 
that a gentlewoman 'fell distracted and never after 
recovered her senses.' A play called Lelia was acted 
at Queens' ; and the same year, or earlier, Pedan- 
tius (containing references to University life) was 
acted at Trinity. 

In 1592 the University and County authorities 
forbade certain players to perform plays or Interludes 
within the district, when there was danger of infec- 
tion. Nevertheless they performed at Chesterton, 
and braved the authorities by posting up their bills 
upon the College gates. The same year the town 
paid ioj. 'to the Queen's plaiers,' and twice that 
sum 'to Lord Strange's plaiers.' In the winter of 

190 University Society 

that year, the Vice-chamberlain of Q. Elizabeth's 
household desired the authorities to prepare an 
English play against her coming. The Vice-Chan- 
cellor, John Still (author of Gammer Gurtoris Needle 
acted at Christ's Coll. in 1566), begged for longer 
time, and that the play might be in Latin. In 1595, 
a comedy was acted at Queens' and two comedies 
and a tragedy at Trinity at Commencement, before 
a noble audience. For the tragedy, Thomas Nevile 
and the Seniors entreated Lord Burleigh to lend 
dresses for 'sondry personages of greatest estate' 
from 'the Office of the Roabes at the Tower.' In 
1595 a comedy was acted at King's, when certain 
members of the University, being excluded, wreaked 
their vengeance upon the windows. In 1596 — 7, 
Hispanus and a Latin comedy Sylvanus were acted. 
In 1597 Machiavellus was acted [at St John's], and 
Club Law (in ridicule of the townsmen) was per- 
formed in Clare Hall. 

In February 1600— 1 some Trinity scholars pelted 
the Johnians who tried to come to their dramatic 
entertainment, and the matter was ' exhibited in the 
Vice-Chancellor's court' 

In 1602 (probably) was played at St John's the 
celebrated Return from Parnassus, or the Scourge 
of Simony, at Christmas. At the election of Bache- 
lors ' in the College of the Holy Trinity was acted 
the comedy Labyrinthus.' 

In February 1606—7 (as in 1595), there was 
window-breaking during a comedy in King's College: 
'the like not known among scholars.' 

in the Eighteenth Century. 191 

Scyros a pastoral was attended by Prince Charles 
and the count Palatine at Trinity, in 1612. 

On Mar. 2, 16 14, Aemilia was acted before K, 
James in the hall of Trinity. Next day was acted 
in Trinity the comedy Ignoramus, by Geo. Ruggle 
of Clare. K. James was so much delighted with 
it that he returned to see it a second time. (Bp 
Corbet's verses on the subject are amusing.) On the 
9th, Albumazar a comedy, and on the 10th Mel- 
anthe a pastoral ; on the 13th the Piscatory Sicelides 
was performed at King's. 

The following year was displayed an Interlude 
in a show ; Work for Cutlers, or a merry Dialogue 
between Sword, Rapier, and Dagger. The second edi^ 
tion of Exchange Ware at the Second Hand: vis. 
Band, Ruffe, and Cuffe, lately out, and now darned 
up, &c. came out also that year. 

At Christmas 16 18, Stoicus vapulans made the 
spectators merry in St John's. 

In 1622 — 3, Loiola a comedy was acted before 
K. James in the hall of Trinity, which was dark- 
ened ; he ordered that the performance should 
be abbreviated from six or seven hours to four or 

In March 1627, Paria was acted before K. 

In 1632, Senile Odium, a comedy acted at Queens', 
was published. 

Mr Riley, in the Appendix to the ,ist Report of 
the Historical Manuscripts Commission, gives some 
extracts from the College Register or ' Sealing-book ' 

192 University Society 

of Queens' Coll., stating what dresses and properties 
were used or lent from the College treasury in the 
years 1636 — 8 (p. 72, b). 

On Feb. 6, 1637 — 8, was acted in Queens' College, 
Valetudinarian, by W. Johnson, a Fellow of that 

In Feb. 1638, was acted, at Trinity, Cowley's Nau- 
fragium Joculare. 

In March, 1641, was performed before Prince 
Charles, 'The Guardian! by the same author. 

About 1655, John Glendall, of Brasenose, who 
was terrae filius, a great mimic, at Oxford acted in 
several plays 'which the scholars before acted by 
stealth, either in the stone-house behind and south- 
ward from Pembroke Coll., or in Kettle-hall, or at 
Halywell-mill, or in the refectory at Gloucester-hall 1 .' 

In 1701, the mayor and corporation of Cambridge, 
having given a company of actors leave to perform at 
Sturbridge fair; the University defended their own 
authority and swore-in 62 proctors. Bentley, then 
Vice-chancellor, committed the celebrated Dogget, 
the actor [and founder of the Thames watermen's 
badge], to gaol, and ordered the booth built for the 
theatre to be demolished. In the following spring, 
when Bentley had vacated his office, Sam. Cobb 'the 
Tripos' (of whom more anon) deplored the fate of 
the theatre in Trinity, for the Doctor, 

' What Collier could never do, ruin'd the Stage. 

Sed aiunt ipsum non penitus evertisse sed tantum re- 

1 A. Wood, Life, 1660, Oct. 8. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 193 

formasse profanum ilium locum in profaniorem vulgo 
dictum a Tyring Room' 

However, from a poem The Long Vacation, a Satyr 
address'd to all disconsolate Traders (London, 8vo., 
1708), it appears that whatever might be the case in 
Trinity, Bentley's efforts had not been entirely suc- 
cessful at the Fair: , 

1 The Actors too, must take the pleasant air, 
To Oxford some, to Stur bridge some repair, 
And quite debauch the hopeful Students there.' 

Soon afterwards we catch sight of the dramatic in- 
terest at Oxford, where, in earlier years, the taste 
of the students had been so far respected that 
even the famous Mr Dryden was pleased to write 
several especial prologues and epilogues for their 

In 1 7 12, Cibber visited their University with the 
company of his new theatre in Drury-lane. It had 
been a custom for the comedians while at Oxford to 
act twice a day ; the first play ending every morning, 
before the College hours of dining, and the other 
never to break into the time of shutting their gates 
in the evening. This extraordinary labour gave all 
the hired actors a title to double pay, which, at the 
Act in King William's Time [says Cibber, Life, ed. 2, 
1740, p. 383], I had myself accordingly received 

But on this occasion, he says, the managers thought 

it better policy to have but one performance, though 

still to continue the double pay. Cibber proceeds to 

extol the good taste of the Oxonians who preferred 

L. B. E. 13 

194 University Society 

Shakespeare and Jonson, and were not carried away 
with the 'false flashy Wit and forc'd Humour, which 
had been the Delight of our Metropolitan Multitude.' 
Addison's Cato had a run of three days' extreme 
popularity, 'and Entrance demanded by twelve a 
Clock at Noon, and before one it was not wide 
enough for many who came too late for Places.' On 
leaving Oxford, the company had the thanks of the 
Vice-Chancellor for their good behaviour, whereas, at 
the Act in K. William's Time complaints had been 
made of 'some Pranks of a different Nature:' and 
having paid a remunerative visit, they contributed 
£50 towards the Repair of St Mary's Church. 

In a number of the Guardian (95), in June, 1713, 
are two or three humorous letters about the theatrical 
companies arriving by wagon for the Act. 

Mr Geo. Powel (the well-known conductor of the 
Puppetshow at the Opera in Covent Garden) is men- 
tioned. It is stated that 'we have sent to Town for a 
Brick Wall which we forgot ; the Sea is to come by 
Water.' Also in an accident on the road the High- 
wayman 'broke the Mace for the Lord-Mayor of 
London. They also destroyed the World, the Sun 
and Moon, which lay loose in the waggon. Mrs 
Bqrtlett [the proprietor of the carrier's conveyance] 
is frightened out of her Wits, for Purville (property- 
man of the Theatre Royal) says, he had her Servant's 
Receipt for the World, and expects she shall make it 
good,' &c„ &c. 

In 1737, the University of Cambridge complained 
of the. establishment of a Play-house by Joseph 

in the Eighteenth Century. 195 

Kettle, Esq., and an Act was passed for preventing 
such doings. 

In April, 1747, was acted in Pembroke-hall a 
comedy called 'A Trip to Cambridge, or the Grateful 
Fair,' by Kit Smart, Fellow of the Society. It is said 
to be the latest play acted in any College in Cam- 
bridge. The conclusion of the soliloquy of the 
Princess Periwinkle (who, entering 'sola attended by 1 
fourteen maids of great honour,' complains that she is 
left alone — 

' This bitter sweet, this honey-gall to prove, 
And all the oil and vinegar of love ;') 

concludes thus : — 

' Pride, Lave, and Reason fight till they are cloy'd, 
And each by each in mutual Arms destroyed. 
Thus when a Barber and a Collier fight, 
The Barber beats the luckless Collier. ..white ; 
The dusky Collier heaves his ponderous Sack, 
And big with Vengeance beats the Barber... black. 
In comes the Brick-dustman, with Grime o'erspread, 
And beats the Collier and the Barber... red; 
Black, red, and white in various Clouds are toss'd, 
And in the Dust they raise the Combatants are lost.' 

Notwithstanding the stringent enactment against 
theatrical entertainments here, a company of players 
from the theatres in London performed, in 1748, a 
pantomime called Harlequin 's Frolics, or Jack Spaniard- 
caught in a Trap, in Hussey's Great Theatrical Booth, 
the upper end of Garlic Row in Sturbridge Fair. 

In 1772, in Stevens' theatrical booth in the Cheese 
fair at Sturbridge, were performed the Clandestine 
Marriage, the West Indian, the Padlock, Douglas, 
and the Mayor of Garrat. 


196 University Society 

In 1782, Mansel, writing to Mathias (author of the 
Pursuits of Literature), mentions 1 that he was at the 
theatre at Sturbridge. This was quite a fashionable 
resort about this time; and habitues of Barnwell 
theatre may think that Dr Farmer accompanied by- 
other noted Shakespearian critics (Geo. Stevens and 
Malone) and Isaac Reed, whom Dr Barnes used to 
designate the Shakespeare Gang*, used to sit in the 
critics'-row to see John Brunton (who succeeded 
Griffiths and Barritt), not many yards from where they 
now enjoy themselves. After sitting out the per- 
formance Farmer's party would adjourn to Emmanuel 

In 1785 appeared in the Gentleman's Magazine a 
plea for the sanction of dramatic performances at 

A year or two later an opposition house was tried 
by John Palmer, just at the end of Cheese fair : and 
another (which, being never used, was called from its 
projector 'Charles Day's Folly') opposite to Parker's 

Soon afterwards, Charles Humfrey built a theatre 
by the side of the Sun in Barnwell, His successor 
Wilkins, erected the present theatre, which was opened 
in 18 1 5 under the acting management of Mr Smith. 

The Cambridge University Calendar for 1802 states 
that, on Sept. 18, ^Stirbitch Fair' is 'proclaimed. The 
Theatre opens, and Plays are exhibited for about 
eighteen successive nights.' 

1 N. and Q. 2nd ,S. X. 41. 

2 Gunning's Reminisc. I. 173. 1854. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 197 

In 1806, the Old Theatre at Sturbridge Fair was 
pulled down, in consequence of the prevalence of an 
unfounded idea that it was unsafe. 

In 1830, the 'Shakspeare Club' was founded ; and 
three years later some seceding members formed the 
Garrick Club, who published an Album in 1836. 

In Harrington's 'Supplie, or Addicion to Bishop 
Godwin's Catalogue of Bishops to the year 1608, en- 
titled by Dr Chetwind, " a brief View of the State of 
the Church of England," ' he speaks of Dr Still, who 
examined him strictly, and after that answered him 
kindly, 'that the grace he graunted me was not of 
grace but of merit,' when he sued for his grace to be 
bachelor. Harrington [Nugae Antiquae Harringtoni- 
anae, 1804, 11. 158) says of Still : 'I must say this 
much of him ; his breeding was from his childhood in 
good litterature, and partly in musique, which was 
counted in those dayes a preparation to divinitie, nei- 
ther could any be admitted to primam tonsuram, ex- 
cept he could first bene le, bene con, bene can, (as they 
call it,) which is to reade well, to conster well, and to 
sing well ; in which last he hath good judgement, and 
I have heard good music of voyces in his house.' 

At Pembroke this degenerated into bene nati, bene 
■vestiti, moderate docti. 

Singing, at least to the degree which was indis- 
pensable for Clerks, was made a sine qua non in old 
times for the admission of scholars. This was the 
case at Winchester and New College (where William 
Wykeham gave lodgings for the Choristers or Quiris- 
ters oh the same footing as the other students. In 

198 University Society 

later days one of their offices was to wait in hall, as 
at King's College). This was the case also with some 
of the 17th century foundations at Peterhouse, where 
certain scholars were bound to attend choir-practice 
once or twice a week. It is said of John Barwick, 
about 1630, that to the study of Musick, 'which adds 
§0 much Life and Ornament to Divine Worship, he 
was always, by his Example as well as his Advice, 
endeavouring to persuade such of his Fellow-Colle- 
gians, of the younger sort, as their Voices, their Age, 
and their Genius rendered capable thereof.' In 1654, 
A. Wood, having ' obtain'd proficiency in musick, he 
and his companions [Will. Bull, who, like himself, 
played on the violins, Edm. Gregorie, B.A., and gent., 
com. of Mert. coll., who play'd on the bass viol, Joh. 
Nap, of Trinity, on the citerne, and George Mason of 
the said coll. on another wyer instrument, but could 
do nothing] were not without silly frolicks, not now 
to be maintained.' By the next year he ' had genuine 
skill in musick, and frequented the weekly meetings 
of musitians in the house of Will. Ellis, late organist 
of S. John's coll., situat and being in a house, oppo- 
site to that place whereon the theater was built' 
Wood mentions several of the parties who used to 
play on the lute, theorbo lute, organ, virginal, coun- 
ter-tenor viol, bass viol, lyra-viol, division-viol, treble- 
viol, and treble-violin (which, till a little before the 
Restoration, were less fashionable than viols), and 
the harpsicon. Wood learnt the violin from Charles 
Griffith, Jo. Parker, and Will. James (a dancing-mas- 
ter), but the instrument was then thought too vulgar 

in the Eighteenth Century. 199 

to be well taught in Oxford. In 1657, he thought 
Davy Mell the sweetest violinist (a London clock- 
maker), but 'Tho. Baltsar, an outlander,' the more 
nimble performer. In 1658, his opinion of this 'Balt- 
zar, a Lubecker borne,' was enhanced, and he was 
himself obliged to play to draw out the lion. The 
musical meetings were held weekly at the house of 
Will. Ellis, when, by the demolition of cathedrals and 
organs in the Troubles, the publick instruments were 

In 1699, Humphrey Wanley, of University College, 
visiting Cambridge, writes to Dr Charlett: 'At night 
we were regaled with a very good concert of music ; 
where I was much taken with some Italian songs, 
which Mr Pate brought from Rome ; and a gentleman 
here sang excellently well.' 

Uffenbach, visiting Cambridge in the summer vaca- 
tion of 1 7 10, tells how when they had spent an hour 
at the Greek's Coffee-house, ' Dr Ferrari came for us, 
and took us to the -Music club, in Christ's college. 
This music meeting is held generally every week. 
There are no professional musicians there, but simply 
bachelors, masters and doctors of music, who perform. 
It is surprising, as they make such ado about music, 
and even create professors and doctors of music, 
still this nation achieves scarcely anything in it. I 
think however that their ingenia are not the least 
inusica, as those of all frivolous men {wie aller fluch- 
tigen Menscken) ; hence too all their compositions are 
very harsh, and cannot equal either the pretty man- 
ner of the French, or the tender manner of the 

200 University Society 

Italians. And so too this music, both vocal and 
instrumental, was very poor. It lasted till n p.m., 
there was besides smoking and drinking of wine, 
though we did not do much of either. At II the 
reckoning was called for, and each person paid two 
shillings 1 .' 

We have already seen Uffenbach's praise of Eng- 
lish organ-playing, and his distaste of their bell- 

At Oxford, in August, 1721, Erasmus Philipps, 
' Fellow-Commoner' of Pembroke 2 , began to learn on 
the Violin of Mr Wheeler, to whom he paid \os. 

It appears from Nichols {Lit. Anecd. iv. 600 n.) 
that Battle had a spinnet in his rooms at King's when 
an undergraduate, about 1723. Kirkman's harpsi- 
chords (says Mr G. V. Cox 8 ) had not quite gone out 
at Oxford in 1805. 

Poor Hearne, who preferred the Englishman's bell- 
ringing to the German's symphony, complains that 
in July, 1733, at the Oxford Act, 'one Handel a 
foreigner ' was allowed the use of the Theater by the 
Vice-Chancellor, ' who is much blamed for it, however 
he is to be commended for reviving our Acts, which 
ought to be annual.' The performance begins a little 
after 5 o'clock in the evening, tickets 5j. 'This is 
an innovation. The players might as well be per- 
mitted to come and act.' Two days later (July 7) : 

1 Rase, in. 12, translated by Mr Mayor. 

2 N. and Q. 2nd S. X. 443. 

3 Recoil, p. 53. 

in the Eighteenth. Century, 20 i 

'half an hour after 5 o'clock... was another perform- 
ance at 5j. a ticket, in the Theater, by Mr Handel 
for his own benefit, continuing till about 8 o'clock. 
N.B. His book (not worth id.) he sells for is.' He 
performed again on Act Monday, Tuesday, and 
Wednesday, July 11— 13; Mr Walter Powel, the 
Superior beadle of Divinity singing with them all 

Dr Bliss asks {Reliqu. Hearn. III. 99), 'What would 
have been the amount of Heame's virtuous indigna- 
tion, had he known that in May, 1856, Madame 
Goldschmidt (Jenny Lind) sang at a concert in the 
Sheldonian Theatre, the tickets being charged one 
guinea, 15 shillings, and half-a-guinea each, according 
to the situations filled by the audience, who flocked 
to the music in immense multitudes ?' 

The Music Room was erected in Oxford in 1742. 
There is a Latin poem entitled Odeum Oxoniense in 
the Student, or Oxf. and Camb. Monthly Miscellany 
(II. 197, 1751)1 in which Powel and Handel are men- 
tioned. In the same volume (p. 372) it is described 
as ' the Temple of Harmony, vulgarly called the Music 
Room! There is, I believe, a collection of the pro- 
grammes in the Bodleian Library. 

About the middle of the century, music had taken 
some root in the Universities. The author of the 
Academic (p. 22), in 1750, says, 'The money which by 
Part of the University was formerly spent in mid- 
night Drinkings to the ruin of their Health and Con- 
stitution is now employed in securing themselves 
against those Complaints to which by a sedentary 

202 University Society 

and studious Course of Life they are particularly 
exposed. And the Expences of the Students which 
after the Example of their Leaders, were laid out to 
much the same Purpose, are now devoted to a dif- 
ferent Channel. A Taste for Musick, modern Lan- 
guages, and other the polite Entertainments of the 
Gentleman have succeeded to Clubs and Bacchana? 
Han Routs.' 

In 1750, 'Cantab.' wrote from Trin. Coll. to the 
Student (1. 92 1 ), to complain of the time wasted in 
Fiddling, and of the foppery of those who were 
infected by the ' scraping Cacoethes.' 

' Granticola,' dating his letter ' C. C. C. Cambridge, 
April 5, 1750/ rejoins (1. 131), 'I see no reason 
why our schools may not be frequented as well 
a,s our musick-meetings, and Newton and LOCKE 
still have their followers as well as Handel and 

' In an University, how much more agreeably is an 
evening laid out by a select company of friends com- 
posing a concert, than in carousing over a bottle, and 
joining, to say no worse, in an unprofitable conversa- 
tion ? As to the concerts we frequently have in our 
halls, do they not in some measure contribute, by 
bringing us into company, to the wearing off that 
rust and moroseness which are too often contracted 
by a long continuance in college ? And though these 
meetings are frequented by some, so entirely on ac- 
count of .the company and conversation, that it has 
been declared that the concert would have been 
1 See also 11. 51, 105, 200, ■224. 

in the Eighteenth Cenhiry. 203 

excellent, if there had been no MusiCK in it, yet 
in general we shall find it otherwise. If these were 
abolish'd, what a mortification would many of our 
smart fellow-commoners undergo, to be deprived of 
the pleasure of presenting tickets to the ladies, and 
ushering them into the hall ! Add to this, that the 
banishment of MUSICK from our rooms, must neces- 
sarily be attended with the expulsion of the harpsi- 
chord, no inconsiderable part of our furniture. Not 
to mention the number of ingenious artists, that must 
by this means be reduc'd to a scanty subsistence, 
and that TlREMAN and Randal must then only 
rely on the organs of Trinity and King's College 

' As to FIDDLING in particular, for my part, I see no 
absurdity in attracting the eyes of the fair by dis- 
playing a white hand, a ring, a ruffle, or a sleeve to 
advantage. Nor could any one, I imagine, blame 
the performer, nor could he himself be displeas'd with 
his art, if he was so successful as to fiddle himself 
into a good fortune.' 

At Commemoration, in 1769, the Masque of Acis 
and Galatea was performed in the presence of an 
'enormous brilliant audience 1 ;' as was the Oratorio of 
Athaliah on the evening of the 15th of June. 

The comic concert is, to our shame be it spoken, 
an invention of our own time. Yet it is, perhaps, 
the necessary safety-valve provided for the relief of 
the exuberant spirits and lungs of undergraduates. 

1 Oxford in the Last Century, p. 22, reprinted from the Oxford 
Chronicle, 1859. 

204 University Society 

It is at least rather more regular than the demonstra- 
tions of the Roarers in earlier days. The hubbub in 
Theatre, and even in Senate-house, is a symptom of 
the existence of a considerable class who are capable 
of little but inexplicable dumb-show and noise. In 
the earlier stage of the universities this was done sys- 
tematically. In the exercise for every bachelor's 
degree at Cambridge, there was provision made in the 
person of the Tripos for jest, though this probably 
was not much abused in early times : while at the Act 
or summer Encaenia, there was a licenced jester, the 
Varier or Praevaricator at Cambridge, and at Oxford 
the Terrae Filius. But there were other customary 
buffooneries as well. By the Elizabethan Statutes of 
Cambridge, 1559 {cap. L. § 36), it was provided that 
'no Master of the Games at Christmas shall be ap^ 
pointed under any name, without the consent of the 
cliancellor and the heads of the colleges' 

One old custom at both universities was that of 
salting. This was a mock ceremony of initiating 
freshmen. It had been used, says Anthony Wood, 
time out of mind, but fell into disuse, and was for- 
gotten at Oxford between 1647 an d the Restoration. 
He describes his own initiation in the year men- 
tioned, at Merton. 

He had been entered upon the books on St Luke's 
day (Oct. 18): and from Allhallow e'en (Nov. 1) till 
Christmas there were charcoal fires in the hall a little 
after 5 p. m. The senior undergraduates would make 
the freshmen sit on a form, and one by one ' speake 
some pretty apothegme, or make a jest or bull, or 

in the Eighteenth Century. 305 

speake some eloquent nonsense to make the com- 
pany laugh.' If any were unsuccessful, ' some of the 
forward or pragmatical seniors would tuck him : ' i. e., 
would wound his lower lip with his nail. 

About Candlemas-day (Feb. 2, Feast of the Purifir 
cation) all freshmen were instructed to prepare their 
speeches to be declaimed before the undergraduates 
and seryants in hall on Shrove Tuesday. The Felr 
lows got over their supper ear)y and left the field 
clear, with an admonition 'that all things should be 
carried in good order.' The cook prepared the lesser 
brass pot full of 'cawdel' at the freshmen's expense, 
and eaeh freshman in order had to 'pluck off his' 
gowne and band, and, if possibly, to make himself 
look like a scoundrell.' Then a travestie of the aca- 
demic exercises was performed. The victim had to 
stand on a form on the high-table, and to speak his 
speech. After which he was rewarded, according as 
he had acquitted himself well, indifferently, or ill, by 
having a draught administered to him of ' cawdel,' 
cawdel and salt, or salt and beer alone (whence, pos- 
sibly, the expression of paying for one's salt), * with 
tucks to boot.' Afterwards the senior cook adminis- 
tered an oath over an old shoe, The only fragment 
of the formula remaining is 

Item tu jurafyis, quod penniless bench non visitabis. 

(This was a stone seat in the market, see the University 
regulation in 15 §4, Oxoniana, IV, 176, N, & Q. 1st S, 
I. 307, Warton's 'Panegyrig on Oxford Ale/ Qm- 
panion to the Quide) 

206 University Society 

Wood gives his own speech on the occasion. It is 
not very interesting, and full of forced absurdity. 

At the salting at Pembroke coll. in August, 1620, 
one of the fathers [senior sophs], and two or three of 
the sons, did 'excellently well.' 'A great deal of 
beer, as at all such meetings, was drunk.' 

There is an old Statute prohibiting the caeremonia 
saliendi recentes scholasticos. At St John's they had 
exceedings in Hall on the occasion, and there was a 
charge for salting in the Tutor's bill, 3J. /^d. {Diary of 
Symond's D'Ewes, p. 15, Parker.) When the E. of 
Essex was at Trinity coll., Camb. 1 , he was charged, 
in 1577, 'at the saltinge accordinge to the custome, 
vijj.' Something of the kind seems to have lingered as 
the Fresh Treat, for which freshmen paid Fresh Fees 
at St John's, Oxon., in 17 14, see Amherst, Terrae- 
Filius, Nos. 11, 41. Among Milton's juvenile later 
prose Works [P. Works, 852 foil.] is printed a Speech 
in Feriis Aestivis Collegii [Christi, apud Cantab.] sed 
concurrente, ut solet, tota fere Academiae Juventute 
[anno 1628, aetatis 19, /. Miltoni PATRIS (quern, 
vocant) vice fungentis]. 

Professor Masson has quoted and translated the 
more interesting passages of this speech. The at- 
tempts at wit are perhaps superior to the Sonnets? ' 
on Master Hobson, but now and then there is a 
jest which had better never have been uttered. And 
as a whole, we should now consider it tedious, es- 
pecially as it is all in latin, with the exception of 

1 Cooper's Annals, II. 354. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 207 

the english verses, ' At a Vacation 'Exercise : the 
rest was prose ' in english, which prose is lost. 

But the most important personages who contri- 
buted towards the waggery of the Universities, were 
the Tripos, the Prevaricator (or Varier) and the 
Terrae Filius. Their office, as will appear, was at 
one period almost essential to the proceedings to- 
' wards some of the academical Degrees. They may 
therefore have had some prototype in the ancient 
continental Universities. The positions of the Tripos 
and the Praevaricator or Varier at Cambridge, and 
of the Terrae Filius at Oxford, are not very clearly 

Perhaps the simplest way to impart what I know 
on the subject, is to begin by giving an account 
of the proceedings for degrees at Cambridge, from 
the Books of two Esquire Bedels. The former is 
Mr Stokys' book. ' He was (says Fuller) a zealous 
Papist, even unto persecution of others, which I 
note, not to disgrace his memory, but defend my- 
self, for placing him before the Reformation, though 
he lived many years in the reign of Queen Eliza- 
beth.' He was born at Eton, and formerly Fellow 
of King's College, University Registrary, 1558 — 1591, 
in which capacity he saved the University documents 
from the fate which too many suffered at the Refor- 

' The order of the Questionists \ In primis, the 
Questionists shall gyve the Bedels warnynge upon 

1 See Dean Peacock's Observations on the Statutes, Parker afld. 
Deightons, 1841. Appendix A. throughout. 

5o8 University Society 

the Le [i. q. legibilis] Daye, that they may pro- 
clayme before thordynarie Readers [the 4 Barnaby 
Lecturers on Terence, Logic, Philosophy, and Mathe- 
matics, chosen on the nth of June, the Feast of S. 
Barnabas. Ordinary Lectures included comments 
of the reader, Cursory Lectures consisted in simply 
reading the text of the author with the common 
glosses,] in the common Schooles thentrynge of their 
Questions at the accustomed Hower, which is at 
ix of the Clocke [this was the entering of Priorums, 
or answering questions [respondendum quaestioni) 
out of Aristotle's prior Analytics] at the which tyme 
the Bedells, or one of them shall go to the Col- 
ledge, Howse, Hall or Hostell, where the sayed 
Questionists be, and at their entryng into the sayed 
Howse, &c. shall call and gyve Warninge in - the 
middest of the Courtp, with thees words, A tons, 
Alons, gpe Mrs goe, goe. [It has been suggested 
that the custom of the Bedel going with his wand 
or staff to summon the candidates gave the name 
Bachilour or b&cillarius. The use of frenph formu- 
las was perhaps derived from the University of Paris. 
The french language, which was that pf the Court, 
was permitted equally with latin, to be used by 
the scholars of the second set of foundations, at 
Clare hall, King's hall, and at Oriel, Oxon, ; but not 
at Peterhouse, or at Merton, Oxon.], and then to 
toll, or cause to be tolled the Bell pf the Howse 
to gather the Mrs. Bachilers, Schoolers and Ques- 
tionists together, and all the companye in their 
Habitts and Hoodds being assembled, the Bedells 

in the Eighteenth Century. 209 

shall goe before the Junior Questioniste, and so all 
the Rest in their order shall folowe bareheadded, 
and then the Father, [the Fellow of the foundation 
who goes as patron of the candidates of his Col- 
lege who are called his Sons. In later times his 
office has been swallowed in that of the Praelector], 
and after all the Graduats and companye of the 
sayed Howse unto the common Schooles in dew 
Order ; and when they do enter into the Schooles, 
one of the Bedells shall saye, noter mater, bona 
nova, bona nova, and then the Father being placed 
in the Responsalls Seate, and his Chyldren standyng 
over agaynst hym in order, and theldest standyng 
in the hier Hand, and the rest in their Order ac- 
cordingly, the Bedyll shall proclayme if he have 
any thynge to be proclaymed, and furder saye, 
Reverende Pater, licebit tibi incipere, sedere et coope- 
riri si placet. That done the Father shall enter 
hys commendacions of hys chyldren, [they kneeling, 
and the Bedells plucking their hoods over their faces], 
and propounding of his Questions unto them, which 
the eldest shall first aunswer, and the Rest orderlye; 
and when the Father hathe added his conclusion 
unto the Questions, the Bedyll shall brynge them 
Home in the same order as they went : and if the 
Father shall uppon his Chyldrens Aunswer replie and 
make an Argument, then the Bedel shall knocke 
hym out, [knock loudly at the door, so as to drown 
his argument and bring it to a close], and at the 
uttermost schoole Dore, the Questionists shall turne 
L. B. E. 14 

210 University Society 

them to the Father and the Company, and gyve 
thanks for their commyng with them.' 

On Ash-Wednesday the bedell was to bring the 
Determiners, King's College being fetched last, to 
await the Vice-chancellor at 8 a.m. in St Mary's 
Church. If there were no sermon, there was to be 
Common Prayer. Then in the N. Chapel they swore 
' Jurabitis quod Determinetis ad placitum Procurato- 
rum, and then the Proctours appoynt them their 
Senioritie:' [this constituted the. first Tripos List as it 
was afterwards called, containing the names of the 
Wranglers and Senior Optimes or Baccalaurei quibus 
sua reservatur Senioritas Comitiis Prioribus: who, in 
early times were arranged according to the fancy of 
the proctors, though no doubt they paid some at- 
tention to merit. As lately as 1790, the Vice-chan- 
cellor and proctors had the right of placing one 
honoraiy Senior Optime apiece between the 1st and 
2nd wrangler. This may puzzle us when we find 
Bentley, for instance, 6th on the first tripos, though 
he is rightly called 3rd wrangler. 'The second Tripos 
List, or of junior optimes [quibus sua reservatur seni- 
oritas Comitiis Posterioribus), which was formed on the 
second Tripos-day, had been, most probably, com- 
posed of those questionists, whose superiority was not 
already recognized, who had most distinguished them- 
selves in the quadragesimal exercises 1 .' The rest, 01 
iroWot, had no seniority reserved till the general 
Bachelors' Commencement]. They then go to the 

1 Peacock, On the Statutes, Appendix A. p. ix. n. 7. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 211 

Philosophy Schools 'where Mr Vichauncellor, the 
Doctours, and other worshipfull Straungers shal be 
placed in the Stage provided for them. The Father 
shall be placed in the Responsall Seate, his eldest 
sone standyng at the Stalles ende upon hys right hande, 
Mr Proctour shall sytt under the hie Chaire of the 
Reader [the lector ordinarius in philosophy. The 
arrangement of the Schools must have been much as 
we find it now remaining from the days when Acts 
and Opponencies were commonly held there]. The 
Magistri non Regentes [every M.A. under one year's 
standing was expected to examine in the schools until 
the year 1785 : the M.A.'s first year from creation was 
his year necessariae regentiae : many of the friars and 
monks were chasecl out of the university in 1537, as 
well as other D.D. who swore to keep a longer term of 
regency, and it was found necessary to add to the 
necessary regency, first one, and then two years extra, 
which were not absolutely binding] in the upper stalles 
upon the Father's side; and the Mr Regent Disputers 
shall sit in the first Stall. And when every man is 
placed, the Senior Proctor shall, with some oration, 
shortly move the Father to begyn, who, after his ex- 
hortation unto his Children, shall call fourthe his eldest 
sone, and animate hym to dispute with AN OULD 
BACHILOUR, which shall sit upon a A STOOLE before 
Mr Proctours, unto whome the sone shall propound 2 
Questions, and in bothe them shall the sone dispute, 
askyng leave of Mr Proctour untyll the Proctour shall 
wyll hym to gyve Place unto hys Father. Then 
shall the Bedels, standyng before the Father, make 

14 — 2 

212 University Society 

curtesye, and say in Frenche, Noter Determiners, Je 
vous remercie de le A rgent que vous avez donner a moy 
et a meis companiouns : pourquoy je prie a Dieu que il 
•vous veuilles donner tres bonne vie, et en la Fin la Joye 
de Paradise. And then make curteseye unto Mr 
Proctours and then to the Father agayne, sayinge, 
Permissum est Dominationi tue incipere, sedere, co- 
. operiri quando velis. Then the Father askyng Licens 
of Mr Proctours shall dispute with the OLD BACHI- 
LOUR,and after hym two Regents ; and when the sayed 
twoe Regents have ended at thappoyntmente of Mr 
Proctours, then shall the Father of thacte, puttynge 
of his bonet, propounde two other new Questions and 
discourse upon them in such manner as he wyll 
defende the same, agaynst whom two other Regents 
shall dispute so longe as shalbe thought good unto 
Mr Proctours, which with some convenient oration 
shall conclude this dayes dysputation, saying, Nos 
continuamus hanc Disputacionem in Horam primam 
Diei Jovis post quartam Dominicam hujus Quadragesi- 
me. And immediately a Sophister provided by the 
Proctour shall knele before the Responsall sett, and 
have for hys labour ^d. and i Lib. of Figgs. Then 
the Bedell havyng a Rolle of all the Questionists 
accordyng to their Senioritie, shall call them, and set 
them thorough the Responsall Seat, begynnyng with 
the Senior, at his entring the Proctour shall saye, 
Incipiatis, and pausyng a whyle, shall saye, Ad opposi- 
tion, then Redeatis, and last Exeatis: and with that 
the Questioniste senior shall goe fourthe of the Stall.' 
And so on with the rest. The next day four weeks 

in the Eighteenth Century. 213 

virtually the same ceremony was performed. 'And 
when all have passed thorough the Stalle, then shall 
the senior Procurator saye, In Dei nomine Amen. 
Authoritate qua fungimur, decemimus, creamus et 
pronunciamus omnes hujus anni Determinatores fina- 
liter determinasse et actualiter esse in Artibus Bacha- 
laureos! After this the 'Vichauncellour' and the rest 
had supper at the charge of the Determiners 'at what 
Howse the Proctours shall apoynte.' They were to 
provide the like on the Thursday before 'Shrove 
Sondaye:' also to give gloves to 'the Father, Mr 
Proctours, and the bachiler awnswerynge,' 
and the proctors were to give to each bedel 
a pair for his pains. Another important point is, 
that 'All the Determiners dothe sytte in the New 
Chappel [attached to the divinity schools, afterwards 
part of the library; here each determiner was to say 
the de profundis, &c.J within the schools, from one of 
the Clocke untyll fyve upon the Mondaye, Tuesdaye, 
Wensdaye, and Thursdaye in the weeke before Shrove 
Sondaye abyding there examynation of so many 
masters [? Regents] as wyll repayre for that cause 
thether; and from three to four all they have a Pota- 
tion of Figgs, Reasons, and Almons, Bonnes, and 
Beer, at the charge of the sayed Determiners, where- 
at all the Bedells may be present daylye: and upon 
the Thursdaye they be only examined in Songe and 
wrightynge. And twoe Magister Regents [afterward 
called Moderators] allowed and appoynted by the 
whole Universitie upon the Fryday folowyng, maketh 
by the senior of them an oration before the Uni- 

214 University Society 

versity, standyng by the chaire of the Vichauncelor, 
declaryng what Towardness they have found in the 
Tyme of their examination: and if they sayed Ex- 
aminers do disalowe eny, he shall not procede.' 

The bedels attend in their 'Hoods and Quoiffys... 
tobrynge every Doctour or Mr of a Howse thorowghe 
the Prese with their Staffs turned.' 

Beside this there was another ceremony called 
Standing in Quadragesima, which continued till rather 
more than a generation ago. All the Determiners 
had to stand in the schools every day from Ash- 
Wednesday till the last Act attended by one So- 
phister or undergraduate in the stage below himself; 
the two together being prepared (at the word of the 
Bedel Incipiatis) to defend ' three Questions of Dia- 
lecte and Philosophye wrytten fayer on a paper, and 
leyed before him in the Stall, unto the which he 
shalbe apoynted unto by Mr Proctours — ' against all 
Scholars and Bachelors ; between the hours of 9 and 
II a.m. on Lee days (i.e. dies legibiles, days when 
lectures might be read), or between 1 and 5 p.m. on 
Disses (i.e. dies disputabiles, whereon the solemn dis- 
putations of the Masters of Arts, being preceded by 
Dysses or Dissertations, might be held. Beside these 
and their contraries, — non le, and non dis, — there were 
at the univ. of Paris Le fe or dies legibiles festinanter 
when lectures were read cursorie, without elaborate 
comments). 'And one of the Bedels must daylye, 
at the ordenarye Lectures and at the Disputation, 
signifye thorder of their standyrige,with thees words, 
or the licke, upon the Lee Dayes : Noter Determiners 

in the Eighteenth Century. 215 

devaunt Diner sub. spe, sub spe longa, vet sine spe. 
And upon the Dis Dayes ; Noter &c. Apres diner sub 
spe &c. [indicating, it may be, the various chances of 
distinction in the morning disputation of the Le' 
days, and the afternoon arguments of the Disses.] 
■ Upon the Daye of the last Acte the Bedell dothe 
proclayme with thees wordes Noter Determiners, apres 
diner sine spe cum Patre.' On the Saturdays each 
Determiner was to sing Common Prayer and offer 
l d . in St Mary's: 'and the Bedels for gyving their 
attendance have every daye an Hundred Oysters and 
Wyne to the same. Item. Every of the Proctours 
appoyntethe one Questioniste to be Stewarde, and to 
serve the Bevers, which for their labour are discharged 
of their contribution unto the said Bevers and Sup- 
pers.' [The term Bever is I believe still applied in 
some districts (Suffolk, for instance) to the labourer's 
afternoon refreshment, 'his cold thin drink out of his 
leathern bottle.' ' Ita postmeridianos vespertinosque 
haustus in Collegiis academicorum et jurisperitorum 
vocant Angli.' Junii Etymologicon. 

' He is not one of those same ordinary eaters who 
will devour three breakfasts and as many dinners 
without any prejudice to their bevers, drinkings, or 
suppers/ Beaum. and Fl. Woman-Hater, I. 2. Bevere, 
bibere, boire, beverage. At Winchester school it was 
thus described by Chr. Johnson about 1550 (after- 
wards 'Informator') in his school-boy poem, De 
Collegio : 

Tempore at aestivo data comessatio nobis, 
Quando horae trinae pars dimidiata relapsa est. 

216 University Society 

The word was still in use when I was at school at 
Winton, for an intermission in schooltime on ' whole- 
school-days' from 3.30 to 4 p.m., when beer was_ 
served out at the (buttery) ' hatch.'] 

I have quoted thus at length from the account of 
the Bachelors' Commencement, because many of the 
points which do not immediately concern the office of 
the Tripos will be necessary for us to refer to, when 
we come to the next part of this compilation. 

Before passing to the description of the proceed- 
ings given by another Bedell after the Restoration, I 
will just quote an account nearly contemporary with 
that given above. 

At Q. Mary's visitation in 1556-7, 'On Asshewen- 
desday, rayne and snow together. It. Mr Bronsted 
and I had in all the Bachelors before viii (at St 
Maryes), and shortly after the Vicechancellor began 
his sermon in S. Maryes, thuniversite Bell [the School 
Belt], and also St Maryes Bell rynginge to the same, 
the Mayre and Aldermen being presente. It. the acte 
began before x and continued tyll halfe howre after iii 
no senioryte given, no byll made nor none called, 
but only ii of the seniors the Vic. and D. Sedgewycke 
were present from the begininge to the latter ende, 
Mr Turner Father, Syr Whytgyfte the bachelor, [i.e. 
the famous master of Trinity and abp., then a BA. 
(Syr), took the part of the Bachilour of the 
Stoole], Syr Brydges the eldest son, Mrs Otway and 
Malyn replyed upon the bachelors and onlye Mr 
Hutton upon the Father 1 .' 

1 Peacock, App. A. x. n. 1. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 217 

At Oxford, as at other European Universities at 
the time, the ceremonies of 'standing in quadra- 
gesima 1 ' were much the same as here, 'with the 
exception of the powers given to the collectors, them- 
selves likewise determiners appointed by the proc- 
tors, who distributed the other determiners into the 
different schools, and also assigned the order of their 
disputations 2 .' 

Dean Peacock published, in addition to the extracts 
from Bedel and Registrar Stokys book, selections 
from Beadle Buck's book A.D. 1665. I propose now 
to cite some passages from this post-restorational 
document, contrasting them with the account already 
given from the pre-reformational record a century 

' On Monday, Tuesday or Wednesday, [not Thurs- 
day, as before] either in the next or the next week 
save one after the said 12 day of Jan., the Ques- 
tionists, at the appointment of the V. C. and Proc- 
tors, do sit in the Regent House, there to be 
examined by the Proctors, Posers and other Regents.' 
The senior makes a speech, as of old, setting forth 
their proficiency, and their graces are passed. The 
oaths are taken and the V. C. admits them 'in 
Dei nomine' &c. ad respondendum Quaestioni. Each 
having done 'his obeisance to M r V. C kneels at 
the upper table and 'giveth God thanks in his 
Private Prayers &c.' Before Ash-Wednesday, each 
has to enter his P riorums : i.e. he has to answer 

1 Ibid. App. A. xiv. n. 1. 

2 Life of A. Wood. 1655, April 25. 1619, Feb. 27. 

218 University Society 

a question out of AiHstotle's Priorums (Prior Ana- 
lytics) : — the Beadle having previously said 'with a 
loud voice Bona Nova Mater Acadernia, bona nova: 
and having ' set up the Father,' and placed his sons 
before him, with the words Honorande Pater, fili- 
ormn nomine, Gratias tibi agimus, liceat tibi sedere, 
cooperiri, et filios tuos affari, prout tibi visum 
fuerit. ' It hath happened some time that 4 or 5 
Colleges have kept their Priorums in the same 
morning : then all the 3 Bedles have employment 
enough to attend so many Priorums, and the 
Master of Arts Disses.' Between 7 and 8 A.M. on 
Ash Wednesday they are brought to St Mary's to 
a Clerum, by one intending to commence in divinity, 
or else to Litany. 

Then to the School Yard ; and, if there be no 
business, to the Consistory to fit themselves with 

'Then one of the Bedles carrieth the Proctors, 
Father, Disputants TRIPOS and the 2 BROTHERS 
unto their several Seats... Last of all the Door is 
opened for the Bachelors, Sophisters and the rest 
of the Scholars to come in. After a little Pause 
the senior Proctor beginneth his Speech, and to- 
wards the end thereof, speaketh to the Father, to 
make an Exhortation to his Sons ; which after 
the Father hath done, the senior Proctor calleth up 
the Tripos and exhorteth him to be witty, but 
modest withall. Then the Tripos beginneth his 
speech or Position, 'made for the Illustration and 
Confirmation of his 1st Question. He may, if he 

in the Eighteenth Century. ' 219 

will, speak something of his 2nd Question, but if 
he doth not, then the Senior Proctor commendeth 
the Senior Brother to reply upon the Tripos ; 
and after him the JUNIOR BROTHER.' Meanwhile 
the Bedels 'are to deliver the Tripos's VERSES to 
the V. C, Noblemen, D rs , &c. whilst the 2 Brothers 
are disputing upon him.', 'Then the senior Proctor 
desireth the Father to urge his Sons argument. 
The Father Propounding 2 or 3 Syllogisms in either 
Quaestion, M r Proctor dismisseth him, and calleth 
up the first Opponent, being M r of Arts. Now the 
Father may go out of the Schools, if he please, 
with a Bedle before him, and come in again when 
the 2nd opponent is disputing upon the 2nd Ques- 
tion. Then presently after the Father is in his seat, 
M r Proctor doth end the TRIPOS his Act, with a 
word or two in his commendation, if he deserves 
it. Then M r Proctor speaketh unto the Father to 
begin his Position towards an ensuing Act in Philo- 
sophy, and whilst he is reading it, the Bedles do 
deliver his Verses to M r V. C, the Noblemen, 
D rs , Proctors, Taxers, antient Bachelors in Divinity, 
and other grave men &c.' 

The candidates had also to sit in the Schools 
from 1 to s P.M. (except on Saturdays and Sundays), 
every day for a month, to defend Theses against 
all comers : a practice which, with some modifica- 
tion, survived till within the last fifty years. 

The speeches of the Tripos and his two Brothers — 
though originally intended to exhibit genius, rather 
than frivolity, and serving (it may be) in the first 

220 University Society 

instance merely to raise the old standard ingenious 
fallacies and logical quibbles, which admitted of a 
certain degree of humour — tended, especially after 
the Restoration, to become boisterous and even 

One Tripos-speech which was printed (and against 
which, as far as I know, no exception was taken by 
the authorities) has been preserved in the Bodleian 
Library. \Pamph, 318, also Gougk's Oxford Additions.] 

It is contained in a small publication called ' News 
from both Universities, containing 

I. Mr Cobbs Tripos Speech at Cambridge, with 
a Complete Key inserted. 

II. The Brawny Priest: or the Captivity of the 
Nose. A Poem. London: Printed for J. Roberts, 
near the Oxford Arms in Warwick- Lane, 17 14.' 

The Oxford contribution on this occasion is quite 
unworthy of type. It is not improbable that the 
News was an occasional publication uttered in de- 
fiance of authority, like the Oxford Packet of the 
same date, and issued by the same printer. 

It appears that the senior members of the Uni- 
versity were present in the Schools 'in robes demurely 
grave' (p. 20): and crowds of 'Sophs in the Pit' (p. 19). 
The Tripos (Sam. Cobb of Trinity) entered, dressed 
probably in fantastic costume (p. 18), attended by his 
two Brothers carrying Catalogues for the Auction of 

Title : Tripos Cantabrigiensis, 19 Feb. 170^ \S. 
Cobb, B.A. 1698., MA. 1702]. 

He begins: ' Ecce iterum Crispinus — Ego hie regno 

in the Eighteenth Century. 221 

Caesar; sect periclitatur vita mea. Vos igitur Sophis- 
tae! circumcingite Satellites... 

'Twas well when our Forefathers did agree 
That the grave Doctors should sit there and see 
Their Follies banter'd by a Knave like me, 
And wisely manag'd to begin their Lent 
With one who swears he'll make you all repent. 

"[Then follows in English doggerel, alternating with 
Latin prose and scraps of verse, a ludicrous satire on 
several characters in the University. Foibles, rather 
than grave faults, are censured.] Dr R[ichardso]n of 
Peterhouse, the V.-C, is complimented, at the ex- 
pense of his predecessor, Bentley (Master of Cobb's 
college), as ' non similis antecessori suo neque ingenio 
neque modes tia neque aedibus.' 

Of the proctors Jack Cooper and Sam. Awbery, 
they are Caesar and Bibulus, ' unum enim faciimt Pro- 

Then follow the oracular dicta of the Tripos. 

When are we to have decent Taxors ? ' Cum non 
sint Regales.' [J. Haslop, King's, was Taxor.] It is 
said, in 'Hints respecting some of the Univ. Officers, 
by Robert Plumptre, D.D., Master of Queens', 1782, 
p. 1 1, ' The Taxers office, it is to be feared, wants at- 
tention and execution rather than reward. It is an 
office, however, in itself of much importance to the 
Univ., and to the place in general.' The office was 
originally appointed by the Univ. to prevent the ori- 
ginal unattached students from being charged too 
highly for their hostels or lodgings in the town. They 
also assisted the proctors in making the assize of 

222 University Society 

bread and beer, and in other matters relating to the 
market. Their office was suspended between the 
year 1540 and 1546, while the Univ. was passing 
through its crisis of penury. The Commissioners, in 
1852, recommended the abolition of the office; and 
this was carried out in accordance with the Composi- 
tion of the Rt. Hon. Sir John Patteson, Knt., in 1856]. 
When may we expect to see Learning, Philosophy, 
Wit, and Theology combined ? When ' the dumb 
doctor' is in the pulpit. [' He was a Fellow that had 
never preach'd '.] When may we expect the disso- 
lution of the University? ' Cum tota Academia guber- 
natur sub Lepore.' [Fras. Hare of King's, to whom, 
in 171 3, Bentley dedicated his Remarks on Freethink- 
ing, till he offended him. Dean of S. Paul's 1725, bp. 
of S. Asaph, 1726]. Then visiting the buildings of 
his own Royal College, which were now, by Bentley 's 
exertions, ' dignae futuro duce Glocestrensi ; ' Cobb 
cannot help asking if the unity and beauty of the 
Court would not be enhanced, supposing his own 
windows (' which were the vilest in the whole College, 
scarce an whole Quarry in them') were sashed (Shash- 
andae) as finely as the Master's Lodgings. 

After deploring the fate of the Theatre in Trinity; 
for Bentley, — ' what Collier could never do, ruin'd the 
Stage — sed aiunt ipsum non penitus evertisse sed tan- 
tum reformasse profanum ilium locum in profaniorem 
vulgo dictum, a Tyring Room.' 

After exorcising one of the proctors who was not 
favourable to the Tripos Speech, he laughs at an ex- 
proctor, Mr Noys, who used to drive over to Milton 

in the Eighteenth Cenhiry. 223 

to preach, and was fond of looking at himself in the 
glass. He passes to another King's man, 'Judge' 
Bullock, ' a mathematician, and broad platter-fac'd 
Fellow,' who was supposed to be in love. He had 
also a passion for Architecture : whereupon Cobb 
takes occasion of alluding to the curious ' Custom at 
King's College, when a Lad comes in after Prayers 
to Dinner, to lay a Brick on his Trencher:' 

For they must needs be Architects 

Who are so us'd to eating Bricks, (p. 8.) 

Reference is then made (p. n) to the scandal that 'a 
Bishop's Son was* made a Master of Aits, although 
a Boy, and of no standing in the University,' while 
a Bachelor of Arts had been, appointed to the lucra- 
tive post of college Butler. [Charles Ashton, master 
of Jesus, mentio'ns in his Collectanea on Univ. Stat.-XX., 
that ' Bishops' sons have been of late years (at least 
20 after Cobb's time) indulged this Privilege (of de- 
grees as peers' sons, without statutable exercise), 
which is neither agreeable to the Statutes, nor the 
Interpretation, as I have shewn in Collectan., p. 187.'] 
But the junior Proctor (who seems to have been an 
unskilful rider) must not be forgotten. There went 
of him ' a Story about Ball's throwing him : ' ' Hip ! 
Magister Awbery ! Quaeso des mihi veniam propter 
hanc offensionem, et posthac tui non obliviscar. Sed 
quoniam Reformator Academiae sum constitutus et mea 
plurimum refert universes pariter observare, tuam re- 
formabo in equitando peritiam. Imprimis igitur, cum 
colles Gogmagomianos cum tuis Jesuiticis sodalibus, qui 
laborant morbo quern vulgo vocamus the Hip, aeris im- 

224 University Society 

bibendi gratia paullo ore hiscere velis, sic instructus 

After some initiation in the rudiments of riding, 
the Buffoon makes a pretence of knighting the 

' Nor shall one Iohnian Doctor save his Bacon,' 

as ' peregrinantem indefessum : a Fellow, who is con- 
tinually loytering about the Town:' but no great 

' Nor Corner or College is free but he's in it ; 
At the Castle and Spittle-house-End in a Minute ; 
He seems like Juglers Tricks were-e'er he goes : 
Hey Jingo, Sirs, Where is he ? at the Rose ; 
Presto, begone ! he's at the Market- Cross.' 

he goes : -v 
Rose; \ 
■s.' J 

Nor does the Master of Bene't College (a little 
fellow) escape, who 'when he was Vice-Chancellor 
forbad Plays, even so much as Puppet- Shows :' the 
Zeal o'the Land Busy of Sturbridge Fair. 

' The Wise will say 'twas done with reason, 

For Punch was Jackish, and talk'd Treason. 
* * * * 

But who can any Harm acquire 
From a small Gentleman in Wire? 
And what can e'er proceed that's odd 
From tiny things like Master Modd? 

[A very little Man of Trinity College.' (Bentley's 
Vice-master ; ' a feeble old man destitute of the requi- 
site qualifications.' Monk's Life of Bentley, I. 409.)] 

Next he quizzes Waller, the humanity lecturer 
at Bene't College, 'who order'd his Sophs to make 
Themes on unheard of things : ' and set up for a 
pretty fellow. But his cure is beyond the skill of 

in the Eighteenth Century. 225 

Tripos : we must take him to ' Gonvil, a small 
College where most of them study Physick : ' and 
where the Doctor lives who keeps his cat as a 

Then follows a mock auction of Doctors "cum 
Privilegio Superiorum. Catalogues may be had of 
me and my Brothers. [Two Lads spoke with him.] ' 
These Commodities are knocked down for 3 groats 
to his assistants by Cobb, with the assurance that 

' 'tis more than they're worth by a. Shilling.' 

However he cannot get ^d. for the scarce Remain- 
ders ; so he determines to 

'send 'em beyond Sea; they'll pass with the Dutch.' 

We may suppose perhaps that lists of the Doctors 
had been handed about among the Sophs, by the 
three Jesters, {Tripos and his Brothers), and when 
the boisterous merriment had reached its highest, 
and was beginning to subside ; ' Mr Tripos pulls 
a Halter out of his Pocket,' and after confessing 
and begging pardon for his freedom, proceeds to 
dispose of his effects : 

' My Wit I leave-, 'tis small, I grant it, 
To Doctors, and to those that want it ; 
And to the Sams as 'tis my Duty 
I'll leave my Dressing and my Beauty. 
But now I hear my Fatal Knell, 
And so I take my last Farewell.' 

Here perhaps he threw his mask and motley into 
the pit : meanwhile, possibly, the School's bell was 
tolled ; and as Tripos is being assisted by his 
L.B.E. 15 

226 University Society 

'Brothers' to his execution, 'the Sophs below in 
the Pit cry, A Pardon, a Pardon, a Pardon' 

Then on a monstrous sheet of paper is displayed 
the following Pardon, ' under which some Names 
were written, and seal'd with a Quart Pot : ' 

'To our Trusty and well-beloved the Worship- 
ful Mr Vice-Chancelbr, and the Heads of the Col- 
leges, in our Famous University of Cambridge, WE 
the Sophisters send Greeting. 

' ACCORDING to Our Sovereign Authority com- 
mitted to Us this Day, we pardon our Trusty and 
well-beloved Sam. Cobb, for all and every Offence 
he has committed against the Upper and Lower 

Witness our Hand and Seal.' 

The reprieved Tripos having thrown his rope to the 
Sophisters, makes his apology to the Senior mem- 
bers of the University and personally to the Vice- 

' That I've been honest, you must needs confess. 
You've heard with how much innocence I spoke, 
No scnrril Satire or ill-natur'd Joke ; 
How from Obscenity I could decline, 
Which always grates a Doctor's ears and mine ; 
How nothing tended to malicious Ends. 
Then let us all shake Hands and so part Eriends.' 

[The companion piece from the sister University, 
in this pamphlet the Nasus Preltensus written a 
dozen years later, of which a more perfect copy 
is to be found in Bod/, pamphlets 318, cannot, alas! 
make the same boast.] 

in the Eighteenth Century. 227 

A few quotations from regulations affecting this 
office will complete my notice of the Tripos or 
Bachelor of the Stool : and I shall then pass on to 
his kinsman the Praevaricator. 

April 3, 1576, Decretum Praefectorum, 'It was 
declared to be the ancient and laudable custom of 
the University and therefore decreed and determined 
by Mr John Still, Doctor in Divinity and Vice- 
Chancellor, and the heads of colleges, viz. Mr Dr. 
Perne, Mey, Whitgift, Chadderton, Ithell, Bing, Legge, 
and Mr Norgate, that all those persons which should 
sustain the person of the Father, the eldest Son, 
the Bachelor of the Stool, and the disputers 
should keep their rooms and functions in the latter 
act and not to be changed but upon great and urgent 
causes, to be approved and allowed by the V. C, 
both the Proctors, and Masters of Colleges whereof 
any of the aforesaid persons so to be allowed or 
dispensed withall shall and do abide and remain, 
and of every of them. 

'Item that every of the said two acts with the 
father and the bachelor should hold defend and 
maintain two questions which in no wise should be 
altered or changed. 

'Item that the Bachelor of the stool answering 
both acts should and might account that, his two 
answerings, for one ordinary answering required by 
statute for and towards his degree, and for no more. 
But if he answered but one of the said acts, that 
then this be required for no answering towards his 

1 5-2 

228 University Society 

I am enabled through the kindness of the Regis- 
trary, the Rev. H. R. Luard, to give the follow- 
ing account of the first volume of Triposes in his 

It is a portly folio carefully indexed by the late 
Mr Romilly. In the beginning are bound some slips 
of paper containing the regulations which controlled 
the Tripos and Praevaricator ; and some proceedings 
taken by authority against such as transgressed the 
orders and statutes. 

After a general order 'de morum urbanitate et 
modestia.' (The copy being written probably about 
the year 1630.) ' Prevaricatores etiam omnes et 
Tripodes et alii disputantes a mimicis salutacolbus 
et rerum politicaru magistratuu aliorumve nomina- 
colbus, a iocis quoq: scurrilibus a gesticulacolbus, 
obscaenitatibus anglicani sermonis, ineptiis dicteriisq: 
omnibus penitus abstineant, sub paena suspencois vel 
(si atrocitas facti postulaverit) expulsionis.' 

Next comes a general Ordinatio of K. Charles, and 
then a similar Interpretation '8°. May, 1626 1 ,' de au- 
ferendis morionum ineptiis et scurrilibus jocis inpublicis 

[1638.] 'Orders for Ashwednesday...Ra: Brown- 
rigg procan:' No one to climb ' sedilia' or windows, 
nor to make a noise by clapping, shuffling, beating, 
laughing, hissing, or the like. All to appear 'in 
habitu cum caputio/ The original order 'Praevari- 
catores omnes et Tripodes' &c. is quoted : the punc- 

1 See Cooper's Annals, in. 185. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 229 

tuation of one passage being here ' obscaenitatibus, 
anglicani sermonis ineptiis.' 

[In 1640, Seth Ward, M.A., Fellow of Sidney Coll., 
afterwards Bp. of Salisbury, being Praevaricator at 
the Commencement, Dr Cosins 1 , the V.C., took of- 
fence at his speech, and suspended him from his 
degree, but restored him on the following day. The 
Praevaricator's speech for 1660 is described by the 
editor of D'Ewes' diary. See below.] 

15 July, 1663. Mr Gower begged pardon for 'his 
speech made in the Commencement House.' 

'April 19th, A.D. 1667. It is agreed at a meeting 
of the heades, that instedd of the vsuall performances 
of prevaricators in the majora comitia, and of the 
Tripus in the first or latter Act of the minora Comitia, 
That the praevaricator and Tripus respectively only 
mainteine what part soever of a question which hee 
pleaseth and make a serious position to mainteine it 
as well as he can, but shewing first his position to the 
vice chancellour, and the opponents without making 
any speech, to bring their serious Arguments : and if 
either the praevaricator or Tripus shall say any thing 
vpon the pretence of his position but what hee hath 
before shewen to the Vicechancellour and what hee 
hath allowed; or the opponents shall obtrude any 
sort of speech, or other arguments then serious and 
philosophicall, hee shall bee punished with the cen- 
sure of expulsion,' &c. 

' Fra: Wildford Vicechan:' &c. 

1 Cooper's Annals y III. 302. 

230 University Society 

' 26 Martii 1669. D 5 Hollis' fellow of Clare Hall 
is to make a publick Recantation in the Bac. Schools, 
for his Tripos Speeche.' He was suspended. His 
submission is extant : ' In nomine' &c. 

'Jul. 28, 1673.' Mr Benj. Johnson, Proctor was 
admonished to appear, and in default was summoned 
for 28 Jul. 1673. He made his apology Sep. 22. 

Sept. 26, 1673. John Turner's confession of his 
fault as ' Praevaricator at the commencement last 

'D r Eachard of Catherine Hall suspended D 5 
Smallwood from his B.A. degree for his scurrilous 
and very offensive speech made in y e schooles upon 
y e 26th of y e afores d Month [March] when he under- 
took to performe y e office of a Tripos.' He made his 
humble submission and was restored April 2, 1680 1 . 
[In the same year the Praevaricator was absurdly 
suspected of depreciating the Popish Plot.J 

In 1683, three members of Sidney Coll., one of 
Jesus, and one of Caius, were rusticated for their 
outrageous combination to disturb the exercises of 
the latter Act. 

[On the 7th of July, 1684, Peter Redmayne fellow 
of Trin. was expelled for some miscarriages in his 
Praevaricator's speech at the Commencement, but on 
the 1 8th of October, the King sent letters from New- 
market for restoring him in consequence of his former 
good behaviour 2 .] 

1 Cooper's Annals, III. 586. 
a Md.- III. 601. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 231 

April 17, 17 13. Mr Will. Law was suspended for 
' his speech in the public schooles at the latter act.' 

[In 1 7 14, came Long's celebrated Music Speech 
which I shall soon have occasion to notice : Taylor's 

In 1 740- 1, a strongly expressed grace was passed 
Mar. 19, against scurrility and the use of the English 
language in Tripos Speeches.] 

Of the Tripos Verses there are 84 in MS., the earliest 
date borne by any is 7 Mar. 1574. They are in Latin 
verse of a serious nature on some special theme or 
question, ending with a couplet comprehending the 
conclusion, ergo. Next come thirty, most of which 
are in Latin verse, printed in pairs with an ornamental 
border, each concluding with an ergo. Each leaf 
contains a pair relating to some particular branch of 
science, Theology, Medicine, Law, &c. We may con- 
clude that they were circulated at the acts of the 
several faculties, and bore reference to the thesis 
under discussion. Indeed I am inclined to suspect 
that several of the leaves bound in the collection are 
verses not of the Tripos, but of the Philosopher, the 
Father, or of some other disputant. 

The last of the thirty above mentioned has no date 
affixed, but is supposed to belong to the year 1652, 
or thereabouts. On the back is a document relating 
to Richard Ireland and others, apprenticed to the 
trade and mystery of Stationers in Cambridge. 

The next and all that follow bear a date. 

In Comitiis prioribus, Feb 22, 1694. 

1. Stoicorum diraOeia non est admittenda. 

232 University Society 

2. Deus est Naturae Lumine cognoscendus. 

The set for the latter Comitia of the same year fol- 
lows. Then that for Mart. 7, 169%. That for Com. 
Posteriora, Mar. 19, 172 J. About this period one of 
the sets generally takes the form of a Position ' Recte 

The set for Com. Priora, Feb. 9, 1748 — 9, is impor- 
tant, as being the earliest which bears on its back a 
list of the Wranglers and Senior Optimes. This has 
been kept up in subsequent years : the paper for the 
Com. Posteriora bearing the names of the junior op- 
times. The verses for 1748 — 9 are of a lighter 

1. Moriae Encomium (April Fools). 

2. A defence of Berkeley on Tar Water. 

In 1694 — 5 is the position ' Cartesiana dubitatio 
non est optima philosophandi modus.' In 1723 — 4, 
and later years, Newton is defended. 

From the year 1803 to 1858 one set of two appear- 
ed yearly on a double sheet. In 1859 (as since that 
date) there were four sets : by J. A. Willis, H. Sidg- 
wick, G. O. Trevelyan, and J. H. Nelson. The vo- 
lume ends with the verses for 1846, and some com- 
memoration lines on the Tercentenary of Trin. Coll., 
22° Dec. of that year. The second volume contains 
the verses from 1847 till the existing time. One or 
-two sets of verses have been rejected from time to 
time ; even within the last five and twenty years. 
The Provost of King's has a few sets which are not in 
the Registrary's Office. And in the Bodleian at Ox- 
ford is an imperfect collection of those between :the 

in the Eighteenth Century. 233 

years 1782 and 1800. \Gough, Adds. Camb. 4°. 2.] 
I propose to give a brief account of these, and of a 
few others. 

In the first place, when looking at a volume in 
Bodley \Gough, Oxf. 58], I noticed a loose leaf folded 
and lying in the book. On it were two sets of Latin 

1. Ascensus et Descensus Mercurii in Barometro 
pendent ex gravitate aeris et vi ejus elastica. 

2. Idem Spiritus non est aeque clara ac Idea Cor- 
poris. The concluding lines, at least, I recognized as 
a translation of a passage in the Rape of the Lock: 

'Tulit atque alienos Phyllis honeres' 

clearly represents 

And Betty's prais'd for labours not her own. 

But this paper is remarkable for having the words 
Jul. 7, 1730, Resp. in Die Comit., Gul. Trollope, Aul. 
Pemb., pro Gradu A.M. 

This, then, is something different from a Tripos 
Paper. It belongs to the Comitia Majora or great 
Commencement in the Summer, (and not to the 
'first' or 'the latter Act' Comit. priora or posterior a of 
the Comitia Minora or Bachelors' Commencement of 
the Lent Term). By whatever name we are to call 
them, they are clearly the verses to be distributed at 
a Philosophy Act (when the Praevaricator, not the 
Tripos, would be present) to be kept by W. Trollope, 
B.A., Fellow of Pembroke, as an exercise for his M.A. 
degree, which he appears to have taken in that year. 

In 1676 were printed 'Musae Subsecivae seu Poetica 
Stromata auctore J. D.' This was the production of 

234 University Society 

James Duport (son of the Master of Jesus Coll.), who 
was Greek Professor, Vice-master of Trinity, Prebend- 
ary of Langford Ecclesia in Lincoln Cath., Archd. of 
Stow, and Dean of Peterborough. His earliest im- 
portant publication was an Epitaphium on the death 
of Bacon, and his last act at Trinity was to take part 
in the election of Newton to a scholarship in 1664; 
and almost his last deed was, in 1679, to send Barrow 
a subscription of ^200 for the building of Trinity Li- 
brary. While he was an undergraduate in 1622 — 6 
he wrote several carmina comitialia, which we call 
usually 'Tripos Verses.' A remarkable series of 
tripos verses are those by the unfortunate Kit Smart, 
who entered at Pembroke-hall in 1739, and took his 
B.A. degree in 1743. 

It may be worth while to describe them. 

I. in Com. Prior, 1740 — 1. 

Datur Mundorum Pluralitas. A ride on Pegasus 
to visit the inhabitants of the planets Mercury, 
Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn, under the guid- 
ance of 'the witty old Bernard le Bolivier Fontenelle, 
(the first edition of whose Entretien sur la Plura- 
lity des Mondes was published in 1686, and whose 
works had reached a 3rd English version in 1760, 
three years after his death). 

II. In 1741 — 2. 

Materies Gaudet Vi Inertiae. A description of 
the leaden Temple of Dulness in the heart of Ire- 
land. Here the poet sees Zoilus, Bavius, Maevius, 
Spinoza, Pyrrho, Hobbes, and Epicurus. In front 
of the Gothic door stand four personages. Sophis- 

in the Eighteenth Century. 235 

tica, the eldest daughter of Matter, girt with 10 
categories, bearing a club, and the net of a retiarius; 
clad in cobwebs she marches 

Quam lente Oxonii sollennis pondera cenae 
Gestant tergeminorum abdomina bedellorum. 

Then with her diagrams comes Mathesis. 

incompta capillos 
Immemor externi punctoque innixa reclinat, 

doctasque sorores 
Fastidit, propriaeque nihil non arrogat arti. 
Mam olim duce Neutono, dum tendit ad astra 
Aetheriasque domos superum, indignata volantem 
Turba mathematicum retrahit, poenasque reposcens 
Detinet in terras, nugisque exercet ineptis. 

Next Microphile. 

muscas et papiliones 
Lustrat inexpletum, collumque et tempora rident 
Floribus et fungis totaque propagine veris. 

What joy is hers on the discovery of a Polypus ! 

jam non crocodilon adorat ; 
Nee bombyx, conchaeve juvant : sed Polypon ardet, 
Solum Polypon ardet. 

Last comes Atheia, sans everything but voice. 
The author tries to drink of the neighbouring stream, 
but is pulled up by the Muse. 

III. In 1742—3- 

Mutua Oscitationum Propagatio solvi potest me- 


Momus, for ridiculing the birth of Pallas from 
the head of Jove, is condemned to bring forth 
Polychasmia the goddess of Yawning. Her com- 
pound creation, her patronage of Justices on the 

236 University Society 

Bench, Preachers who subdivide their text, Physi- 
cians with their gold-headed canes. But the Soph 
is particularly sedulous in his cultus of her, having 
often to argue on fhe question which heads the 
paper; — and to exemplify it. Which is now the 
case with the Author, who opens his mouth in vain 
for the draughts of Castaly which flow for Mr Pope 
alone, while himself waits as the hungry Sizar does 
for the Fellow to leave him some dainties. 

In the Student or Oxf. and Camb. Monthly 
Miscellany, II. 238, 175 1, is given an anonymous 
Tripos. 'Cantab. Comitiis prioribus, Feb. 21, 1750 — 
51.' Humani Corporis Topographia. 

In the Bodleian [Topography Cambridge. Gough 
Camb. 103], is one 'In Comitiis Prioribus Mar. 4, 

1. Recte Statuit Aristo teles de Terrae motibus. 

2. Acta Philosophica Celebris Academiae Laga- 
donensium. The author gives an account of the 
ingenious idleness of that people, and the arguments 
of one of their professors. 

In a volume of Miscellanies in the Camb. Univ. 
Library, [Nn. 4. 70], is bound Carmen in comitiis 
prioribus 1774. Mola juventutis restauratrix, (about 
no Latin hexameters). That in Com. Prior. Mar. 
5, 1778, is on the subject of Tobacco. 

For 1 78 1, the verses on Maps [d. 1796] (Nichol- 
son, the eccentric bookseller), printed in the Camb. 
Univ. Calendar for 1802. 

The following are in the Bodleian (as has been 

in the Eighteenth Century. 237 

In Comitiis Prioribus, Feb. 14, 1782. 

1. His nam plebecula gaudet. (Street amuse- 

2. Oi58e«s aKaOapro? el<Tt,Ta>. [sic,~\ Temp. Hym. 
Pall-Mail. ' Casta fave Lucina ' Sec. 

[1783, Com. Prior. Mar. 6, on the study for de- 

Com. Prior. Feb. 10, 1785. 

1. Nullifas castae sceleratum insistere limen. The 

2. I lie vet intactae segelis per summa volaret 
Gramina ; nee teneras cursu laesisset aristas. 

Bob. Foster, the Flying Barber, \d. 1799]. See pp. 
I3S— 7- 

[1786, Com. Prior. Mar. 2. 

Coll. Trin. Cespes. (Whishow, Trinity)]. 

Com. Prior. Feb. 22, 1787. 

1. Manicarwm Laudes. It will be remembered 
that according to Gunning's Ceremonies the Proctor 
or Moderator ought to present gloves to the writer 
of the verses. It appears that ladies who were care- 
ful of white hands wore their long gloves at night. 

2. Caeli mobilis humor. Rain. 

Com. Prior. Feb. 7, 1788. 

1. Pulmonem agitare solebant. On Laughter. 

2. Spectatum veniunt. Aspirations for a royal 
visit. Cp. Cooper's Annals, iv. 416. Gent. Mag., 
LVI. 791. ' Cambridge Triumphant : ' the king having 
visited Oxford in 1785, 1786. 

238 University Society 

Com. Posterior. Mar. 6, 1788. 

1. Dux Glocestrensis Cantabrigiam visens, (Nov. 16, 
1787, Cooper's Annals, IV. 423, 425). 

2. Concordia discors. The Union Coffee-house, 
(see above, p. 142). 

Com. Prior. 1789. 

1. Et canibus leporem, canibus venabere damas. 
On hounds, (by John Hookham Frere). 

2. Immiscentque manus manibus, pugnantque lacer- 
tis. A prize-fight between Humphrey and Mendoza, 
(by F. Wrangham). 

[Woolaston was reprimanded for admitting Fr. 
Wrangham's verses in Com. Posterior, Mar. 26, 1789.] 

Com. Prior., Feb. 18, 1790. 

1. Cartesii Principia (by 'Bobus' Smith, see 
Mus. Crit. II. 226). 

2. Umbrosae penitus patuere cavernae. An Ad- 
dress to Liberty on the fall of the Bastille (July 14, 

Com. Posterior. Mar. 18, 1790. 

1. Cum vincamur in omni. 

Munere sola Deos aequat dementia nobis. 

The Slave trade. Cooper's Annals, IV. 426, 443. 
Pitt's motion (May 9, 1788), to consider the question 
next session. 

2. Cum prostrata sopore. 

Urget membra quies £t mens sine ponder e ludit. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 239 

Com. Priora. March io, 1791. 

1. Romanis solenne viris opus utile famae. 

Vitaeque et membris. 

2. Bellum, Pax rursum. 

[Com. Posteriora, 1791. Platonis Principia, by 
'Bobus' Smith, see Mtis. Crit. II. 227.] 

Com. Prior, Feb. 23, 1792. 

1. Newtoni Sy sterna Mundanum, by 'Bobus' 
Smith (Mus. Crit. II. 230). 

2. 'Ei/ S' "Ejch? 61/ Se KvSotfib'} ofjulXeov. A debate in 
Paris. Reference to the late National Assembly 
sitting in the Riding School. A satirical account of 
French assignats (which were issued Dec. 1789. 
This was printed a few days after Pitt's budget 
speech on the flourishing condition of our own coun- 

Com. Prior, Feb. 14, 1793. 

1 . Non sibi sect toti genitum se credere mundo. 
Love of our country. 

2. HdXvSaicpw; 'HSovrj. 

Com. Posterior, March 14, 1793. 

1. Meya? ovpavos, QvXvfinroa-Te. [sic] 

A semi-heathen, semi-scriptural cosmogony with 
praise of Newton. 

2. 'O Trplv iraXaio'; 6'X,/3os r\v irdpoiOe ftev 

ok/3o<; St/calms, Sec. 

240 University Society 

Troubles in France, England exhorted to suppress 
the Revolution. (War was declared by Great Britain, 
Feb. 11, 1793. Jan. 5, 1793, a dumb peal had been 
rung in Great St Mary's for Louis XVI. Cooper's 
Annals, iv. 447, and in March a subscription was 
raised in Cambridge for the French refugee clergy.) 

Com. Prior. Mar. 6, 1794. 
I. Ovto? <ye 

'A/Mporepov, /SacrtXei!? t d<ya66<i, tcparepo? r 

Augustus prays to Liberty to give peace to the 
Moselle. The treaty of Commerce had been made 
with Russia, March, 1793. 

2. ' Ei> S' 6 irvpcpopos #eo? 

(TK^yfra^ iXavvei ~koi/j.b<} e^9iaro<!. 
Pestilence on the Delaware. 

Com. Prior. Feb. 19, 1795. 

1. Virgo, 

Floridis velut enitens, 
Myrtus Asia ramulis, 
Quos Hamadryades Deae 
Ludicrum sibi roscido 
Nutriunt humore. [Catullus.] 

Wishes a fair voyage to Caroline, Princess now of 
Brunswick, who was married to the P. of Wales, 
April 8, 1795. (A congratulatory Address on the 
occasion was presented at St James' by the d. of 
Grafton, and the V. C, W. Pitt, e. of Euston, d. of 
Rutland, 6 bishops, &c. April 29, 1795.) 

in the Eighteenth Century. 241 

2. ' O? 6ecnria>8ei rpiTroBos iic xpwrrfkarov, 
fiefiyfriv BiKaiav /ze/j.(po/j,ai rauTrjv. 

A uctor cum Tripode colloquitur. A somewhat fescen- 
nine dialogue with the Tripos, whom, with a pace 
Prisciani, he calls felina (apparently because a cat, 
like the Manx Tre Cassyn, or trinacria, always falls on 
its legs). Various town or university topics are intro- 

Composuere gravem VLohaXdpim ifii HLa.x&.uv. 

There is a description of drivers, walkers, who come 
home splashed. Early-rising sportsmen. The bucks 
sunning their sleek locks as spruce as any Narcissus 
of the Isis. How deliberately they lounge : how 
rudely they stare, not deigning to wear their gowns 
and battered caps: these pupils of bully Dawson! 
What is the allusion in the following ? 

Saepe Gradus errant, etenim lex unica jussit 
Parcere Germanis, sed quid tibi Curia fecit 
Ut brevior fiat quam cum Romana fuisset? 

Does the last line refer to some false quantity 
such as Kipling or Watson were capable of making, 
or to some small meeting of the Senate? 

The affectation of archaisms in Latin verse is sati- 
rized, and the free use of conjunctions. He concludes 
with an address to the vagrant poem : 

Uraris Tineo non impunitior ipso 

Cum tua membratim jactu dispersa faceto 

Frustula calcabit belle soleata juventus. 

Comit. Poster. Mar. 19, 1795. 
1. A passage from Plato. The Immortality of 
L. B. E. 16 

242 University Society 

the Soul, by 'Bobus' Smith (Mus. Crit. II. 57). [Good 
authority however ascribes this to Jo. Keate.~\ 

2. ®a\acrtrc7rXayKTa 

"kivoTnep evpe vavrlXcov o^fiara, 

Progress of Navigation, 

Comit. Prior. Feb. n, 1796. 

1. Evyptxpecov >caXdp,a>v. The Old Masters, (by 
Tower of St John's). 

2. Ol/cTpbv yap iroXw t^i/8' wyvylav, &c. 

(Aesch. 5. C. Thebas, 321 — 3). 
Roma Alarico Getarum Rege, capta, spoliata; A. U. C. 
1 163 (by Harris). 

Com. Prior. Mar. 2, 1797. 

1. Avpai rjhvirvooi Ka/ndrov dvairavcriv e%ovaai. 
Epidemics, consumption, &c, by W, Frere (Mus.. 

Crit. I. 323). 

2. In varias doceo migrare figuras. 'Dialogue of 
the Dead between Pythagoras, Ennius, and Charon,' 
(by S. W. Gaudy). 

Com. Posterior. Mar. 30, 1797. 

I. Z,a 8' vtto aSevyXa Kparepwv XeirdBveov 

"Zrepva yaias /cat iroXia,'} 6aXaacra,<; 

2<piryj6TaL' cri) $' datpaXews Kvfiepvds. 

"Aarea Xawv, Erinna. 

The death of the empress Katherine of Russia, 
(Nov. 17, 1796). 

2. Securum iter et fallentis semita vitae. ' Latin 
elegiacs, on the Pleasures of a retired Life,' (by Clem. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 243 

Com. Prior. Feb. 22, 1798. 

1. Quicquid agunt homines, Votum, timor, ira, Vo- 

Gaudia, discursus nostri est farrago iibelli. 
An account of a theatrical entertainment. 

2. An imprimis quasi ceram animum putamus et 
memoriam esse signatarum rerum in mente vestigia^ 
A statement of a theory of Impressions, by W. 
Frere, (Mus. Crit. I.). 

[Com. Posterior. 1798. 

In Phantasiam, by H. V. Bayley, Mus. Crit. I. 323.] 

Com. Prior. Feb. 7, 1799. 

1. 'O Be 0eo? elirev, &c, I Chron. xxviii. 3. 

The son of k. Henry, a man of Peace builds King's 
Coll. Chapel. 

2. Atque hie undantem bello magnumque jluentem 
Nilum et navali surgentes aere columnas. 

The Battle of the Nile, Aug. 1, 1798. There was 
an illumination in honour of the victory in Oct. 3, 
1799, and a General Thanksgiving, Nov. 29. 

Com. Prior. Feb. 1800. 

\. aXX' c/llcos iv ovpavm 

valovcri, &c. Edwy and Elgiva. 
2. Latin Elegiacs on Paris et Oenone, (by G. L. 

Com. Posterior. Mar. 27, 1800. 
1. Immensos Lapponiae montes, miracula naturae. 
Joan. Luxi. prolegg. iii. 18. 
Lapland and gnomes. 

16 — 2 

244 University Society 

2. Quae supra nos nihil ad nos. 

The futility of speculations on the unknown. 

[Com. Posteriora, 1802. 

Ars Piscatoria, by James Parke [Mus. Crit. I.)] 

In the lists of names on the backs of the verses, 
there are often subdivisions in the classes, indicated 
by spaces left between the names : and those who 
took aegrotat degrees were assigned to the several 
classes by the moderators. 

We will now pass to the Act or Great Commence- 
ment in the summer; till which time the seniority of 
the honour men was reserved from the first Act 
generally in February (Comitia Priora of the Wran- 
glers and Senior Optimes) and from the latter Act 
of the 'Bachelors' Commencement' {Comitia Pos- 
teriora of the Junior Optimes) : so that they kept 
their place above any of the -koXKoX, or ordinary- 
degree men. 

At this Great Commencement {Comitia Majora) 
the higher degrees were given, and the Praevari- 
CATOR held a similar position to that which the 
Tripos had taken on the earlier occasion. 

The following account is taken from esquire bedel 
Matt. Stokys' Book*, just before the Reformation. 

' The Vepers in Arte. [Vesperiae ante Comitia 
maxima]... In the mornyng att vii off the Clocke all 
the Inceptours in Arte shall assemble att the College 
or Place where the FATHER [In later days the Proctor 

1 Dean Peacock, On tie Statutes, 1841. Appendix A. pp. xx— xxx. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 245 

took this office at the great Commencement] is aby- 
dyng. Than the Father shall call hys chyldren lyke 
as he wyll have them in Senyoryte, begynnyng at the 
eldyst, they shall take upp the Scolys ; fyrst the 
Comyn Scolys, the Master in Ordynarye redyng in 
everye Scolys, as the Facultye requyryth : And so in 
everye Howse of Fryers, where any Regent is... [Then 
after some Questions and notice of Disputations : the 
'eldyst sonne' beginning to rehearse his arguments 
'shall be clappyde out,' see p. 209] Than the Proc- 
tour shall make as many ley ther handys on the 
Boke as may, and he shall say, Jurabitis quod nun- 
quam resumetis Gradum Bachalariatus in eadem facili- 
tate de cetero. [i. e. ' hereafter.' The Oxonian formula 
was quaintly personal : Magister tu jurabis quod nun- 
quam consenties in reconciliationem Henrici Simeonis, 
nee statum Baccalaitreatus iterum tibi assumes. It is 
thought that the culprit had, to gain some end, dis- 
sembled his degree in king John's reign. J After 
that the Father shall rede hys Comendatyon, hys 
Chyldren folowing and there whodys pluckydde on 
there Hedys, [to hide their blushes ;] and that don, 
the Bedyll shall say, Honorande Magister, solent queri 
Questiones. [The Father repeats ; adding, sub quo ? 
quando ? et ubi f] Sub quo ? Sub meipso, Deo dante. 
Quando? Die Lime. Ubi? In ecclesia Beate Marie 
Virginis. And thus endyth the Vepers in Arte. 

Nota. That the Fathers and the Bedellys shall 
dyne wyth the eldest Inceptour that Daye. 

The Commensment in Arte. In the Mornyng on 
the Commensment Day all the Inceptours shall as- 

246 University Society 

semble att the Father's Place, as they dyd the day 
off the Vepers : than the yongest shall go fyrst, and 
the Father shall cumme behynde wyth hys eldyst 
Sonne next hym all to Saynt Marye Chyrche. The 
Father shall sytt before the Auter, & as many off 
his Chyldren as may. Iff there be Commensment in 
Divinite & Lawe that Day, the Father of Dyvinite 
shall sytt in the middys of the Gresynge [step] before 
the Hyghe Auter, covered iff he wyll, & hys eldyst 
Sone....Than next hym the Father in Lawe. [The 
Father in Art and each Inceptor offers id. Mass 
is said. Then] the Proctour shall say Incipiatis. 
Than the Father shall rede a Texte in Phylosophye, 
& say, Ex is to Textu eliciuntur duo Articuli ad pre- 
sens disputandi: & he shall reherse the Questyons 
that shall be dysputyde. Then shall stonde upp THE 
yongest Regent that commensyde the yere 
BEFORE [i.e. the Praevaricator or Varier; who 
had at the preceding Commencement sworn, in ad- 
dition to the ordinary oath, Jurabis etiam quod se- 
quenti anno in proximis comitiis per te, vel per alium, 
VARIABIS, determinabis questionem, &c. Compare Pe- 
ter Gunning's account of himself: 'In the year of our 
Lord 1632 I commenced bachelor of arts, and was 
made senior brother. In the year of our Lord 1632, 
ending on new year's day, January 1, I was chosen 
fellow of the college, ( Clare hall,) when I was nine- 
teen years old. At the same year, ending at the lat- 
ter act, I was made tripus. In the year 1635, in July, 
I commenced master of arts, and was sworn praeva- 
ricator.' Baker-Mayor, 234—5 \ see also the quotation 

in the Eighteenth Century. 247 

given by Mr Mayor in the notes, p. 648, where Edw. 
Stillingfleet is described as giving a ' witty and inof- 
fensive speech' as Tripos: and in 1660 the Praevari- 
cator, Mr Darby, is said to have been ' witty and in- 
nocent.'] ' He was required to preface his argument 
with an Oration, in which he was authorized by cus- 
tom, like the TRIPOS at the lesser comitia, (in the 
spring,) to use considerable freedom of language ; a 
privilege which was not unfrequently abused. The 
praevaricator was so named (says dean Peacock) from 
varying the question which he proposed, either by a 
play upon the words, or by the transposition of the 
terms in which it was expressed. A beautiful speci- 
men of such a speech has been preserved, which was 
made by Dr James Duport in 163 1,' see p. 234. [It 
will be found quoted in the notes.] 'And he shall 
ansure to one argument in both maters ; fyrst to the 
Sone & after to the Father, iff he may have reason 
therto, he shall certyfye the Argument off hys Sone. 
After the Proctour hath sayde, Sufficit, shall stonde 
up the non Regent & reherse the maters, & the way 
off the yong Regent: after he shall rede hys Lesson, 
& ansure to the Sone, to the Father, & the non Re- 
gentys, in lyke Forme as is sayde in the Vepers, 
Whan all have arguyde, the Proctour shall say, Ad 
Oppositum. The Sonne shall ansure, Est Philosophus. 
Than the Yongest Doctor off Divynite shall take the 
Conclusyon, and say thus, Has Conclusiones, assero et 
determino esse veras. [Then an Oath is given to con- 
tinue regency for five years, and not to incept or read 
in the faculty elsewhere, except at Oxford, The 

248 University Society 

Inceptor then sits and gives his final determination of 
the questions in the ear of the Father (Magister)\ 
and as he is going, on off [i. e. one of] the Bedellys 
shall stonde there & say, Nouter Mater, [maitre,] 
Mater N. prbnounsyng by name... [After the Vepers 
in Gramer follows the Act or enteryng of a Master in 
Gramer : which, though beside our question, is too 
quaint to be passed over. After beginning with 
Mass, &c, as in Arts,] Whan the Father, [sitting aloft 
under the ' Stage for Physyke' in St Mary's church,] 
hath arguyde as shall plese the Proctour, the Bedyll 
in Arte shall bring the Master of Gramer to the Vice- 
chauncelor, delyveryng hym a Palmer, [some sort of 
ferule or cane,] wyth a Rodde, whych the Vycechaun- 
celor shall gyve to the seyde Master in Gramer, & so 
create hym Master. Than shall the Bedell purvay 
for every master in Gramer a shrewde Boy, whom the 
master in Gramer shall bete openlye in the Scolys, & 
the master in Gramer shall give the Boye a Grote for 
hys Labour, & another Grote to hym that provydeth 
the Rode & the Palmer, &c. de singulis. And thus 
endythe the Acte in that Facultye.... 

Nota. That the Inceptour in Gramer shall gyve to 
the Vicechauncelar a Bonett, and to the Father, and 
to eche off the Proctours a Bonett... 

[Then comes an account of the Vespers in Divin- 
ity, and of the Divinity Act which was to take 
place after 'the Actys in Gramer, Art, Musyke, 
Physyke, Cyvyll, Canon. ']...M d . Iff ther commense 
ij Fryers Doctours in on Howse, the on is Regent 
Claustrall, and shall rede his Lesson in hys owne 

in the Eighteenth Century. 249 

Scholys, and the other shall rede in the commyn 
Scolys; and lyke wyse wyth the Dysputatyons... 
Whan the Dysputatyon is don the Doctour shall 
not say the Prayers, but be brought home wythe 
the Bedellys, and the Opposers, and there he shall 
gyve them Drynke : and the Responsall shall gyve 
hym xxd. towarde the Costys of thys Drynkyng. 
. . . The Vepers in Canon and Civ ell. . . The commens- 
ment in Canon and Civyll. . . 

M d . ...The Bedell shall gather of every Doctour 
Comensar for every Doctour ther being present, a 
Grote for hys Pylyon, and iff ther be moo Com- 
mensars Doctours than on, he shall gather of the 
yongar Commensar a grote for the elder Commensar.' 

The following extracts 1 are taken from Bedel 
Buck's Book, 1665. 'In Vesperiis Comitiorum, The 
Bedels are to go to the several Colleges, and bring 
the Inceptors in Arts to the Father in Philosophy 
by 7 of the Clock that morning, in Hoods black. 
After a little stay at the Father's chamber, we go 
to the Father of Physick... to the Father in Civil 
Law. the Father in Divinity.. .to the V. C. 

The Inceptors in all Faculties go this day with 
Black Hoods turned, and their Caps off. When 
we come at the V. C rs . Lodgings, after a little 
stay there, we are to go to the Schools... The V. C, 
...not being a Father, is in his Scarlet Gown, his 
Cap being garnished with gold Lace ; but if he be 
a Father, then he goeth in his Cope ; and so do 
the other Fathers with their Caps garnished. 

1 Peacock, On the Statutes, 1841. Appendix B. lxxix — lxxxvii. 

250 University Society 

The Proctors go in white -Hoods, and their Caps 
garnished with gold Lace, carrying their Books in 
their hands. The Father in Philosophy goeth in 
like manner, save only he carrieth no Book. When 
we are come into the Philosophy Schools, one of 
the Bedels saith unto the Lecturer there reading, 
Venerabilis magister, haec tibi sufficient. Then he 
leaves off his Reading. The Bedel then readeth 
all the Quaestions in hunc Modum. Quaestiones 
his nostris Comitiis disputandae sunt hujusmodi ; 
In Schola Theologica. — Then he reads them. In 
Schola Juris Civilis — In Schola Medica — In Schola 
Philos. — He readeth likewise all the Questions for 
these 3, in Vesper Us Comitiorum, in Die Comitiorum. 

Then another Bedel saith to the Lecturer, in 
French, Monsieur, une Parole s'il vous plaist. Les 
Seigneurs de notre Commencement vous prient, qu'il 
vous plaist d'etre present Demain a leurs commence* 
merits dans I Eglise de notre Dame. 

Then the Reader comes down out of his seat; 
and from thence we go to the Logick Schools, 
and there do the like ; and from thence to the 
Rhetorick, and so do there likewise... [The Fathers 
take a high seat in their several schools, and a 
Bedel goes to each, and summons him to the 
Benedictions 'which are usually very short' Then 
they go to S. Mary's Church ; where all take their 
places on the Stages, &c.J M r V. Ch. (if he be a 
Divine) doth moderate this Divinity Act, and be- 
ginneth with a Prayer; then he maketh a short 
Speech, at the end of which, he desireth the Father 

in the Eighteenth Century. 251 

to begin : who, at the end of his speech, calleth 
up the Answerer, who, after his Prayer, readeth his 
Position. In the mean Time the Bedels deliver his 
Verses to the Vice-Chancellor, Noblemen, &c. 

The Position being ended, the Father doth usually 
confute it, but very briefly, and then he disputeth 
upon his Son ; who, after he hath repeated the first 
syllogism, doth endeavour to answer the Objections 
the Father used against it. Now he falleth to his 
arguments again, and having disputed a little while 
upon both Questions, the V. C. taketh him off, and 
calleth up the Senior Opponent ; and so all the rest 
in their Seniority. They having all disputed, the 
V. C. dismisseth the Answerer, with a word or 2 in 
his commendation, if there be cause for it. Then he 
beginneth his Determination : which being ended, 
and also his Prayer, the Respondent, and all his Bre- 
thren standing with him by the Seat, do take this 
Oath, which the Proctor giveth, [against taking the 
degree again.].. Then they are to sit. upon the Form 
before the respondents Seat ; and the Bedel having 
covered their faces with their Hoods, he holdeth up 
his Staff and saith, Honorande Pater, ad Commenda- 
tionem: which being ended the Bedel doth uncover 
the Inceptors' Faces and saith again, Honorande 
Pater, solent quaeri Quaestiones, &c. [see p. 245. They 
then adjourn to dinner at the Answerer's college 
hall.] The University Musicians usually standing by 
the College Hall, welcome them thither with their 
loud Music. 

At 3 of the Clock the School Bell rings to the 

252 University Society 

Act, and the V. C. and all the Company with him 
go to the Commencement House, and so soon as 
they are placed, the Proctor sitting on the South side, 
beginneth with a short oration. 

Then the Father in Philosophy sitting on the North 
side, with his eldest son on his right Hand, doth 
begin his exhortation : and after he hath ended his 
Speech, the Proctor calleth up the Varier or PRE- 
VARICATOR, who having ended his Speech, is dismist 
by the Proctor : and then the PHILOSOPHER is called 
for by him : and whilst he is reading his Position the 
Bedels deliver out his verses in the like manner as 
they did in the morning at the Divinity Act. [A 
short account of the Law Act, and of the Physick 
Act, follows : at the former, if not at both, verses were 

In Die Comitiorum... we all go directly to St 
Mary's, where the V. C. is placed with the D rs - of his 
own Faculty in the upper stage at the West end of 
the Church. The Father in divinity sitteth in the 
lower stage, with his Sons on his right hand. 

The Lady Margaret's Professor (who is usually the 
Moderator this Day) sits on the South Side in the 
same seat the V. C. did the day before... All being 
placed, the Moderator beginneth with a Prayer, and a 
short Speech : which being ended, The Father in 
Divinity maketh a Speech ; and when that is done, 
the Proctor saith, Honorande Pater, ad Creationem: 
Wherein a Cap, a Book, a Ring, a Chair and a Kiss 
are used. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 253 

Then the Father calleth up the Answerer, and 
showeth him his sons, whom he encourageth, &c. 

Then the Answerer beginneth his Prayer and Posi- 
tions, and when the Position is reading, the Bedels 
deliver verses and Groats to all D rs - present, as well 
Strangers as Grernials [Others reply in turn :] Every to make a short speech... in which he 
thanketh the University, and likewise his Father. 
[Then come Commendations and Prayer: the Bedel 
says Incipe : Ad Opposilum : Pone dextram in Manum 
D™. and gives him the oath as in p. 247, and a Pro- 
fession concerning Holy Scripture. With that excep- 
tion the same order is observed in the other faculties : 
the Proctor dismissing each with Exito. In the 
Philosophy Act the Father having created his Son ; — ] 
the Varier or Prevaricator maketh his Oration. 
Then the Son maketh a short speech, and disputeth 
upon him. Then the Answerer in Philosophy is 
called forth, and whilst he is reading his Position 
the Bedels distribute his verses &c. When the Posi- 
tion is ended, the eldest son, and 2 masters of Arts 
reply upon him. The Senior M r . of Arts usually 
makes a Speech, before he replieth ; but the 2 d . op- 
ponent doth not... 

After some 10 or 12 are thus created [as described 
on p. 248] in the Church, the Proctor standeth up, 
and saith, Reliqui expectabunt Creationem in Scholis 

[They adjourn for that purpose. Next morning 
the Law Act is performed : Groats and Verses are 
distributed to the D rs ' present; verses alone to 

254 University Society 

noblemen and strangers. Then the Physick Act 

Now if there be no Music Act, M r Proctor maketh a 
short Speech, thanking the Auditory for their patience 
and desireth their pardon in case there have been 
any Slips or mistakes in such variety of exercises. 

Mem. That the VARIER to be in the future Com- 
mencement hath this Oath added, Jurabis etiam, &c. 
[as described p. 246]. He is sworn last, tho' he be one 
of the first that is called' 

Gunning's edition of Wall's Ceremonies (1828), shews 
that the forms Incipe, Ad Oppositum, &c, remain un- 
altered in the Divinity Commencement. The office of 
Tripos and Prevaricator have gone ; the name of the 
former has come to signify the list on the back of 
which the verses are printed (and in later times even 
the examination which results in that list). 

Under the section concerning the First Tripos, 
Gunning says, ' Each of the Proctors provides a copy 
of verses in Latin, which he sends to be printed at 
the University Press. 

The Junior Proctor gives directions about the print- 
ing, and orders a number of copies to be sent to the 
vestry, to be distributed by the company to persons 
in Statu Pupillari, who assemble in the Law Schools 
in order to obtain them... .The Vice-Chancellor, 
Noblemen, Doctors, and University Officers, fit them- 
selves with gloves, which are provided by the Junior 
Proctor. Gloves also are given to the Writers of the 
Tripos Verses, the Marshall, the School-keeper, the 

in the Eighteenth Century. 255 

Yeoman Bedell, the Vice-Chancellor's servant, the 
Proctor's men, and the Clerk of St Mary's... 

Each of the Proctors makes a Speech 1 [' now discon- 
tinued'], and the Tripos papers are thrown amongst 
the Undergraduates. 

A Bedell reads from a Tripos paper: 
' Baccalaurei quibus sua reservatur Senioritas Comitiis 
prior ibus!' ' 

The like was done at the Second Tripos (of the 
'Junior Optimes,' Comitiis Posterioribus). 

In a letter 2 to Alexander Gill, dated Cambridge, 
July, 2, 1628, Milton writes; 'One of the fellows of 
our college, who was to be the respondent in a philo- 
sophical disputation for his degree, engaged me to 
furnish him with some verses which are annually- 
required on this occasion ; since he himself had long 
neglected such frivolous pursuits, and was then intent 
on more serious studies. Of these I send you a 
printed copy.' 

Of the symbolism of the insignia doctoralia* 
Bentley gives an account, well worth perusing, in the 
Introduction to his edition of Terence. In the Eliza- 
bethan statutes the Doctors are called emphatically 
pileati, cap-wearers. Bentley explains the solemn 
delivery of the Cap to the Inceptor to mean that he 
was free, and also that he was to set out on a toilsome 
journey, eloquent like Ulysses, cunning like Mercury, 

1 Cp. Gunning's Remi?iisc. (1854), II. 80. 

2 Translate;! from the Latin by Ro. Fellovies, A.M. Oxon. Milton's 
Prose Works, 1834, p. 951. The original Latin is given ibid. 831. 

3 Cp. Fr. Barman's Visit to Cambridge 'm 1702. Mr. Mayor's Cam- 
bridge in Q. Anne's Reign, p. 116. 

256 University Society 

workman-like as Vulcan : the three who are especially- 
represented in antiques with petasi. The Bible was 
handed to them; firstly shut, as mysterious; secondly 
open, as to learned expositors. The Ring too symbo- 
lizes liberty, it is also a sign of birth to the doctor's 
degree; of betrothal to the chaste spouse Theology. 
[The gold ring, with the motto COMMENDAT RARIOR 
VSVS, was the symbol of authority handed by the 
Head-master (Informator) at Winchester to the Prae- 
fect of Hall, as a sign that a 'Remedye' or whole- 
holiday was granted, It was returned on the morning 
of the next 'whole-school-day,' This custom is known 
to have been as old as 1550, and expired only a few 
years ago]. The Chair represents stability : it invites 
the Inceptor to aim at succeeding the Professor: it calls 
him to the episcopal Throne, or the decanal Stall. It 
seems luxurious at first, but it will prove hard to fill. 
Then the Kiss: that is a token of pardon, of goodwill, 
of kinship with Alma Mater. It is no kiss of dalli- 
ance (suavium), but a kiss of holy love [psculum). 

John Dunton in his Life and Errors (1818, p. 683), 
gives some quaint reflections in a letter to a friend on 
the ceremonies which were performed at the Scotch 
Commencement in 1709, when Edmund Calamy 
tertius had a degree conferred upon him. 

He says, that 'Doctor... is a title that was in the 
Apostles' days;... and Gamaliel is called a Doctor of 
Law... When University Students have got a Degree 
in the Arts, then they have a gown and a cap for the 
sign of it. [He gives also an explanation of the sym- 
bolism of the dcctoralia.] The first Degree is Bache- 

in the Eighteenth Century. 257 

lor of Arts, in Latin Baccalaureus ; which implies as 
much as Laurel-berries; which puts me in mind of 
those Romans who accounted Apollo their God of 

Dr Donaldson, in his Latin Grammar 1 , ingeniously 
derives the word from bas chevalier, who, according 
to the old French feudal system, might not like a 
knight banneret unfold a banner, but was himself a 
follower. Professor Maiden in his essay on the Origin 
of Universities*, gives a similar explanation. May it 
not with greater probability be connected with baculus 
or bacillus, the Bedel's staff which always was pro- 
minent in the ancient ceremonies of admission to 
degrees 3 ? (See Helfenstein, Contemp. Rev. IV. 247.) 

As to the name Praevaricator ; several instances of 
the word are cited in Todd's Johnson's Dictionary*. 
Archbishop Trench says, ' " to prevaricate" was never 
employed by good writers of the seventeenth century, 
without nearer or more remote allusion to the uses of 
the word in the Roman law courts, where a " praevari- 
cator" (properly a straddler with distorted legs) did 
not mean generally and loosely, as now with us, one 
who shuffles, quibbles, and evades ; but one who plays 
false in a particular manner; who undertaking, or, 
being by his office bound, to prosecute a charge, is in 

1 P. 471,'ed. i860. 2 P. 23 (183s). 

3 See J. Helfenstein in Contemporary Review, IV., p. 247, on Mediaeval 
Universities. Also Diez, Vergleichendes Worterb. der roman. Sprachen, 
ed. 3, p. 43, who rejects both these derivations and also that of Littre 
and Gachet from vassal. 

"■ E. g. Apology for Smectymnuus (1642). Milton's Prose Works, 
p. 78. Racket's Life of Abp. Williams, and Bp. Wren's Monarchy 
Asserted (Preface). 

L. B. E. 17 

258 University Society 

secret collusion with the opposite party; and betray- 
ing the cause which he affects to support, so manages 
the accusation as to obtain not the condemnation, 
but the acquittal of the accused ; a " feint pleader," as, 
I think, in our old law language, he would have been 
termed. How much force would the keeping of this 
in mind add to many passages in our elder divines.' 
English Past and Present, Lect. IV. 

Cicero, in his Second Philippic, says, ' I shall seem, 
quod iurpissimum est, praevaricatorem mihi apposu- 
isse: f (i. e. to have set up Antony as a man of straw 
to argue with me, merely to bring out my own powers). 
It is very easy to see how such an office in academical 
disputations would degenerate into badinage. 

Beside the annual Acts at the Commencement in 
the summer, there was, on grand occasions at that 
time of year, a public Commencement, answering to an 
especially grand Commemoration at Oxford, on the 
Accession of a 'Sovereign, the Installation of the 
Chancellor: (as of the D. of Newcastle, July, 1749. 
Cooper's Annals, IV. 269 — 272) or the visit of some 
other personage of note. There were elaborate dis- 
putations prepared by the doctors, &c. : some of which 
are described in Nichols' Royal Progresses of James I. 
in 16 14, when there was a Varier taking part in the 
proceedings. On that occasion ' the Philosophy Act 
[on the question an canes possint facere syllogismosf] 
made amends, and indeed was very excellent, inso- 
much that the same day the Bishop of Ely [Dr An- 
drewes] sent the Moderator, the Answerer, the Varier 
or Prevaricator, and one of the Repliers, that were all 

in the Eighteenth Century. 259 

of his House [Pembroke] twenty angels apiece.' 
Nichols' Progresses of James I., Vol, III. $6. Also, 
Hacket's Life of Abp. Williams (ed. 1693, I. p. 23), 
who was Proctor at the time of the visit of the Elector 
Palatine of the Rhine and Prince Charles to Cam- 
bridge in 161 2 — 3. 

In addition to the praevaricatorj there was some- 
times at the Public Commencements (and on those 
occasions only), a MusiCK Speech. This was very 
much of the same nature as the Tripos' Speech at the 
Lesser Act in the spring. 

In June, 17 14, was delivered the famous Music' 
Speech of Roger Long 1 , M.A, Fellow of Pembroke 
Hall, afterwards Master, Lowndes' Professor, and au- 
thor of a work on Astronomy. The Speech consists 
of a medley of Latin prose and English verse, which 
was spoken in St Mary's church. 

I will first give Ralph Thoresby, F.R.S., the Leeds 
antiquary's account of his visit to the Commencement 
at Cambridge in 17 14, and then proceed with some 
extracts from Roger Long's speech. Thoresby writes 
in his Diary (ed. Hunter, 1830) : 

' June 24. [Friday.] Walked to Bishopsgate-street 
about the coach for Cambridge. 

July 5. [Monday.] After a weary night,- rose by 
three ; walked to Bishopsgate to take coach for Cam- 
bridge, was in time... We passed through... Epping 
Forest... thence through Woodford to Bishop Stort- 
ford where we dined ; thence by Quenden-street and. 

1 Cooper's Annals, IV. 115. T)y ex' & Privileges, Vol. II. (Supplement 
to Hist, of Camb. part 2), pp. 8i, 116. Nichols, Lit. Ante. iv. 402, 663. 

17 — 2 

260 University Society 

Newport to Littlebury...Had a view of Audley-end... 
and of Saffron Walden ; the country people were 
planting that valuable crocus ; thence over Gog-ma- 
gog' Cambridge after a prosperous journey. 
Escaped a great danger in the town itself, one of the 
wheels of the coach being just off, and the man driv- 
ing a full career, as is too usual with them. I made 
my first visit to Mr Milner, [formerly Vicar of Leeds,] 
at Jesus College, and after my return was at a loss 
for a lodging, my worthy hostess having let the room 
I had agreed for to another for a greater rate, this 
busy time of the Commencement. Mr Dover [one of 
his coach-mates] and I went to the Red Lion (Mr 
Reyner's, a Yorkshireman), where we fixed. 

[Tuesday, July\ 6. Had Mr (now Sir William) 
Milner's company to see the public schools and li- 
brary, but the then keeper could give me little satis- 
faction. Then to the Commencement, at St Mary's : 
our countryman, Dr Edmundson, had kept the Act 
yesterday, Mr Waterland, Master of Maudlin, did the 
like to-day. Dr James, Dr Edmundson, Dr Gibbons, 
and Dr Sherlock (which three commenced yesterday) 
were opponents, and Dr Jenkins (Master of St John's) 
was moderator; all performed excellently, and the 
Praevaricator's speech was smart and ingenious, at- 
tended with volleys of hurras : the vocal music, &c. 
was curious; and after seven or eight hours' stay 
there, being sufficiently wearied, I went thence to 
visit Mr Baker (a learned antiquary) at St John's, 
whom I never saw before, though I corresponded with 
him many years ago,' &c. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 261 

[ Wednesday, July\ 7. Early to bespeak a place in 
the coach, but there was none empty till Friday... I 
dined at Jesus College... Was after at Trinity College 
to visit Dr Colbatch, Casuistical Professor of Divinity; 
after prayers in the delicate Chapel there. [The work 
of decorating the Chapel had been begun in 1707, 
under Cotes' directions ; but Bentley did not Complete 
it till 1727, when he civilly gave Colbatch the old 
clock for his church at OrwelL] He very courteously 
showed me the stately library, of which the obliging 
Mr Claget is keeper, whose company I also enjoyed. 
The courteous Professor, Dr Colbatch, would con- 
strain me to sup with him in the College Hall. 

[Friday, July\ 9. Morning, rose before four ; then 
by the care of Dr Colbatch, my very kind friend, was 
placed in one of the three coaches, where I had better 
company and accommodations.' 

Long was assisted by Laurence Eusden. 


Music Speech 

spoken at the 

Public Commencement 



July the 6th 1714 

By Roger Long M. A. 

Fellow of Pembroke-Hall. 

The humble Petition of the Ladies who are all ready to be eaten up 

with the Spleen, 
To think they are to be lock'd up in the Chancel, where they can 
• neither see nor be seen; 

262 University Society 

But must sit i' the Dumps by themselves all stew'd and pent up, 
And can only peep through the Lattice, like so many Chickens in a 

Whereas last Commencement the Ladies had a Gallery provided near 

To see the Heads sleep, and the Fellow-Commoners take Snuff. 
Tis true for every Particular how 'twas ordered then we can't so cer- 
tainly know, 
Because none of us can remember so long as Sixteen Years ago ; 
Yet we believe they were more civil to the Ladies then, and good 

Reason why, 
For if we all stay'd at home your Commencement wou'dn't be worth 

a Fly: 
For at Oxford last Year this is certainly Matter of Fact, 
That the Sight of the Ladies and the Music made the best Part of 

their Act, 
Now you should consider some of us have been at a very great 

To rig ourselves out, in order to see the Doctors commence: 
We've been forc'd with our Mantua-makers to hold many a Consul- 
To know whether Mourning or Colours wou'd be most like to be in 

Fashion ; 
W,e've sent to Town to know what kind of Heads and Ruffles the 

Ladies wore, 
And have rais'd the Price of Whalebone higher than 'twas before; 
We've got Intelligence from Church, the Park, the Front-box and 

the Ring, 
And to grace St. Mary's now wou'dn't make our Cloaths up in the 

In Flounces and Furbelows many Experiments have been try'd, 
And many an old Gown and Petticoat new scour'd and dy'd. 
Some of us for these three Months have scarce been able to rest, 
For studying what sort of Complexion wou'd become us best; 
And several of us have almost pinch'd ourselves to Death with going 

strait lac'd, 
That we might look fuller in the Chest, and more slender in the 

And isn't it now intolerable after all this Pains and Cost, 
To be coop'd up out of Sight, and have all our Finery lost? 
Such cross ill-natur'd Doings as these are even a Saint wou'd vex 
To see a Vice-Chancellor so barbarous to those of his own Sex. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 263 

We've endeavoured to know the Reason of all this to the utmost of 

our Power, 
What has made the Doctors contrive to take us all down a Peg lower, 

As for that Misfortune the Ladies might e'en thank the Prevaricator, 
Who was so extremely arch they were ready to burst their Sides with 

LADIES, you see by this Petition. 
How much I pitied your Condition ; 
And had the Doctors thought it safe, 
You'd had a. better Place by half : 
But 'tis too late now to complain, 
I was your Advocate in vain; 
Howe'er you may by my Assistance, 
Know what's been doing at a Distance. 

The Doctor there, now so smugg'd up to win ye, 
Yesterday play'd the Part of Nicolini; 
An excellent Performer, though I fear 
You thought his Cat-call wasn't quite so clear, 
Nic oft the Lyon, who has at him flown, 
Like any London-Prentice has o'erthrown; 
But all that Battle's nothing at the Opera, 
To th' Doctors here with Heresy, Schism, and Popery; 
Nic charm'd you in a Tongue not understood; 
Here you had Latin, is n't that as good? 

With Ring and Kiss the second Act you saw 
Our new Professor married to the Law: 
'Tis such a Shrew that few wou'd care to venture, 
But for that all-prevailing Charm, the Jointure. 
He can assist, if you desire, to wed 
When by the Almanack it is forbid; 
Or Licence grant without the Banns to marry, 
If for three Holidays you're loth to tarry. 
For those Transgressions which the Law thinks meet 
With Wand be expiated and white Sheet, 
He can procure for Criminals of Fashion, 
The easier Punishment of Commutation. 

264 University Society 

Our Physick Doctor next took his Degree, 
In hopes the Title may enlarge the Fee, 
The Ladies Doctor — let him feel your Pulse, 
I'm sure he need desire no Business else. 
He hopes to hear Complaints from some of you, 
Doctor I find my self I can't tell how ! 
At first your Case will put him to a stand, 
Till the Broad-piece is slid into his Hand, 
Then he considers — and there's all the Reason 
To think the Bath may do you good this Season. 
You soon resolve to try a Course once more 
From which you found such Benefit before: 
This shows your Ailment rightly understood, 
Nothing but Company had done you good. 
And don't you now like that Physitian best, 
That in prescribing hits the Patient's Taste? 
But since the Vulgar can't hope to command 
Fees worthy of a Graduate Doctor's Hand, 
He has for publick Good made such Provision, 
Every one here may be her own Physitian; 
And I, though not equipt in gaudy Jacket, 
Have undertaken to retail his Packet. 

Are any of you troubled with 
The Scurvey that destroys the Teeth 
And often causes stinking Breath; 
In short, from whose prolific Womb 
Almost all our Diseases come. 
Do any of ye suffer ever 
Obstructions in the Spleen or Liver, 
Weakness of Stomach, Back or Reins, 
Rheumatick or Nephritick Pains, 
Colicks, Consumptions, Dropsies, Itches, 
Jaundies, Stone, Gravel, Cramps or Stitches; 
Are any here afflicted by 
Melancholy they can't tell why ; 
Does any one the Megrim dread, 
Or the Vertigo in the Head, 
The Doctor here by me assures ye 
He'll take no Mony till he cures ye. 
He quickly can remove the Smart, 
Of th' Palpitation of the Heart; 

in the Eighteenth Century. 265 

And what the hardest Part of th' Trade is, 

Of Fits 0' th' Mother cure the Ladies. 

Is any Husband here chagrin 

Because his Wife has got the Spleen, 

The Doctor tells you in a trice 

Whence the Distemper took its Rise, 

Whether the Coach too long has wore, 

Or wants a Pair of Horses more; 

Whether she has at Ombre lost, 

Or is outshin'd by some new Toast; 

Has by Gallant been left i' th' Lurch, 

Or some Body took her Place at Church; 

Her fav'rite Bason has let fall, 

Or wa'n't invited to a Ball, 

Or silver Tea-kettle was shown 

Of newer Fashion than her own. 

Is any one in mortal Fear 

She shou'dn't have a Son and Heir 

The Doctor a Prescription hath 

Wou'd save a Journey to the Bath. 

Whereas Carbuncles sometimes vex 

The Faces of the tender Sex, 

You've his Cosmetic Secret here, 

Wou'd ev'n a Face of Wainscot clear; 

Take away Sun-burn, Tan, or Morphew, 

And Freckles be they many or few: 

And make a Cambridge Beauty bright, 

At Distance or by Candle-light. 

The Doctor can a Dye prepare, 

To change the Colour of the Hair, 

Teeth when decay'd draw out or clean, 

And artificial ones set in. ' 

Are any here disorder'd by 

The Tweer or Rolling of the Eye, 

Not Bickerstaff cou'd cure you better, 

By's famous Circumspection- Water. 

He has an excellent Receipt 

To make young Damsels eat their Meat, 

Leave Chalk and Oatmeal, and such Trash, 

To diet upon wholesome Flesh. 

Besides his Skill in Physiology, 

He has been Student in Astrology; 

266 University Society 

Can tell, if any wants to know 

How her Affairs are like to go, 

Whether the Cards will her befriend, 

Or how a Suit of Law will end. 

He can, by Help of Magick Glass, 

Shew a young Wench her Sweet-heart's Face: 

I' th' Stars or on her Hand can read 

How long she's like to live a Maid. 

He can with Ease recover soon 

The Thimble lost, or silver Spoon; 

And help you to find out the Thief, 

As well as by the Sheers and Sieve. 

Should an old Spark inconstant prove, 

By Spells he can renew his Love; 

His Blood with Flames rekindled sieze, 

As if he'd drunk Cantharides. 

He has an Amulet or Charm, 

Put it but on, you'll take no Harm, 

Though you should hear the Schriech-Owl shriek, 

Or Cricket chirp, or Death-watch strike; 

From the ill Omen it would screen, 

Should you at Table make Thirteen; 

No Danger need you fear at all, 

Should you the Salt-seller let fall, 

Or hear the Raven thrice cry Pork, 

Or lay across your Knife and Fork. 

Alas ! that he no Herbs can find 

To ease the Pain of a love-sick Mind ! 

But there's no Help in that Disease, 

From Galen or Hippocrates : 

All can be done on that Occasion, 

Is gaining th' Object of your Passion; 

Should that impossible appear, 

Then change your Mind, and fix elsewhere; 

For this Probatum none can doubt, 

One Nail will drive another out. 

Well then, since here (a Sight that's very rare) 
Men much more plentiful than Women are, 
Out of this Company, 'tis my Advice, 
You unprovided Ladies take your Choice. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 267 

Here is Variety enough, yon have 

The gay, the wise, the witty and the grave. 

How do our Proctors there your Fancies hit? 

The one for Beauty fam'd, the other Wit. 

I shou'd the Oxford Doctor first have shown, 

But that we've Doctors plenty of our own ; 

Besides, he'as little need of our good Wishes, 

Of whom so many of you long for Kisses. 

Some here, since Scarlet has such Charms to win ye, 

For Scarlet Gown have laid out many a Guinea. 

Though, I shou'd think, you had far better wed 

The young in Sable, than the old in Red. 

There 's one amongst our Doctors may be found, 

Values his Face above a Thousand Pound; 

But if you stand, he'll something 'bate perhaps, 

Provided that you don't insist on Shapes: 

Some of our Dons, in Hopes to make you truckle, 

Have for this two Months laid their Wigs in buckle; 

If clear-starch'd Band and clean Gloves won't prevail, 

Can the lac'd Gown or Cap of Velvet fail? 

What though th' Squire be awkward yet and simple, 

You'd better take him here than from the Temple. 

Amongst that fine Parterre of handsome Faces, 
Do any like a Joynture in Parnassus ? 
Upon us Fellows your Affections fix, 
But then you can't expect your Coach and Six ; 
What if we're not o'erstock'd with Land or Money, 
We'd gladly settle — our Affections on ye, 
And then such Constancy 'mongst us appears, 
That some of us can court for twenty Years : 
But most of ypu, I fear, wou'd be but loth 
So long before ypu dine to lay the Cloth. 

Will Beaus and Butterflies then please your Fancies 

Well vers'd in Birthrights, Novels and Romances 

Scandal, Plays, Opera's Fashions, Songs and Dances, 

We'll show you those that most politely can, 

Or tap the Snuff-box, or gallant the Fan. 

Or do your Inclinations bid you fix 

Upon some learn'd Adept in Politicks, 

We've those wou'd almost stun ye with the Din 

Of who's to be tum'd out and who put inj 

ies \ 

268 University Society 

Luuniy ill ±viuru.yKC , 

th' Toleration touch, ) 

a shou'd get too much, > 

give our Friends the Dutch ; ) 

Those that can tell you how you ought to like 

The new Canal that's cutting at Mardyke ; 

How far the BUI does 

Or if we by our Trade 

What Umbrage it may give 

How many Grains must to each Power be giv'n 

To make the Balance of all Europe even : 

In short, no Difficulties of State but vanish 

When once their Noses are well cram'd with Spanish 1 -. 

I've but an Offer more for you to choose, 

And that is such I'm sure you can't refuse ; 

Our Youth of Quality — ay, there's a Charm 

The coldest Virgins Heart will quickly warm; 

Which of you wou'dn't be well pleas'd to sit 

In the gilt Chariot grac'd with Coronet, 

Diamonds all o'er in the Front-box appear, 

And have the grateful Sound salute your Ear 

Where-e'er you go — My Lady Flounce's Servant there. 



But whilst we thus lash the Coquet and Prude 2 , 

Let us not seem to modest Merit rude; 

In blaming Vice we do the Virtuous praise, 

Thus Foils the Diamonds Lustre higher raise ; 

Thus Shadows stronger make the Light appear, 

And Venus near an Ethiop seems more fair. 

To you, ye Fair and Chaste, whose Eyes inspire 

Though a resistless yet an awful Fire, 

The Muse wou'd fain her humble Tribute bring, 

Such Virtues honour, and such Beauties sing, 

But for the daring Flight too feeble finds her Wing 

In every thing but her good Wishes poor, 

Of them she gladly heaps a boundless Store. 

May every rising Sun each circling Year 

To Joys untasted be a Harbinger; 

Pleasures unmix'd the happy Hours beguile, 

And Love and Fortune on you ever smile; 

May Truth and Honour only know you kind, 

And every Mania here a Juba find. 

1 A kind of Snuff. 
2 [N.B. / han't meddled much with the Coquet or Pimde under 
these Characters, but I wanted a Rime to rude.] 

in the Eighteenth Cenhiry. 269 

May every Fair — • 

But see the Sons of Harmony prepare 

A Feast might entertain a Cherub's Ear : 

Into such Notes Israel's prophetick King 

Of old awaken'd every sounding String, 

When in like Numbers Priests and Levites spoke, 

Of Salem's Temple the Foundation shook. 

Attend ye Winds — the hallow'd Sound convey 

O'er Heav'n's high Arch to Realms of lasting Day ; 

There the Almighty's vengeful Pow'r withstand, 

And wrest the Thunder from his threat'ning Hand; 

Call inexhausted Show'rs of Blessings down, 

And rain 'em all on picus ANNA's Throne. 

At Cambridge there was no public commencement 
between 1714, when Roger Long gave his Music 
Speech in St Mary's church, and 1730, when John 
Taylor 1 , M.A., St John's (editor of Lysias and of De- 
mosthenes), made one in the Senate-house on the occa- 
sion of the opening of that building. It had been 
commenced in 1722, but the west end was not com- 
pleted till about 1768. It was also called the 'New 
Regent House] and even ' the Theatre' (in Ansell's 
A uthentic Narrative, 1751). 

Taylor also wrote an Ode for music which seems 
not to have been performed (Cooper's Annals, IV. 208), 
but Greene set to music an edition of the Ode to S. 
Caecilia's Day which Pope altered for the occasion. 
Taylor's musick speech" 1 however was spoken: and it 
has been preserved. I transcribe it from the reprint 
by John Nichols and Son in 18 19. Besides this that 

1 Nichols' Lit. Anecd. IV. 662 n. 

2 Monk's Bentley, 11. 294. Cooper, IV. 208. Nichols' Lit. Anecd. 
I. 436, IV. 492, 533-5, 662. 

2^o University Society 

Pamphlet contains other poems by Taylor, a bio- 
graphy of him and of Roger Long, with the Latin 
portion of Long's Mustek Speech as well as the 
English verses which I have quoted already. 

The Music Speech 

at the 

Public Commencement in Cambridge, 

July 6, 1730. 

To which is added 

An Ode designed to .have been set to Music 

oft that Occasic*. 


John Taylor, M.A. 

Fellow of St. Joint's College 1 . 

Veneranda CAPITA, 

Corona hospitum jtrcf/NDissiMA,- 


Si, quod mihi in anim'o veli'emelrter exopfaridurii semper judicavi, ullum 
unquam extaret tempus, uhi mea vox et oratio, non dicam apud aures 
vestras cum laude' versari, sed cum aliquS saltern patientiS, exaudiri 
posse videretur, illud profectb hodiemo die mihi pene consecutus videor. 
Eorum enim hominum vultus intueor et sensus appello, quibus, tametsi 
munus et contentio dicendi tota est nostra, gratulatio tamen mecum 
pariter est communis. Neque profectb cuiquam vestrum levius hoc aut 
incredibile videatur, si palam profitebor, nobis quodammodo ex ips'S 
ratione dicendi accedere quandam Vim et ubertatem orationis. Nam 
cum omnem fere doctrinae humanioris rationem et literarum aciem 
hebescere intellexitnus, nisi adjungatur ornatus et cultura quaedam libe- 
ralior, perfectum est summfl, Academiae forttmS., bonornm omnium desi- 
devio', Procancellarii optimi consiliis, laboribus et constants singulari, 
ut Musis diuturno situ squalentes in nitorem, et munditiem dicam, an 
elegantiam ? hodie vindicatas gratulemur. Non ampliils intra barbaros 
penfe parietes et iniquis occlusa spatiis vefsabitur acies ingenii. Vicit, 

in the Eighteenth Centtiry. 271 

vicit hodiemo die Academiae faustitas, nos aliquando studia, quae pri- 
vatim cum jucunditate recolimus, posse publice cum dignitate profiteri. 

Jam diu est quod Philosophia caeteraque adeo optimarum artium 
studia, excuss& ills, quae per tot retro saecula inveteravit barbarie, cul- 
tiorem nacta sint disciplinam, et nostrorum hominum ingeniis vindicata 
in sempiternam famam et uberiorem usuram latius emanaverint. Dole- 
bat interea bonis omnibus Academiam ipsam, quae tantae causae vindex 
esse potuit, deteriori uti fortuna- ; et huic earn deesse culturam per 
quam est effectum ne caeteris omnino artibus deesset. Indigna nimirutn 
et miseranda sane conditio', Academiam, quae foris et in acie cunctis 
facilfe placebat, domi et in otio sibi soli placere non potuisse ; et uti earn 
praesertim taederet privatae fortunae, cujus publicae disciplinae pigebat 

Haec fuit nobis domesticarum rationum luetuosa facies, dim eum, 
quem Europa toties experta sit vindicem, toties Britannia delicias 
compellavit, patronum nacta sit Academia. Injurius essem et vestrae 
virtuti gravissimus, si eum ulteriiis nominarem, quem penfe gratissima 
vestra recordatio, praesentes Academiae fortunae, et hi ipsi parietes, 
pleniils et expressius quam Oratio nostra designabit. Jam ille qui 
toties saluti aliorum invigilaverit, suae tandem gloriae deesse noluit. 
Cui quoniam feliciori vut consulere non potuit, Academiae prospexit 
fortunis, et futuris literarum moenibus HterariUm jecit fundamentum. 
Testor clarissimum illud doctrinae lumen pariter et hortamentum, in- 
structissimam illam librorum copiam, quS nostrorum hominum ingenia 
eSdem oper£ acuit et devinxit, et tot suae memoriae impressit vestigia, 
tot vel privatae gloriae monumenta stnfidt, quot ex uberrimo isto 
disciplinarum fonte' vel iiniversa literarum Respublica sperare possit 
ornamenta. Quid? annon incredibile prorsus et pene divinum istud 
beneficium praedicemus, quod non solum vota exsuperavit, sed penfe 
facultatem capiendi ? Noluit non solum- vulgari donandi ratione, verum 
etiam nostris parietibus suam contineri et terminari benevolentiam ; et 
quanto illustriorem sibi comparavit laudem superiorum beneficia exsu- 
perando, tanto difficilius reliquit posterioribus negotium^ aequiparandr 

And now a while let sterner Science rest, 

While Verse and Music hail the softer guest; 

To Beauty sacred are the chord and song, 

And homage-numbers speak from whence they sprung; 

Theirs is the well'turn'd verse and glowing note^ 

Whatever Orpheus swell'd, or Prior thought; 

272 University Society 

By them inspir'd, I draw th' adventurous line; 
Theirs all its graces, all the failings mine. 

Ladies ! our homely simile would say, \ 

That by the model of this single day > 

The gremial doctor shapes his awkward way ; ) 

Rubs, frets, disputes, and thinks his compass through, 

Till fifty winters mellow on his brow : 

His Noon of Life in reverend slumber past, 

His Evening soul to Love awakes at last. 

The late, the closing science is a Wife ; 

And Beauty only cheers the verge of life. 

Now will those Oxford Wags be apt to fleer 
At these old-fashion'd tricks we practise here. 
Those enterprising Clerks, I've heard them say, 
Have found a better and a nearer way : 
Philo with Hymen they have learn'd to blend, 
And jointure early — on their Dividend. 
There Marriage-deeds with Buttery-books can vie ; 
They storm and conquer — whilst we toast and sigh. 

Ladies ! we own our Elder Sister's merit ; 
The forward Girl had e'er a bustling spirit. 
'Tis there politeness every genius fits ; 
Their Heads are Courtiers, and their Squires are Wits : 
There Gentleman 's a common name to all, 
From Jesus College down to New Inn Hall: 
'Tis theirs to soar above our humble tribe, 
That think or love as Statutes shall prescribe ~. 
They never felt a fire they durst not own, 
Nor rhym'd 1 nor languished for a Fair Unknown : 
Nay Verse, that earnest Pleader with the Fair, 
Has found a. Portion. and Professor 3 there. 
Whilst We our barren, widow'd boys regret, 
And Cambridge Muses are but Spinsters yet. 

1 Taylor himself wrote some Stanzas ' to the Fair Unknown [Mrs. 
Abthorp] on seeing her at the Musick-booth at Sturbridge Fair.' The 
verses are printed in the pamphlet from which I am quoting as well as 
in Nichols' Anecdotes. 

2 ' The Poetry Professorship at Oxford had then been recently esta- 
blished by the bounty of Dr. Henry Birkhead.' 

in the Eighteenth Century. 273 

By this plain-dealing will the Fair-ones guess 
Our clumsy-breeding, and our lame address. 
"Tis true our Courtship's homely, but sincere, 
And that 's a doctrine which you seldom hear. 
Nay, I expect the flatter'd Fair will frown : 
I see the pinner o'er the shoulder thrown; 
See every feature glowing with disdain, 
The awful rap of the indignant fan ; 
The head, unmindful of its glories, tost, 
And all the business of the morning lost. 

I hope the charge is not so general yet, 
As no good-natur'd comment to admit. 
Pray cast your eyes upon our Youth below, 
And say what think you of our purpled Beau ? 
For, if the picture 's not exactly true, 
The thanks to white-glov'd Trinity are due. 

What though our Johnian plead but scanty worth, 
Cold and ungenial as his native North, 
Who never taught the Virgin's breast to glow, 
Nor rais'd a wish beyond what Vestals know ; 
Nor Jesuit 1 , cloister'd in his pensive cell, 
Where vapours dank with contemplation dwell, 
Dream out a being to the world unknown, 
And sympathize with every changing Moon ; 
Though Politicks engross the Sons of Clare, 
Nor yields the State one moment to the Fair; 
Though Bene't mould in indolence and ease, 
And whist prolong the balmy rest of Kay's : 
And one continued solemn slumber reigns, ' 
From untun'd Sidney to protesting Queens' : 
Yet, ye Fair ! — 

Let this one dressing, dancing race atone 
For all the follies of the pedant gown. 
The Templar need not blush for such allies ; 
Nor jealous Christ Church this applause denies. 

How sleek their looks ! how undisturb'd their air, 
By midnight vigils, or by morning prayer ! 

1 'Jesus College is in a sequestered situation.' 
L. B. E. 18 

274 University Society 

No pale reflection does those cheeks invade, 
No hectic Student scares the yielding Maid. 
Long from those shades has learned dust retir'd, 
And Toilets shine where Folios once aspir'd. 

Pass but an age — perhaps thy labour 1 , Wren, 
Rear'd to the Muse, displays a softer scene. 
Polite reformers ! luxury to see 
The pile stand sacred, Heidegger, to Thee. 
Where Plato undisturb'd his mansion keeps, 
And Homer now past contradiction sleeps, 
The Vizard Squire shall hear the Concert's sound, 
And Midnight Vestals trip the measur'd round. 
I see the Classes into Side-boards flung, 
And musty Codes transform'd to modern Song; 
The solemn Wax in gilded Sconces glare, 
Where poring Wormius dangled once in air. 

Yet still in justice must it be confess'd, 
You'll find some modern Scholars here at least, 
Profound Adepts, which Gallia never knew ! 
For who would seek Ambassadors in you ? 
An handsome Envoy is no blunder yet, 
A well-dress'd Member, or a Treasury Wit : 
Toupees in Britain's Senate may have rose, 
But who e'er read of balance-holding Beaux ? 
For, oh ! unhappy to your powder'd heads, 
'Tis sure that Brancas thinks, and Fleury reads. 

'Tis yours in softer numbers to excel, 
To watch how Modes, not Empires, rose and fell ; 
Prescribe the haughty Prude a narrower sphere, 
And sigh whole Years in treaty with the Fair ; 
To parley ages on a Snuff-box hinge, 
And mark the periods of the Bugle-fringe. 

Memoirs like these, well gilded, may adorn 
The ebon cabinet of Squires unborn ; 
With what serene composure of the brain 
Shall future Beaux turn o'er the rich remain ! 
The well-spelt page perhaps with rapture dwells 
On Pepys' gilded show or Woodward's shells : 

Trinity College Library, 

in the Eighteenth Century. 275 

Important truths are couch'd in every line ; 
What Cambridge Toast excell'd in Twenty-nine, 
What new Embroidery this Commencement grac'd, 
And how complexions alter'd since the last. 
Ev'n China Nymphs shall live in Sonnet there, 
Or Polly Peachum stroll'd to Sturbridge Fair. 

Perhaps, though schemes ill suit so soft a pen, 
The gilded leaf some secrets may contain. 
What shower-drench'd Sinner reeling from the Rose, 
Did first the hint of Hackney-chairs propose : 
Who bade Sultanas clasp the well-shap'd Maid : 
Who first projected Caesar's Cavalcade : 
Who fond of planting Opera Statutes here, 
Struck out the modish thought of ticketing the Fair. 

The moral of my tale might fairly show 
The Northern Vicar that commences now, 
How Alma Mater better days expects, 
And Reformation thrives against the next. 
But oh, ill-fated Youth ! he sees' the last, 
And Trent, like Styx, for ever holds him fast : 
Before him flits some visionary scene, 
He sees Commencement rise on every green ; 
The red-rob'd Doctor struts before his eyes, 
The Galleries of Southern Beauties rise ; 
Then moulds his scanty Latin, and less Greek, 
And Hereboords 1 his parish once a week. 

Perhaps, if flames can glow beneath the Pole, 
Some distant Caelia fires his youthful soul, 
Proud to retail the little All he knew, 
He vends his College-stock in Billet-doux ; 
Whate'er his Tutor taught his greener age 
Of Muses breathing o'er the letter'd page ; 
Whate'er our Legendary Schools instill'd, 
Or raptur'd Bards with holy transports fill'd, 
The Tale, ye Fair-ones, with distrust survey, 
There's not one word of truth in all they say. 

1 In quibusdam Codd. ' Harry Hills ' [a retailer of cheap-printed 


276 University Society 

In Ledger-rolls indeed of antient Writ, 
We find a Grecian Factory of Wit ; 
And musty Records give some dark account 
Of one Director Phoebus of the Mount ; 
Nay from our files, I'll venture to supply ye 
With several bills endors'd by Banker Clio, 
But whether Stocks declin'd, or dealers broke, 
The Trade is now an arrant South-Sea joke ; 
For sure the modem Bank of Love and Wit 
Is what we mortals mean by Lombard-street. 

But more exalted numbers wake the chord, 
And flying sounds inform the melting word ! 
Hear the glad string explain the Poet's thought, 
And Greene express how Pope 1 with justice wrote.' 

Commencement Sunday at Cambridge in 1785 is 
thus described by Gunning {Reminisc* I. 28), 'The 
college walks were crowded. Every Doctor in the 
University wore his scarlet robes during the whole day. 
All the noblemen appeared in their splendid robes, 
not only at St Mary's and in the college halls, but 
also in the public walks. Their robes (which are now 
uniformly purple) at that time were of various colours, 
according to the tastes of the wearers, — purple, white, 
green, and rose-colour, were to be seen at the same 
time. [Lord Charbley wore rose-colour.] The people 
from the neighbouring villages then never ventured to 
pass the rails which separate the walks from the high 
road. The evening of Commencement Tuesday, if not 
the most numerous, was always the most splendid at 
Pot Fair, when the merits of the steward and the 
events of the ball formed the chief subjects of conver- 

p l 'Pope's Ode on St. Cecilia, set to Musick by Dr Greene.' 
' First edition. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 277 

sation.' Pot Fair was held on Midsummer Common 
and was like other fairs with its china-stalls, raffles, 
&c. ; but it was well attended, for few undergraduates 
were allowed to go down from Cambridge till the 
Commencement. Noblemen generally took their 
degree on the Monday, and one of them was elected 
by the ladies as Steward of the Commencement Ball. 

The following account will serve to illustrate the 
preceding pages. [The references are not to Halliwell's 
Autobiog. and Corresp. of Sir Simonds D'Ewes, 2 
Vols., 1845, but to (Marsden's) College Life in the 
Time of James the 1st, Parker, 1851.] 

' Of the proceedings at "the first act" in the 
Minora Comitia or Bachelors' Commencement in 
the year 1620, Symonds [D'Ewes, Diary, p. 83] gives 
the following concise summary. "The Proctors orato- 
rized: the tripos jested: the Bachelors replied: and 
four Masters of Arts disputed'.' 

'At this period the University, like every other great 
establishment, had its privileged jester. As the Fool 
in a nobleman's household, and as Archie Armstrong 
at court, so were the Tripos and the Praevaricator at 
the two Comitia. Under the pretence of maintaining 
some Philosophical question, they poured out a med- 
ley of absurd jokes and personal ridicule. By the 
statutes they were directed to confine themselves ; to 
the exercise of refined and classical wit, and all vulgar 
jesting was prohibited: but in process of time the 
statutes were constantly set at defiance. In 1626, the 
Heads issued a decree in which, after referring to 
those golden days of old when Praevaricatores qua 

278 University Society ' 

poterant contradicendi subtilitate veritatem philosophic 
cam eluserunt, et Tripodes sua quaesita ingeniose- et 
apposite defenderunt, they ordered that every future 
Praevaricator or Tripos who should transgress [p. .84] 
the rules of decorum by ridiculing any person or office 
or ordinance whatever, should be degraded or im- 
prisoned; and if the case should seem to deserve a 
severer punishment, that he should be expelled. 

' These stringent regulations may have checked the 
licence for a season ; but in the year of the Restora- 
tion [1660], when the whole University was too out- 
rageous in its mirth to think of any rigid enforcement 
of the Statute, it appears from a copy of his speech 
still in existence, that the Praevaricator's jibes were 
launched forth at all present without mercy and with- 
out distinction.' [The editor of Sir Symonds D'Ewes, 
Diary, p. 84, proceeds to give a summary of the speech 
to which the reader is referred. After ridiculing the 
Undergraduates, Doctors and Proctors, he compli- 
ments a Johnian who had just demolished the argu- 
ments of Popery in his public exercise — ' Suis et ipsa 
Roma viribus ruit.' The Physicians are asked whether 
Homer died of the Iliaca passio. He banters those 
who have waited through the Troubles for their M.A. 
degree, — the Doctors, and the visitors from Oxford. 
He proceeds to his Questions 'omnis motus est circu- 
laris' and another. Then after personalities he begs 
for quarter from his hearers.] 

Such was the audacity of the praevaricator in 1660. 
In 1667 he was threatened with expulsion if he should 
admit anything into his speech which "had not been 

in the Eighteenth Century. 279 

previously submitted to the Vice-chancellor for ap- 
proval. In 16S0, in consequence of a report 1 that he 
had thrown ridicule upon Oates' plot, the University 
was visited with a sharp reprimand, and threatened 
with the interference of Parliament. This blow he 
never recovered ; and although in Dr Long's speech 
in 1714, he is represented as having exerted his 
jocularity with most marvellous effect, 

['the Ladies might e'en thank the Prevaricator 
Who was so extremely arch they were ready to burst their Sides 
with Laughter,'] 

he soon after became defunct. A few chastened and 
refined traces of spirit may sometimes be found in 
those annual verses which still bear the name of 
Tripos, and in one or two unaccredited effusions 
which had been circulated under the name we are 
reminded of his pristine audacity. His joci scurriles 
have occasionally been heard from the upper regions 
of the Senate-House (D'Ewes, Diary, p. 89). 'After 
an interval of a month from the first Act belonging to 
the Bachelors' Commencement came "THE LATTER 
ACT" \Comitia Posterior a, in Comitiis Minoribus, 
Thursday, March 30]. The Tripos on this occasion 
was a friend of Symonds [D'Ewes, Diary, 1620, p. 99], 
"one Sir Barret " of St John's, the author of the Latin 
Comedy, which had been acted in the Hall at the 
preceding Christmas: and we are informed that "both 
in his position, and in his extempore answering, he 
made a great deal of sport, and got much credit." 

1 Cooper's Annals, III. 586. 

280 University Society 

The senior Brother also was one of Symonds' friends, 
a fellow-commoner of Jesus, by name Saltonstall ; and 
the junior Brother was " Sir Tutsham of Trinity a very 
good scholar " [author of an ode upon the birth of the 
princess Mary]. The whole was concluded by a dis- 
putation between one of the Proctors [p. ioo], termed 
"the Father" and two Masters of Arts of St John's. 

'Now approached the Majora Comitia or Great 
Commencement; and the Divinity exercises in the 
schools came so thick and frequent, that twice in the 
same day had Symonds the gratification of attending 
a Clerum.... Symonds [Sir Simonds D'Ewes, Diary, 
1620, p. 104] proceeds to give an account of an ACT 
IN MUSIC. A Sophister "came up" in the schools 
bringing with him a viol: and he commenced his 
proceedings by playing upon this viol an original 
lesson or exercise. After this he entered upon his 
position "of sol, fa, mi, la," which he defended against 
three opponents. When the opponents had left him 
master of the field he played another piece, probably 
in a triumphant strain; which gave the Moderator 
occasion to observe that ubi [p. 105] desinit philoso- 
phus, ibi incipit musicus. This Symonds had recorded 
as "a very pretty jest.'" 

Hobson having failed to bring the parcel with his 
new clothes, D'Ewes presented himself in his old suit 
on Sunday morning, July 2, 1620, 'amid the throng 
in St Mary's church. The only seat he could find 
was upon the highest part of the scaffolding behind 
the pulpit; "very commodious," but an indifferent 
place for hearing.' He complains that the sermon 

in the Eighteenth Century. 281 

was 'palpably read:' but that in the afternoon was 
preached memoriter. 'On the morning of Monday 
[July 3], the competition for seats was so eager that 
Symonds found it expedient to "rise betimes and take 
an early breakfast, and pass onwards to St Mary's" 
with as little delay as possible ; and he whiled away 
the time until the business of the day commenced, 
partly in conversation, partly with a book. At length 
the Vice-Chancellor, Dr Scott of Clare-Hall, opened 
the proceedings of the day by a speech. After this, 
the King's Professor of Divinity, Dr Collins, who 
filled the office of Father, "oratorized as his manner 
was most excellently''...: the Respondent in the Di- 
vinity Act, Dr Beale, afterwards the Master of St 
John's and a distinguished royalist, came forward to 
read the questions of his position. Upon these ques- 
tions the Professor was about to dispute when he was 
"cut off" by the Vice-Chancellor who acted as Mode- 
rator ; and the several opponents, all Doctors in 
Divinity, were directed to proceed with their work. 
After the disputation was finished the Moderator 
pronounced a learned and copious determination, and 
the Father dismissed his son the Respondent with 
some merited encomia. This was "the full cata- 
strophe." It being "about one of the clock" the assem- 
blage broke up, excepting such as like Symonds 
[D'Ewes, Diary, 1620, p. 107] desired to keep their 
places ; and they adjourned for dinner. 

[p. 108.] 'At three o'clock the combatants were 
ready for their afternoon's exhibition, which was an 
Act in Law. After an oration by each of the Proc- 

282 University Society 

tors, the Praevaricator " came up ; " and when he " was 
hushed," the disputing commenced. Symonds tells 
us little of the proceedings, excepting that the wit of 
the Praevaricator was " indeed pitiful." After all was 
ended, being invited to supper by the Junior brother, 
who was " of our house," Symonds hati his share of 
the "great feasting" which prevailed. 

' On the Tuesday morning, Symonds [D'Ewes, 
Diary, p. 108, July 4, 1620] came late, and was "fain 
to rest contented with a very incommodious seat." In 
the Divinity Act this day, the Moderator was the 
Lady Margaret's Professor, Dr Davenant, a learned 
theologian of the Calvinistic school ; and the Respon- 
dent was Symonds's friend Micklethwaite, afterwards 
. Preacher at the Temple. The opponents were seven 
commencing Doctors. When the Act was ended, the 
Regius Professor addressed them in a speech, and 
then " gave them the final complemental investiture" 
There was no interval allowed for dinner : our friend 
Symonds, however, went to dine with a friend at 
Trinity, one of the party being George Herbert, then 
Public Orator. When he returned to St Mary's he 
found that the Philosophy Act had commenced, 
and that the Praevaricator was in the midst of his 
speech. The senior Brother, that is, the senior com- 
mencing Master of Arts, " disputed upon the Praeva- 
ricator," and the several opponents took their turn with 
the Respondent. Then followed the oaths, and the in- 
vestiture. After this was a Law Act; and with it 
"our Commencement had a full end." The festivities 
in the evening were kept up till a late hour : supper 

in the Eighteenth Century. 283 

was not over " until ten of the clock," and Symonds 
laid not his head upon his pillow until after twelve. 
The next morning he "slept chapel."' 

At Oxford the Act is the first Tuesday in July, and 
corresponds with our Commencement ; being the oc- 
casion when the acts or exercises were finished, quali A 
fying students to commence as Bachelors of Arts. 

The Public Commencements at Oxford were scarce- 
ly less frequent than with us; but they created con- 
siderable interest in the country at large. 

Colley Cibber says, in his Autobiography (ed. 2, 
1740, p. 382), 'After the Restoration of King Charles, 
before the Cavalier and Roundhead Parties, under 
their new Denomination of Whig and Tory, began 
again to be politically troublesome, publick Acts at 
Oxford (as I find by the Dates of several Prologues 
written by Dryden, for Hart, on those Occasions) have 
been more frequently held than in later Reigns. 
Whether the same Party-Dissensions may have occa- 
sioned the Discontinuance of them is a Speculation 
not necessary to be entered into. But these Aca- 
demical Jubilees have usually been looked upon as a 
kind of congratulatory Compliment to the Accession 
of every new Prince to the Throne, and generally as 
such they have attended them. King James, not- 
withstanding his Religion, had the honour of it ; at 
which the Players, as usual, assisted.' Cibber then 
tells an anecdote how Tony Leigh, by a piece of im- 
promptu gag, in the character of Teague in ' the Com- 
mittee! raised a laugh against Obadiah Walker, mas- 

284 University Society 

ter of University College, who had become a pervert 
to Rome. 

The following Letter from James Howell to his 
' Brother, Dr Howell at Jesus Colledg in Oxon.,' will 
give some idea of the splendour of the entertain- 
ments. [Epistolae Ho-Elianae, I. § 5 [misprinted '4'], 
p. 197) : 'Brother, I have sent you here inclosed War- 
rants for four brace of Bucks, and a Stag ; the last 
Sir Arthur Manwaring procured of the King for you, 
towards keeping of your Act, I have sent you a War- 
rant also for a brace of Bucks out of Waddon Chace ; 
besides, you shall receive by this Carrier a great 
Wicker Hamper, with two jouls of Sturgeon, six bar- 
rels of pickled Oysters, three barrels of Bologna Olives, 
with some other Spanish commodities. [He then 
offers to present him, on the next vacancy, to the 
rectory of Hambledon, worth £500 a year communibus 
annis, ' as good as some Bishopricks.'] I thank you 
for inviting me to your Act, I will be with you the 
next week, God willing ; and hope to find my Father 
there ; So with my kind love to Dr Mansel, Mr Wat- 
kins, Mr Madocks, and Mr Napier at All-souls, I rest 
your loving brother, J. H. 
'Lond. 20 June, 1628.' 

It does not appear whether this were a public Act, 
or no. A list of the occasions in later years is given 
in Dr Rawlinson's MS S. s. a. 1733 (Oxoniana, IV. 282.) 

i66r. A public act on the first opening of the Theatre. [Is not 
this a mistake ?] 

1664. Another. [The building of Theatre it is said was com- 
menced this year. Evelyn and Boyle speak of their visit to the Act, at 

in the Eighteenth Century. 285 

the opening of the Sheldonian Theatre in 1669. Evelyn had also been 
at the Act in 1654, and went again in 1675 : see below.] 

1678. No Act because there was no D.D. forthcoming, Wood 
says it was rather because the Univ. didn't choose to bring trade to 
the town : another report was that they were afraid of the rudeness 
of the dragoons. 

1680. Another. 

1693. Another. 

1702. On Q. Anne's visit. 

1703. Another. 

1704. On the victory at Blenheim. 

1706. On the celebration of Frankfort University. [See the 2nd 
Part of this Essay.] 

1 707. On the visit of the Armenian archbishop. 

[1708. The dean of Ch. Ch., Aldrich, proposed an encaenia for 
young gentlemen to speak verses and speeches once every term ; but 
that was not complied with. Hearne-Bliss, J. i^r.J 

1713. On peace with France. 

[Amherst says {Terrae Films XLVII.) 'I pass therefore to the 
statute (VII. 1) which ordains a publick act to be kept every year. 
This is now in a manner quite worn out (1721) ; for, of late, there 
has not been a publick act above once in ten or twelve years ; and 
then only upon extraordinary occasions, such as a restoration, or some 
triumph of the church ; the last that we had, was upon the glorious 
peace in 1712, an Aera which the university dons were resolved to 
commemorate, even at the expence of observing their statutes. But 
they would not, however, be too punctual in performing their duty ; 
and therefore stopt the mouth of the Terrae?Filius (who is the statu- 
table orator at this solemnity) having intelligence that he design'd 
to utter something in derogation of the reverend Mr Vice-Chancellor.' 
The intended Speech was printed, and a copy is preserved in the 
Bodleian, Pamphlets 308. It is a ribald attack upon members of the 
University. See the Guardian, nos. 72, 95. Then there seems to 
have been a long interval as at Cambridge : and the next was in — ] 

1733. Another. [On this occasion also the Terrae Filius' Speech 
was suppressed and printed. A copy is in the Bodleian, Pamph. 384.] 

At Oxford, as at Cambridge, the Act had from 
early times been held in the University Church ; but 
in Oxford the Theatre was built eighty years before 

286 University Society 

■ ■-■'■■■' — — — — ■ — -r 

the Senate-house at Cambridge. The following are 
descriptions by two eminent men who were present at 
the Inauguration of the Sheldonian Theatre. 

John Evelyn was present at the Act in Oxford in 
the years 1654, 1669. 1675. 

On the first occasion he was accompanied by his 

July 8, 1654. 'Was spent in hearing several exer- 
cises in the schools and after dinner y e Proctors 
opened y e Act at St Mane's (according to custome) 
and y e Prevaricators their drolery. Then the Doctors 
disputed. We supped at Wadham College.' 

In 1669 the Act was transferred from St Mary's 
Church to the new Sheldonian Theatre. On July the 
9th, the proceedings lasted from 1 1 A.M. to 7 P.M. 

A letter from Mr John Wallis to the Hon. Ro. 
Boyle, dated from Oxford, July 17, 1669 (and quoted 
in a note to Neal's Hist, of the Puritans, ed. 3, vol. III. 
P- l ^3)> gives the following account of the opening 
of the Sheldonian Theatre. 

' SIR. After my humble thanks for the honour of 
yours of July 3, I thought it not unfit to give you 
some account of our late proceedings here. Friday, 
July 9, was the dedication of our new theatre. In 
the morning was held a convocation in it, for entering 
upon the possession of it ; wherein was read, first the 
archbishop's instrument of donation (sealed with his 
archiepiscopal seal) of the theatre, with all its furni- 
ture, to the end that St Mary's-church may not be 
farther profaned by holding the act in it. Next a 
letter of his, declaring his intention to lay out 2,000/. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 287 

for a purchase to endow it. Then a letter of thanks' 
to be sent from the university to him, wherein he is 
acknowledged to be both our creator and redeemer 
for having not only built a theatre for the act, but, 
which is more, delivered the Blessed Virgin from 
being so profaned for the future: he doth, as the 
words of the letter are, " non tantum condere, hoc est 
creare, sed etiam redimere." These words, I confess, 
stopped my mouth from giving a placet to that letter 
when it was put to the vote. I have since desired 
Mr Vice-chancellor to consider, whether they are not 
liable to just exception. He did at first excuse it; 
but upon farther thoughts, I suppose he will think 
fit to alter them, before the letter be sent and regis- 
tered. After the voting of this letter, Dr South, as 
university-orator, made a long oration ; the first part 
of which consisted of satirical invectives against 
Cromwell, fanatics, the Royal Society, and new phi- 
losophy. The next, of encomiastics ; in praise of 
the archbishop, the theatre, the vice-chancellor, the 
architect, and the painter. The last of execrations ; 
against fanatics, conventicles, comprehension and new 
philosophy ; damning then, ad inferos ad gehennam. 
The oration being ended, some honorary degrees were 
conferred, and the convocation dissolved. 

'The afternoon was spent in panegyric orations, 
and reciting of poems in several sorts of verse ["inter- 
changeably pronounc'd by the young students plac'd 
in the rostrums, in Pindarics, Eclogues, Heroics, &c," 
Evelyn 's Diary], composed in praise of the archbishop, 
the theatre, &c, and crying down fanatics. The 

288 University Society 

whole action began and ended with a noise of trum- 
pets ; and twice was interposed variety of music, 
vocal and instrumental ; purposely composed for this 

'On Saturday and Monday, those exercises ap- 
pertaining to the act and vespers, which were .wont 
to be performed in St Mary's church, were had in 
the theatre. In which, beside the number of pro- 
ceeding doctors (nine in divinity, four in law, five in 
physic, and one in music), there was little extra- 
ordinary ; but only that the terrae filii for both days 
were abominably scurrilous ; and so suffered to pro- 
ceed without the least check or interruption from vice- 
chancellor, pro-vice-chancellors, proctors, curators, or 
any of those who were to govern the exercises ; 
which gave so general offence to all honest specta- 
tors, that I believe the university hath thereby lost 
more reputation than they have gained by all the 
rest ; all or most of the heads of houses and eminent 
persons in the university with their relations being 
represented as a company of... and dunces. And 
among the rest the excellent lady which your letter 
mentions... During this solemnity (and for some days 
before and since) have been constantly acted (by the 
vice-chancellor's allowance) two stage-plays in a day 
(by those of the duke of York's house) at a theatre 
erected for that purpose at the town-hall ; which 
(for aught I hear) was much the more innocent 
theatre of the two. It hath been here a common 
fame for divers weeks (before, at, and since the act) 
that the vice-chancellor had given 300/. bond (some 

in the Eighteenth Century. 289 

say 500/. bond) to the terrae filii, to save them harm- 
less whatever they should say, provided it were 
neither blasphemy nor treason. But this I take to 
be a slander. A less encouragement would serve the 
turn with such persons. Since the act (to satisfy the 
common clamour) the vice-chancellor hath impri- 
soned both of them: and it is said he means to 
expel them.' 

John Evelyn, who (as we have seen) was also pre- 
sent at the opening Encaenia, complains that 'the 
Terrae filius (the Universitie Buffoone) entertain'd the 
auditorie with a tedious, abusive, sarcastical rhap- 
sodie, most unbecoming the gravity of the Univer- 
sitie, and that so grossly, that unlesse it be suppress'd 
it will be of ill consequence, as I afterwards plainly 
express'd my sense of it both to y e Vice-Chancellor 
and severall heads of houses, who were perfectly 
asham'd of it, and resolv'd to take care of it in future. 
The old facetious way of raillying upon the ques- 
tions was left off, falling wholy upon persons, so 
that 'twas rather licentious lyeing and railing than 
genuine and noble witt' (Diary of J. Evelyn, July 
10, 1669.) 

It may be worth while in this place to give a full 
summary of 'An Act at Oxford. A Comedy: By the 
Author of the Yeoman o' Kent. [T. Ba&er.] Vicit 
vim virtus. London : Printed for Bernard Lintott at 
the Middle-Temple-Gate in Fleetstreet, 1704.' (pp. 
60, 4to., dedicated to the Rt. Hon. Edward lord 
Dudley and Ward. Bodl. ' Malone, -92.') It ' was hot. 
thought fit for Representation : ' but the cast of 
L. B. E. 19 


University Society 

Characters is given in the Dramatis Personae; as 
follows : 


Bloom, A Gentleman Commoner of a good Estate. [ 

Captain Smart, A Man of Honour, formerly a Pre- 
tender to Berynthia, but having had his 
Misfortunes is slighted by her. 

Lampoon, a Ridiculous Mimicking Fellow. 

Squire Calf 'of Essex. 

Deputy Driver, a Stock-jobber and Reformer of 

Chum, a Serviter. 

Jlerynthia, a fine Lady of large Estate, at Oxford. 

Arabella, Wife to the Deputy, a Modern City Lady. 
Mrs ap Shinken, a Welch Runt. 

Scene, the University. 














Act I. Sc. I. The Physick Garden. Bloom, the gen- 
tleman-commoner, is glad to lay aside his Homer, 
and welcomes Capt. Smart, who has come from Lon- 
don, as we should say now to Commemoration, when, 
as even the Town Spark confesses, ' the lively Season 
o' the Year, the shining crow'd assembl'd at this time, 
and the noble situation o' the Place, gives us the 
nearest shew of Paradise.' 

'Bloom. Why, faith, this publick Act has drawn 
hither half the Nation, men o' Fashion come to shew 

in the Eighteenth Century. 291 

some new French Cutt, laugh at Learning, and prove 
their want of it. The Company, the Diversion, have 
rais'd us a pitch above ourselves ; the Doctors have 
smugg'd up their old Faces, powder'd their diminu- 
tive Bobs, put on their starch'd Bands and their best 
Prunello Cassocks, with shining Shoes that you might 
see your Face in. The young Commoners have sold 
their Books to run to Plays. The Serviters have 
pawn'd their Beds to treat their shabby Acquaint- 
ance, and every College has- brew'd. 

Smart. But what's the Nature of this publick 

Bloom. The Pretence of it is florid Orations and 
Philosophical Disputes, which few understand, and 
fewer mind ; but in fact 'tis to bring honest Fellows 
together ; for ev'ry College you pass thro', you're ac- 
costed thus, — Sir, will you walk into the Buttery and 
take a Crust, and a Plate d Beer [A Plate of Ale is 
the expression still used at Trin. Coll., Camb., for one 
of the silver tankards purchased by fellow-commoners 
for their own use, and left by them as a parting pre- 
sent to the college] or a Commons with us at the Bur- 
ser's Table; [Comuna, or Comina, the rations provided 
in hall at Oxford: which at Cambridge may be sup- 
plemented by Sizings: at Cambridge, the term is now 
used chiefly for the supplies of bread, butter, &c, 
taken from the butteries ; which answer to the Battels 
at Oxford'] and then you're carry'd to the Nick-nacka- 
tory, where the greatest Curiosity is threescore empe- 
rors carv'd upon a Cherrystone, which proves mathe- 
matically that threescore grave Faces at Oxford may 

1 9 — 2 

292 University Society 

make one good Head-piece. [Cp. Terrae-filius, No. 
XXXIV. ' I went with two or three friends who were 
members of the university to the musaeum, (vulgarly 
called the Nick-nackatory,) and the theatre ; at the 
last of which places the fair young lady who keeps 
the door... shewed me that antiquated machine -where 
my predecessors of witty memory gained such im- 
mortal reputation.'] 

Smart. And what fine Ladies does the Place 
afford ? 

Bloom. Why, this Occasion too has brought in the 
Country Dames with their awkward Airs ; from Mrs 
Abigail Homely, the Beauty o' Bristol, to Nell Simper 
. o' Shrewsbury that has lost all her Teeth with eating 
sweet Cake ; but the Tost o' the University is the 
fair Berynthia...' 

Then comes in Mr Deputy Driver, a member of 
the Calves-head Club, a hypocritical rogue, who makes 
a trade of the profession of being ' a Bustler for Re- 

The Reforming Society which exerted itself in • de- 
molishing a poor Sunday apple-stall, setting the Beg- 
gars at work, that you mayn't be teaz'd to give 'em 
anything;' and in attending 'Committees for suppress- 
ing Bartl'mew Fair,' was not likely to find quarter at 
the hands of a dramatic author. Driver is made to 
say, ' The University has suffer'd the Players to come 
down among 'em to affront the London Grand Jury, 
who have voted 'em Corrupters of Virtuous Prentices 
and modest Chambermaids, and order'd their wicked 
Bills to be torn down by the Religious Counter Offi- 

in the Eighteenth Century. 293 

cers.' [See Colley Cibber's Autobiography : he learnt 
the character of Lampoon in this Play; in which ca- 
pacity he was to say, in this scene, 

' Gentlemen, you'l be at the Play,' we all go this Ev'ning out o' pure 

Smart. Religion ? 

Lampooft. Ay, Sir, for the Town of Oxford has oblig'd the Players 
to give a Night towards rebuilding the Church that fell down.'] 

The Deputy continues ; — ' Sir, I have no Opinion of 
Oxford Education, it breeds nothing but Rakes, and 
rank Tories ; I have a Son at University-learning, 

with pious Noncon in ; neither do I approve of 

your School Authors; Horace was a drunken Rogue..., 
therefore I had the Pilgrim's Progress turn'd into 
Latin by a Scotch Anabaptist for the use of my Son 

As for Lampoon, — ' an affected carping Fellow,' who 
has not had the advantage of an university education, 
and professes to hate 'your odious Gowns, like so 
many Draggletail Questmen, and your filthy square 
Caps that seem only to teach one to squint ;' — who 
is one of the ' Criticks that affect to be short-sighted, 
and peep up at ev'ry Woman they meet, to see if she 
wears her own Face:' — who says of himself, 'I had a 
Place at Court... the Quality round me wou'd drop 
down with laughing 'till I was turn'd out for ridiculing 
People of Rank, which I thought as Honourable as a 
witty Turraefilius here that's expell'd the University 
for fear of infecting the Men of burthen'd Learning 
and prodigious Memory:' — fie too declares himself no 
better pleas'd with his visit. — ' Well, this Act Medley 

294 University Society 

wou'd make one die with their Latin Speeches and 
Poppet Shews, the Turraefilius, [so the visitors seem 
to have pronounced it] : and the dancing of the 
Ropes, they shou'd e'en put a false Hide upon one o' 
the senior Aldermen, and shew him for the Lincoln- 
shire Ox.' 

Squire Calf of Essex has come up too: 'the Town's 
so full I was forc'd to put my Horses into the College 
Library:' his object is to make merry with his old 
toping friends, and 'to hear the Turrae Films, they 
say he designs to be violently witty, and I love an 
Oxford Turrae filius better than Merry Andrew in 
Leicester Fields...!, Sir, was seven years a Gentleman- 
Commoner here, and you may see my name every 
Day i' th' Buttery Book — Cormorant Calf of 23fl-/?'«/ 
College, Esq.; sixteen-pence boil'd Beef, eight-pence 
Bacon, a penny-half-penny Bread, and a farthing 

Then we have a specimen of an argument on the 
merits of the university education between two excel- 
lent judges: the worthless Londoner, and the debauch- 
ed country squire who had dishonoured Oxford with 
his evil habits and by a pretence of learning Latin, 
Greek, and Hebrew, geometry, trigonometry, and... 
vice. We can hardly credit him with carrying away 
even a smattering of any but the last. His principles 
would not suit political economists : ' I eat great store 
of Beef, that an Ox may bear a good Price, wear Flan- 
nel Shirts to encourage the Woollen Manufacture, 
and make ev'ry Body drunk to promote the Duties 
upon Malt, Salt, Mum, Syder, Pipes, and Perry.' 

in the Eighteenth Century. 295 

' Chum, whose Father's a Chimney-sweeper, and his 
Mother a poor Gingerbread Woman at Cow-Cross, a 
Gentleman-Serviter of Brazen-Nose College,' whose 
business is 'to wait upon Gentlemen Commoners, to 
dress 'em — clean their shoes, and make their exer- 
cises ; ' takes the place of the faithful slave in the old 
comedy, and by personating a wealthy suitor wins 
Berynthia for his master Smart. The poor fellow, 
whose fortune is soon told, — 'the reversion of old 
shoes which Gentlemen-commoners leave off, two 
raggs call'd shirts, a dogs-ear'd Grammar, and a piece 
of an Ovid de Tristibus', — is rewarded by a present of 
500 guineas. 

As an interlude in Act IV. Sc. 2, the Theatre at 
Oxford is discovered 'A Semi-Circle of the Doctors, 
to the extent of the Stage. The pupils over them, 
ladies rang'd on each side, and Bloom as Terrae 
Filius seated high, nearer the audience. 

A performance of trumpet-musick, and the follow- 
ing ode sett and sung by Mr Leveridge. 

Dum cantat Orpheus carmina montibus &c. 

Sic en perito cum fidibus tubae 
Clangore misto nascitur altius 
Sublime Sheldoni Theatram 
Oxonio Decus et Camoenis.' 

After the stanzas which are not worth quoting in 
full ; Bloom, who is chosen terrae filius, starts up, and 
delivers an apology for a speech: or rather, an apo- 
logy, because 'you shall no more have a Terrae films 
than a Mustek Speech:' [which was not peculiar to 
Cambridge, see Wood's Life, s.a. 1681]. 

296 • University Society 

It is not worth while to transcribe his excuse, inas- 
much as it can hardly be a fair specimen, as it was 
intended for a town audience. We gather merely 
that it depended for effect on its bold and impudent 
satire without distinction of person: that it was de- 
livered (to judge from the printing) in jerks, either to 
give room for applause, or 'to beget an awful expec- 
tation in the audience.' It contained scraps of verse 
in English or 'the learned languages.' It was 'gener- 
ally made by a Club:' (so Act iv. Sc. 2, p. 40, Bloom 
says ; ' the Speech is made by the Scandal Club; for 
at Oxford there must be more heads than one to write 
a sensible witty thing).' 

Shall we subscribe to the conclusion — 'conse- 
quently good for nothing' ? 

The following list of terrae-filii is taken from' Ox- 
oniana, 1. 104 — 1 10, and Bliss Life of A. Wood (1848), 
168, 185, 232, 237, 238, 245, 246. 

1591. J. Hoskyns, M.A. of New College, who afterwards revized 
Raleigh's History of the World, was expelled for being so 'bitterly 

1632. Mr Masters, expelled for his speech. He was restored in 

[1648. A printed speech denouncing the slowness of the Parlia- 
ment in executing the King.] 

1651. The first Act that was kept after the Presbyterians had 
taken possession of Oxford. Tho. Careles of Balliol, and Will. Levinz, 
terrae filii. 

[1654. Evelyn was present at an Act. ] 

1655. Ro. Whitehall, Ch. Ch. (author of The Marriage of Arms 
and Arts). The Act was then in St Mary's church: as there "had 
been none kept for several years, 'it was such a novelty to the 
Students. ..that there was great rudeness committed, both by them, 
and by the concourse of people who attended, in getting into places 
and thrusting out strangers, during the time of the solemnity. Where* 

in the Eighteenth Century. 297 

upon the V. C, Dr Greenwood of B. N. C. , a severe and choleric 
governor, was forced to get several guards of Musquetiers, out of the 
Parliament garrison then in Oxford, to keep all the doors and 
avenues, and to let no body in, except those the V. C. or his 
Deputies appointed. There was then great quarrelling between the 
Scholars and the Soldiers, and thereupon blows and bloody noses 

The other terrae filius was John Glendatt M. A. , fellow of B. 
N. C, 'a great mimic, and acted well in several plays, which the 
Scholars acted by stealth, either in the stone house behind and south- 
ward from Pembroke College, or in Kettle Hall, or at Holywell 
Mill, or in the Refectory at Gloucester Hall. A. W. was well ac- 
quainted with him and delighted in his company.' 

1657. Damiers of Trinity. 

1658. Tho. Pittis of Trinity, then of Lincoln. His speech being 
' much disliked by the godly party of those times, ' he was expelled- 
His colleague was (dean) Lane. Addison, (father of Joseph,) who had 
to recant. 

1660. No Act. 

i66r. Field oiTr'm. 

166.2. No Act. 

1663. yohn Edwards, Trin. (Satumi.) Jos. Brooks, Ch. Ch. (die 

1664. Ric. Wood, Joan. Sat, 
Win. Cave, Magd. Monday. 

1665 — 8. No Acts, the Theatre in building. 

1669. Hen. Gerard, Wadh. 

Tho. Hayes, B. N. C, who then took his M.I), degree. This was 
the occasion of the Inauguration of the Sheldonian Theatre. Evelyn 
was present, and was shocked. South made an Oration. 

1670. No Act. 

1671. Sat. 
Mich. Hall. Wadh. Monday. 

1673. John Shirley, Trin, reflected upon Wood's antiquarian tastes 
in 'a speech full of obsenity and prophaness...' saying that ' the society 
of Merton would not let me live in the College, for fear I should 
.pluck it down to search after antiquities, that I was so great a 
lover of antiquities that I loved to live in a. cockleloft rather [than] 
in a spacious chamber, that I was Vir caducus, that I intended 
to. put the pictures of mother Louse, and mother George two old 
wives into my book, »I would not let it be printed, because I would 
not have it new and common.' 

298 University Society 

1675. Venables Keeling, Ch. Ch. [Evelyn present.] 
[1680. A Public Act.] 

1681. Moore [qu. John Mower] Merton, 'came up on the Satur- 
day, very dull, and because he reflected on Sr. Tho. Spencer's do- 
ings..., his son, who was there, cudgelled him afterwards in the 
Row-Buck yard, dogged him to the place with another... 

Monday, [Mathias] Henvill of New-Inn hall, (a married man) and 
the other Terrae filius made up what was wanting on Saturday, full 
of waggery and roguery, but little wit.' 

1682. [Henry] Bowles of New Coll. on Saturday, much against 
Ch. Ch. James Allestree of Ch. Ch., Monday, much against New 
College and the Terrae filius of Saturday, but replyed by the said 
Terrae filius being proproctor, for Dingley junr. proctor, both very 
well, and gave great content. 

[In 1693 1 , 1702, 1703, 1704, 1706, 1707, there were public acts. 

In the Oxford Packet, (printed in 17 14, by the 
publisher of News from Both Universities), is adver- 
tised '2nd edition of the University Miscellany or 
More Burning Work for the Oxford Convocation: viz., 

Two Speeches spoken by the Terrae Filius, Mr R — s of Magdalen 
Hall, in the Tlieater at the Publick Act 1703.'] 

Oct. 3, 1713. Dr Gardiner, chosen V. C. again the third time 
for the year ensuing. At the same time a Libel called a speech 
that was intended to have been spoken by the Terrae Filius, was 
by order of the convocation burnt by the hands of the common 
Bedel in the Theatre yard. [Bodl. Pamphlets, 308.] 

This Act seems to have created considerable ex- 
citement in the country. In the Guardian, June 171 3, 
(Nos. 72, 96), are several whimsical notices of the 
migration of the Players to Oxford, and some anxious 
reflexions as to the probable conduct of the Terrae-. 

1 Compare ' the Oxford- Act : A Poem, London ; Printed for 
Randal Taylor, near Stationers-Hall, 1613.' This is a misprint for 
1693. 4to. pp. 22. [Bodl. C. 6. 14. Line] 

in the Eighteenth Century. 299 

filius. Mr Ironside says, 'In my time I remember the 
Terrae-filius contented himself with being bitter upon 
the Pope, or chastising the Turk; and raised a serious 
and manly Mirth, and adapted to the Dignity of his 
Auditory, by exposing the false Reasonings of the 
Heretick, or ridiculing the clumsy Pretenders to 
Genius and Politeness. In the jovial Reign of King 
Charles the Second, wherein never did more Wit or 
more Ribaldry abound, the Fashion of being arch 
upon all that was Grave, and waggish upon the 
Ladies, crept into our Seats of Learning upon these 
Occasions. This was managed grosly and awkwardly 
enough, in a Place where the general Plainness and 
Simplicity of Manners could ill bear the Mention of 
such Crimes, as in Courts and great Cities are called 
by the specious Names of Air and GalantryV 

It was, I suppose, of a terrae filius about this period 
that Amherst speaks (Terrae-F. No. I.). 'One of these 
academical pickle-herrings scurrilously affronted the 
learned president of St John's College (in defiance of 
the statute de contwneliis compescendis), by shaking a 
box and dice in the theatre, and calling out to him by 
name as he came in, in this manner, Jacta est alea, 
doctor, Seven's the main, in allusion to a scandalous 
report handed about by the doctor's enemies, that he 
was guilty of that infamous practice, and had lost 
great sums of other people' s money at dice.' 

The following is the account of the Oxford Com- 
mencement given by John Ayliffe, LL.D. (who va- 
cated his fellowship at New College), in his Antient 
1 Guardian, ji. 

300 University Society 

and Present State of the Univ. of Oxford, 17 14 
(ii. 131— 135). 

'There is a general Commencement once every Year in all the 
Faculties of Learning, which is called the Act at Oxford, and the 
Commencement at Cambridge, which Act is opened On the Friday 
following the 7th of "July, and Exercises perform'd in the Schools 
on Saturday and Monday ensuing the opening thereof, and also in 
the publick Theatre with great Solemnity. On Saturday, in the 
Forenoon, all the Professors and Lecturers read in the several Arts 
and Sciences, all cloathed in their proper Habits, as was heretofore, 
usual at the Vespers or Evening Exercises, which are only now Dis-, 
putations in the several Parts of Learning, from One o'Clock till 
Five in the Afternoon, the Artists Disputations being had in the 
Theatre, and those of Divinity, Law and Physick, in their proper 
Schools. The Inceptors in Arts dispute on three Philosophical Ques- 
tions, and one of these Inceptors (for so are the Masters called, who 
stand for their Regency in this solemn Act) to be appointed by the 
Senior Proctor, has the Place of the Respondent. And first, the 
fenior Proctor opposes on all the Questions, and confirms an argu- 
ment on the First ; then the Pro- Proctor and Terrae-Filius dispute 
on the Second ; and lastly the Junior Proctor on the Third Ques- 
tion ; and all the Inceptors are oblig'd to attend these Disputations 
from the Beginning to the End, under the Pain of 3^. 415?. At the 
equal expence of all the Inceptors, there is a sumptuous and elegant 
Supper at the College or Hall of the Senior of each Faculty, for the 
Entertainment of the Doctors, called the Act-Supper. On Sunday 
between the Vespers and the Comitia (for so are the Exercises of 
Saturday and Monday stiled) there are two Sermons in the English 
tongue, at St Mary's Church, preach'd by any one of the Inceptors, 
as the Vice- Chancellor shall appoint, being Doctors of Divinity, in 
this Act. On Monday at Nine a Clock, all the Inceptors go witri 
the Beadles of their several Faculties to St Mary's, and there, after 
Prayers at the Communion-Table, make Oblations ; and if any Per- 
son shall absent himself, or be irreverently present, he shall be 
mulcted five Shillings, and moreover punish'd at the Vice- Chancel- 
lor's Pleasure. Then the Comitial Exercises beginning, the Senior 
Proctor mounts the Pew on the West side of the Theatre, and the 
Junior Proctor the Pew opposite to him on the East side. The 
Professor of Physic, with his Inceptors, on the West; and the Law* 
Professor, with his Inceptors, on the East Side thereof; and the- 

in the Eighteenth Century. 301 

Divinity Professor, with his Inceptors, on the North side, under the 
Vice-Chancellor; and the Inceptors in Musick, with their Professor 
in the Musick Gallery, on the South ; and at these Comitial Dis- 
putations, the same method is used in respect .of the Agents, as at 
Vespers, viz. first, the Senior Proctors ; then the Terrae-Filius, and 
Pro-Proctor ; and lastly, the Junior Proctor ; and he who was Re- 
spondent the year before, is the Magister Replicans this year. The 
first Opponent among the Inceptors has a Book given him, at the 
End of Disputations, by the Senior Proctor (who in respect of the 
Artists Inceptors, is called Father of the Comitia) and is also created 
Master by a kiss, and putting on his Cap. After the Comitial Ex- 
ercises in Arts are ended, if there be any Person taking a Musick 
Degree, he is to perform a Song of Six or Eight Parts on Vocal 
and Instrumental Musick, and then he shall have his Creation from 
the Savilian Professors, &c. After the performing of the Exercises, 
and the Creation of Doctors, according to a prescript Form in each 
Faculty, the Vice-Chancellor closes the Act in a solemn Speech ; 
wherein it is usual for him to commemorate the Transactions of the 
year past, and especially such Benefactions as have been given to the 
University. And after the end of the Act, the Vice-Chancellor, with 
the Regents of the foregoing year, immediately assemble in the Con- 
gregation-House ; where, at the supplication of the Doctors and 
Masters newly created, they are wont to dispense with the wearing 
of Boots and Slop Shoes, to which the Doctors and Masters of the 
Act are oblig'd, during the Comitia. On Tuesday after the Comitia 
a Latin Sermon is preach'd to the Clergy, at Eight in the Morn- 
ing in St Mary's Church ; the Preacher to be either some Doctor, 
or Batchelor in Divinity, and of the Vice-Chancellor's Appointment, 
with a Pre-monition for this End from the Vice-Chancellor for three 
months before hand. The Questions to be disputed on in each 
Faculty, are to be approved by the congregation of Masters some 
time before the Act ; and because that Civilians ought to know the 
differences between the Civil and our own Municipal Laws, one of 
the Law Questions ought \o have some Affinity with the Common 
Law of England ; wherein the Professor, by a short Speech, ought 
to shew, what the one and what the other Law maintains. If any 
Contumelious, Reproachful, or Defamatory Language be given in 
any Speech or Argument at Disputations, the Vice-Chancellor may 
convene the Person before him, and command a Copy of his Speech; 
and if he pretends that he has no Copy, he may convict him by 
Oath, and. punish him according to the Heinousness of the Offence, 
in respect of Persons and other circumstances, either by publick 

302 University Society 

Recantation, Imprisonment, or Banishment from the University, as 
a Disturber of the publick Peace ; besides the satisfaction he is 
oblig'd to make to the Party injur'd ; so that there is not that 
Licence given for an impudent Buffoon, of no Reputation in him- 
self, called a Terrae-Filius, to sport and play with the good Name 
and Reputation of others ; but the business of this Terrae- Films, is 
a solemn and grave Disputation. And although this manner of spor- 
tive Wit had its first original at the Time of the Reformation, when 
the gross Absurdities and Superstitions of the Roman Church were 
to be exposed, and should have been restrain'd to Things, and not 
have reached Mens Persons and Characters ; yet it has since become 
very scandalous "and abusive, and in no wise to be tolerated in an 
University, where nothing ought to appear but Religion, Learning,, 
and good Manners. ' 

In the year 1721 [Jan. 11, to July 6), Nicholas 
Amherst published his 50 numbers of the ' Terrae 
Filius: Or, the Secret History of the University of 
of Oxford; in Several Essays.' In the first number 
he writes, 

'It has till of late been a custom, from time imme- 
morial, for one of our family to mount the Rostrum 
at Oxford at certain seasons, and divert an innumer- 
able crowd of spectators, who flocked thither to hear 
him from all parts, with a merry oration in the Fes- 
cennine manner interspers'd with secret history, raillery, 
and sarcasm, as the occasion of the times supply'd 
him with matter.' 

The frontispiece of the edition of 1726 is an en- 
graving by Hogarth. In it is depicted the interior of 
the Theatre. In the gallery is a crowd of academical 
personages, one of whom is waving his arm and 
yelling: another climbs down over the railings. The 
Vice-chancellor is seated on a throne, and in a chair 
on his right hand below the steps is a proctor (per- 

in the Eighteenth Century. 303 

haps) ; while others are sitting in the seats below the 
gallery. In the foreground is a structure which may- 
be intended for 'that antiquated machine' mentioned 
in No. xxxiv., the rostrum of the terrae filins. On 
one side stands a portly don who has torn the Terrae 
filius speech, while the miserable culprit is being 
attacked by a crowd of doctors and infuriated toasts, 
one of whom has laid hold of his cap, another of his 
wig, while two dons ungown him, and a- dog is bark- 
ing at the noise. In spite of the efforts of Amherst 
there was no public act at Oxford between the years 
1713 and 1733. In Nichols' Annals of Bowyer's 
Press (A need. Vol. II.), it is stated that the year 1733 
was 'rendered remarkable in the literary world by the 
brilliancy of the Public Act at Oxford.' Then was 
published 'Bellies Homo et Academicus Recitirunt in 
Theatro Sheldoniano ad Comitia' Oxoniensia 1733, 
Lodovicus Langton et Thomas Barber, Collegii Div. 
Magd. Commensales. By W. Hasledine of Magda- 
lene College. Accedit Oratio Petri Francisci Courayer, 
S. T. P. habita in iisdem Comitiis 5 Id. Julii? Will. 
Bowyer, Esq., F. R. S., printer, himself wrote 'an 
English Poem called the Beau and the Academick, a 
Dialogue in Imitation of the Bellus Homo et Acade- 
micus spoken at the late Publick Act at Oxford; 
addressed to the Ladies.' The Latin poem is printed 
in Selecta Poemata Anglorum...Accurante Edwardo 
Popham, Coll. Oriel. Oxon., nuper Socio. 

Splendid though the Act may have been, the 
Terrae filius ■ was no better behaved than on the 
preceding occasion. His speech also was suppressed : 

304 University Society 

but there is a copy of it in the Bodleian {Pamph. 
384). The late Mr R, Robinson of Queen's gave the 
more interesting points in it in the Oxf. Undergrad. 
Journal, May 29, 1867. 

The Terrae filius ' begins by apostrophizing the 
Bishop (of Oxford I presume) as a "mitred Hog," 
and by asking what he has to do with a wife of 
eighteen. Ch. Ch. was unpopular : the place was 
indeed at its zenith, it had its fill of rich aristocrats, 
its Tutors were intelligent, and appreciated the value 
of their connexion with Westminster, it could boast 
of West (the " Favonius," who always was " to have 
a front box in the theatre of" Gray's "little heart,") 
and of Budgell ; but the men gave themselves airs, 
with wonderful ignorance and conceit they claimed to 
belong to an House, not to a College ; those of other 
Colleges were ' squils' and 'hodmen/ they were ac- 
customed with suppressed blushes to style their foun- 
dation "royal and ample;" Gibbon was wrong in 
saying that Locke was expelled on speculative 
grounds, but they understood him as little as they 
saw why such a fuss should be made about Handel : 
accordingly this Terrae Filius sneers at the establish- 
ment, and brands the Dean {John Conybeare, elected 
the preceding year] as a courtier. " Long, little Pre- 
sident of Trinity," [Geo. Huddesford,] he proceeds, 
"hast thou expected the Lash and screened thyself 
for Fear behind thy Barrel-gutted Fellows." The 
"worthy Head [Theo. Leigh] and men of Balliol— 
I mean Belial" had yet to make their character and 
that of their house ; the shape of the seats of their 

in the Eighteenth Century. 305 

chairs at the high table was indeed unexceptionable, 
and must have been excogitated with deep thought, 
— but many of the men ate raw turnips, the Dons 
used to punish some delinquents by sending them 
to the Sacrament, and others by heavily fining them. 
'Lincoln always was and always will be under the 
devil's inspection,' but whether the devil was the 
statue over the College or John Wesley I can't say. 
6". Johiis boasts its "Jacobite topers." In Worcester 
"there cannot be found [a Parson] who can easily 
read [Prayers] in English, much less in Latin;" per- 
haps Shadwell's Lady Cheatly got her chaplain there. 
New College is a place where boys elect a boy as 
their Warden [John Coxed]. The Fellows of Queen's 
are "haughty and imperious" Aristotelians. In All 
Souls' "live your Smarts, your gallant gentlemen;" 
by their sensual habits (which bear out another 
satirist in coupling them with Johnians) you would 
think them all bodies and no souls at all; they got 
so drunk as to prove that Homo is not necessarily a 
noun substantive, by way of maintaining their Tudor 
reputation of being swashbucklers. Brasenose en- 
grosses good livings, and brews ale which flies to the 
seasoned head of an Essex Squire; in a play, a 
man who wishes to be taken for a Fellow of that 
College has to use a large pillow for a stomach. 
[Miller's Humours of Oxford, Act. IV.] Exeter is 
"governed by old women" (who, when Shaftesbury 
was there, enfuriated the men by empoverishing the 
beer). [Jos. Atwell, Rector, 1733.] 'Jesus College 
is verminous and smells of toasted cheese. The 
L. B. E. 20 

306 University Society 

Oriel men are all in debt. The Magdalen Dons are 
loose livers. The Merton men are "Lollards" (per- 
haps Low Church) and, as Meadowcourt, Hano- 

In 1763 the Encaenia 'was selected by the Aca- 
demical body as the occasion for giving effect to 
its approval of the management of public affairs ; 
and this they did by some accessories to the ordinary 
display at Commemoration designed to mark it as 
an event "in honour of the peace." But there was 
nothing after all in the three days' demonstration, 
which gives it a title to the character of a remarkable 
occurrence, or calls for more than this general notice ; 
unless we may advert to the appearance on the stage 
of a Terrae Filius, who, despite the danger of an 
academical mittimus to the Castle or Bocardo, rose 
up to assert "the privilege of his family." He was 
not, however, a veritable descendant of those quasi 
statutable personages who claimed a right, as esta- 
blished by the ancient forms of the University, to 
exercise their talents for satire and raillery at every 
celebration of the Act, and who, as the occasion of 
the times supplied matter, were accustomed to make 
very free on the Rostrum of the Theatre with the 
public and private character of those drest in autho- 
rity, until at length their freedom of speech, exceed- 
ing all bounds of moderation or decency, brought 
about a discontinuation of their office. He, not- 
withstanding, though announced as a mere out-door 
actor, produced by the programme of his intended 
performances, no little consternation among unmatri- 

in the Eighteenth Century. 307 

culated, as well as matriculated, equally in dismay at 
anticipated revelations, as if the sallies of his wit 
could not touch a gown and cassock without glancing 
off upon the fame of town celebrities. It was ru- 
moured that the Mayor and Corporation were first 
seized with the panic, and were for taking steps ; but, 
upon its being held to be an University business and 
to fall more properly under the cognizance of the 
House of Convocation, "from the body corporate," 
so says our authority, " the cause was removed, by a 
new kind of certiorari, to the body academical." Yet 
after all, Terrae Filius — and we believe he is the last 
that appeared in any shape — proved in the end a 
harmless satirist, and did nothing seriously to disturb 
the usual course of the solemnities and festivities.' 
{Oxford during the Last Century,^. 12, 13, reprinted 
from the Oxford Chronicle, 1859.) 

The name however was still remembered in 1779, 
when Mrs Cowley puts into the mouth of Gradus, an 
awkard wooer from B.N.C., the following sentiment ': 
' There is something in her eye so sarcastic, I'd rather 
pronounce the terrae filius than address her.' ( Who's 
the Dtipe? I. 3.) Evelyn speaks of the Praevaricator 
at Oxford : but it is most probable that this was 
a loose way of applying the term peculiar to one 
university to a class existing at the other. In the 
same way, the term Fellow-commoner used at Oxford 
to be convertible with Gentleman-commoner. Eachard 
in his Grounds and Occasion of the Contempt of the 
Clergy, 1670, p. S7> mentions in one clause the Tripus 
Terrae filius, and Praevaricator. 

20 — 2 

308 University Society 

At Oxford, as well as at Cambridge, there were 
Musick Speeches (so called in Life of A. Wood, s.a. 
1681), more commonly known there as Musick 
Lectures. The following list is taken from Wood's 
Life, sub amis 1660, i6?g, 1681, 1682, 1683. 

1660. 'There was a most excellent musick-lecture of the practick 
part in the public school of that facultie (May 24), when A. W. per- 
formed a part on the violin. There were also voices, and by the direc- 
tion of Edw. Low, organist of Ch. Church, who was then the deputy 
professor for Dr Wilson, all things were carried very well, and gave 
great content to the most numerous auditory. This meeting was to con- 
gratulate, his majestie's safe arrival to his kingdomes.' 

1661. [Richard] Torless of St John's. 

[John] Fitz-Williams of Magd. coll. [probationer.] 
1664. Mr [Thomas] Jeamson of Wadh. 

1672. ■ 

1673. [Anthony] Wolveridge, All Souls. 

1674. Charles Holt of Magd. coll. 

1675. [Francis] Slatter of C. C. C. 

1676. ■ — - Jesus coll. 

1677. [Richard] Strickland of Magd. coll. [fellow.] 

1678. John Grubb of Ch. Ch. 

1679. James Allestree of Ch. Ch. in the Theatre: a dispensation 
was passed in June to remove it thither from the Music school: ' and 
the 12 July following it was solemnly and well done at 7 and 8 in the 

ifi8o. 's Northon of Ch. Ch. in the Theatre. 

1681. [Thomas] Sawyer [demy] of Magd. coll. in the- Musick 
school. 'The reason, as was pretended, why he did not speak it 
in the Theatre was, because the Bp, said, people broke down many 
things there to the charge of the university ; but we all imagined the 
true reason to be because he was not a Ch. Ch. man, [like his predeces- 
sors Allestree and Northon,] and therefore would not allow the Theatre 
to grace him. Grand partiality !' 

1682. Wm. Lloyd of Jesus coll. in the musick school. 

At Oxford the nearest approach to the Cambridge 
Tripos verses is to be found in the Carmina Quadra- 

in the Eighteenth Century. 309 

gesimalia or Lent Verses, which bore a close resem- 
blance to the early carmina comitialia of Duport and 
others at our University. They are something of the 
nature of the Winchester 'vulgus:' still more of that 
of the Westminster epigrams. They are described in 
the second fasciculus (edited by Ant. Parsons) in 1748, 
as Verses recited publicly in the schools on the First 
Day of Lent by the determining Bachelors of each 
college. They are composed on the theme of the dis- 
putation, which is to follow their recitation, as one of 
the exercises in Quadragesima qualifying for the de- 
gree. They are epigrammatical illustrations of the 
subject : not always very philosophical, but elegant. 
Este collected one volume of those composed by 
Christ Church men, and Parsons another: the two 
appeared respectively in the years 1723 and 

Amherst (Terrae Filius, No. L.) says that the 
courts of justice were not 'the only places in which 
the constitutioners [Members of the Oxford Constitu- 
tion Club about 1715] met with unjust and scandalous 
usage: St Mary's Golgotha, [in the old Clarendon 
buildings,] the Theatre, Convocation-house, and Schools, 
eccho'd with invectives and anathemas against them. 
The most scurrilous reflections on them were con- 
stantly thrown out in 'the Lent verses, sermons, de- 
clamations, and other publick exercises.' 

Specimens of the Lent Verses will be found in 
Selecta Poemata Anglorum Latina, accurante Ed. 
Popham, coll. Oriel. Oxon., nuper Soc. (Dodsley, 1774, 
1779, &c). The following references to several of 

310 University Society 

those in Este's, and in Parsons' volumes, will give 
a notion of their scope : — 

Carmina Qvadragesimalia. Vol. i. 1723 (edited 
by C. Este). 

Page 1. An Idem semper agat Idem? Affr. The monotonous 
life of a Fellow. 

' Conviva assiduus, lumbo venerandus ovino 
Pascitur, et totos credo vorasse greges.' 
By the Common-room fire 

' tria sumuntur pocula, tresque tubi.' 
[In my copy this is assigned to 'Ja. Bramston 1717.' See however 
IVrangham's Zouch Ixvi, where abp. Mariham's name is mentioned. 
Page 14. The Masquerade (so also p. 71). 
„ 15. Cobb, the fat Innkeeper. 
» 23. ' Tyro magis sapiens quo toga scissa magls.' 
>) 2 5> *37- Sign-boards. 
,, 32. Bellringing. 

,, 36. A Cantab borrows fine clothes {gomers, we called them at 
Winchester) and money to go home. 
Page 37. The Physick Garden. 
,, 38. The Lownger. 

,, 39. Perhaps the Beefsteak Club ' Eastcourto Praeside.' 
,, 41. Statue of the Muses on the Clarendon. 
,, 43. Ogilvy's Aeneid. 
,, 44. Pinkethman, the comic actor. 
„ Si. Drawing lots on S. Valenti?ie' s Day. 
» 53- FalstqfzX Oxford. 

„ 60. Perhaps a Winchester Carrier, who carries no watch in his 

Page 66. Busby's monument. (See the Spectator, No. 329.) 
„ 78. Panegyric on Ale. 
,, 89,90. Vesey, the beadle. 

,, 91, 92, 142. Clusius. Probably ' Great Tom,' the Ch. Ch. 

Page 93. A lady's Fan. 
,, 98. Tennis. 

,, 102. Grinning through horse-collars, (cp. Uffenbach Reisen, 
iii. 159- Hughes, Scouring of the White Horse.) 

Page. 104. The bewilderment of an old Bedmaker. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 311 

Page 110. The- Oxford Almanac 1702. 

,, 115. The Wooden Horse, a punishment for thieves and those 
who cried An Ormond. 

Page 115. Procter, a sorry horsedealer. 

, , 117. Thames and Isis. 

„ 118. Che's Watch. 

„ 118. The punishment of Car// by the Westminster Scholars 
for publishing a surreptitious and incorrect edition of a Speech. 
Page 1 20. Blindman's Buff. 

„ 124. Different opinions on the discovery of a Roman pavement 
near Woodstock in 171 2. 

Page 125, 126. The doctors Abe/, Read, and Mrs Kirby. 

,, 130. Ck/oe's hoop-petticoat. 

„ 131. Sanga' s Christmas pies. 

,, 136. Automata pictures. 

,, 139. Addison's Ovid. (Smalridge, 1718.) 

,, 150. Shotover. 

>i I 5 2 i '55- The mysteries of Housewifery. 

,, 157. Cocoa. 

„ 160. Tythe-pig. 

, , 162. The horse who ' knelt for queen Anne and stampt for the 

Page 165. An ' Oxford Nightcap.' 

References are made to the Tat/er, Spectator, Guardian ; to Prior, 
Garth's Dispensary, King's Miscellanies, ' Three Hours after Marriage,' 
'Tale of a Tub,' &c. &c. 

The list of Authors as noted in MS. in my copy is as follows {the 
numbers relating to the page on which a set of verses begins) : 

Adams 33. 

Alsop 33, 96, 110, 158. 

Battely 41. 

Bold 53, 142. 

R. Booth 22, 86, i2r, 121, 125, 145. 

Ja. Bramston 1, 10, 14, 32, 36, 44, 130. 

Burton 14. 

Cade 7, 41, 127. 

Davis 23, 66, 87. 

B. Dowdeswell 129, 144. 

Dwight 109. 

312 University Society 

Este 21, 108, 132, 133, 165. 

J. Fanshaw 8o, 113, 134. 

Forrester 22, 30, 54, 55, 69, 83, 126, 138, 142, 151. 

Foulkes 117. 

R. Freind 88, 103. 

Geast 100, 141, 147. 

H. Gregory 65, 101, 156, 164. 

T. Harrington 116. 

Haslam 26, 56, 58, 93, 96, 113. 

W. Jones 43, 72, 123, 124. 

Kemp 164. 

Kimberley 118. 

Knipe senr. 29, 38, 6g, 99. 

Langford 97. 

Lee 16, 35, 42, 46, 95, 107, ,128, 140, 145. 

Le Hunte 79. 

R. Manaton 5, 143. 

Manton 37. 

Newton 105. 

Palmer 61, 68. 

Prescott 129, 153. 

Russel 140. 

Sainsbury 66. 

Sealy 34. 

Sherman 56, 96. 

G. Smalridge 91, 139, 142, 150. 

Edm. Smith 3, 11, 33, 72, 78. 

Stanyan 3, 28, 29, 155. 

L. Stevens (or Stephens) 50, 74, 114, 130, 150. 

A. Stone 135, 163. 

W. Stratford 5, 116. 

Sutton 31, 60, 73, 89. 

T. Terry 2, 159. 

T. Thomas 23, 26, 27, 3 r, 64, 79, 93, 95, 115, 137, 146. 

Toilet 54. 

Ed. Trelawney 57, 69, 74, 8 4) 93, 94, 153, 155, 165. 

J. Wainwright 52, 79, 103. 

Warren 39. 

Welborn 4. 

G. Wigan senr. 9, 9, 39, 40, 52, 87, 106, 143, 148, 160, 160, 167. 

J. Wigan jun. 8, 57, 62, 91, 98, 104, 118, 152, 157, 162. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 

In Vol. II. 1747 — 8, edited by A. Parsons, the fol- 
lowing may be noticed : 

Page 3. 

Fair Rosamond, 

.. 7- 

Oxfoi'd Meadows. 

„ 21. 

The herb Margdina or Poor Man's Weather Glass. 

,, 23. 

Chloe cutting figures in paper. 

„ 24. 

The Death of Dr Freind. 

.. 35- 


.. 53- 

Gay's Black Ey'd Susan. 

,. 56. 

Dr Hales. 

„ pS. 

Carrier pigeon. 

„ 66. 

^n imitation of the last canto of the Rape of the Lock. 


The bells she jingled and the whistle blew,' &c. 

„ 68. 

Heloise to Abaelard. 

„ 69. 

The Seven Ages of Man. 

» 73- 

Milton's Sabrina. 

,, 109. 


„ 116. 

Rape of the Lock, v., where 'all things lost are treasured.' 

„ 1-29. 

The Witches' broth, Macbeth. 

v '37- 

Wolsey's Speech. 

Reference is made to Addison's Travels, the Spectator, Dryden's 
Knight's Tale and 'AH for Love/ The Pleasures of Lmagination. Mil- 
ton and Othello. 

The authors noted in my copy are 

Bale 71. 

Ro. Bedingfield 14, 72, 86, 104. 

Brace 13, 77, 81, 89, 90. 

Crackenode 144, 147, 148. 

Cretcheley S. 54. 

DowdesweU 52. 

Freind 53. 

Gilpin 40. 

Ld. Harley 13, 98, 101. 

Hay 25, 27, 33. 

Impey 7, n, 16, 85, 96, 97, 118, 121, 133, 134, 145. 

Jubb 35, 76. 

Kendal 123, 139. ' 

314 University Society 

Keith 2, 4, 5, 9, 10, 32, 45. 4 6 > 57. 6°. 60, 61, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68. 

Lewis 59, 138. 

Abp. Markham i,'3,^6, 12, 28, 30, 31, 34, 43, 69, 79, 82, 83, 84, 88, 
103, 129, 150. 

Murray 15, 17, 36, 100, 102, 107, 108, in, 117, 126, 127. 

Nash 26. 

Roberts 24. 

Sealy 137, 149. 

Sharp 27, 44, 70, 146. 

Skynner 93. 

Thomas 18, 19. 

Thornton 95, 106. 

Varnon. 124. 

Wilcocks 8, 13, 73, 73, 74, 75, So, 90, 94, 101, 122, 125, 131, 141, 

Lent verses were written also by Lowth, South, 
Johnson, Vincent Bourne, &c. 

At Cambridge 'Lent teri7i (which for many years 
had been a time of great disorder by reason of divers 
undue Liberties taken by the younger Scholars, an 
Evil that had been much complained of; and all 
Exercise had either been neglected or performed in a 
trifling ludicrous manner) was made a regular term, 
and the Disputations were conducted with the same 
good Order as in the others, which effectually put a 
stop to all such Complaints for the future.' This was 
done by the influence of Dr Matthias Mawson 1 , mas- 
ter of Bene't, when Vice-chancellor in 1730, 1731. 

The Lent Disputations, and ' standing in Quadra- 
gesimd,' or Determining [one or more questions in a 
strictly logical or syllogistic form] were common to 

1 Masters' Hist, of C.C.C.C. p. 196, ed. 1753. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 315 

almost all ancient universities 1 . As a pendant to the 
accounts given above from the Cambridge Bedell's 
• Books, it will be well to add one or two notices re- 
lating to 1 Oxford. 

It is stated in (Walker's) Oxoniarza, 1. 61, that 'DrFell, 
when Vice-chancellor, (1646, 1647,) reformed several 
abuses in the schools, and " because cotirsing'm the time 
oiLent, that is, the endeavours of one party to run down 
and confute another in disputation, did commonly end 
in blows, and domestic quarrels (the refuge of the 
vanquished side), he did, by his authority, annul that 
custom. Dr Fell, that he might, as much as possible, 
support the exercises of the University, did frequent 
examinations for degrees, hold the examiners up to 
it, and if they would, or could not do their duty, he 
would do it himself to the pulling down of many. He 
did also, sometimes, repair to the Ordinaries [see 
above, p. 208], commonly called Wall Lectures (from 
the paucity of auditors), and was frequently present 
at those exercises called disputations in Austin's, when 
he would make the disputants begin precisely at one, 
and continue disputing till three of the clock in the 
afternoon ; so that upon his appearance more auditors 
were then present than since have usually appeared 
at those exercises 2 .'" In his Diary, however, A. 
Wood thus comments on the conduct of dean Fell : 

' 1683, Feb. 17. Egg Saturday, but one bachelor of 
Mao-, hall presented ad determinandum, whereas since 
the king's return they were never without 6 or 8 or 

1 Peacock, On the Statutes, App. A. xiv. n. 1841. 

2 Athena Oxon. II. 796, ap. Oxoniana, I. 62. 

316 University Society 


12, and Exeter coll. not one, who used to have com- 
monly 12. About 20 matriculated before Egg Satur- 
day for Lent term. 

'120 Bachelors determine, whereas there never used 
to be under 200. Lent disputations decay, the bache- 
lors don't dispute, or will not, unless the superiors 
(boyish regents) are present ; some senior masters go 
to hear disputations, particularly Mr Huntingdon, 
after his long absence, but they will not dispute, and 
stand silent, while their abetters sneer and grin ; this 
we got by having coursing put down by Dr Fell.' His 
autobiography in earlier years shews that his reckon- 
ing was exaggerated. Thus : 

' 1678, Mar. 23. Saturday the junior proctor made 
his speech; 180 bachelors this last Lent, and all 
things carried on well, but no coursing, which is very 
bad. Quaere the reason?' 

'1681, Feb. 10. One hundred and ninety-two ba- 
chelors to determine this Lent, but 23, or thereabouts, 
were not presented on Egg Saturday, their time for 
determining short, that is to say, every bachelor was 
to determine twice between the 17 Feb. to 7 March, 
because the king was to come soon after, and the Par- 
liament to sit on 2 1st March. 

' Note, that the Divinity school hath been seldom 
used, since altered and changed (but before 'twas a 
pig market), but now this Lent, because the Geome- 
try, Astronomy, and Greek schools were fitting for 
the house of lords, and twice every day, or three at 
least, were appointed to determine there.' 

The obsolete exercise of 'doing Austin's' is said to 

in the Eighteenth Century. 317 

have derived its name from the custom of scholars 
disputing with the Augustine monks 1 , who had ac- 
quired a great reputation for exercises of this kind. 
They are termed in the old Oxford Statutes,- Dispu- 
tationes in Augustinensibus. The Proctor chose his 
collector in Austin's, who had the power of matching 
disputants together at his own discretion 2 . 

In 1655, Edward Wood, fellow of Merton, when 
junior proctor, chose his brother Anthony as his col- 
lector in Austin's, ' which office he kept till he was ad- 
mitted Master of Arts ' nine months later, his brother 
having died in the first month of his proctorate. 

In 1679 Wood exclaimed, 'Is it not a shame that 
it should be accounted unusual for scholars to go to 
Augustin's disputations, and that the masters of the 
schools speak English to them?'...' This Lent the col- 
lectors ceased from entertaining the bachelors by ad- 
vice and command of the proctors. Van der Hwyden 
of Oriel was then a collector ; so that now they got 
by their collectorships, whereas before they spent 
about 100/. besides their gains, on cloaths or needless 

In 1658 he had noticed the death of Will. George, 
B.A., student of Ch. Ch., who had been accounted ' a 
noted sophister and remarkable courser in the time of 
Lent in the publick schooles. He was poore, and 
therefore ready to make the exercise of dul or lazy 

1 Oxoniana, I. 45. 

2 See Amherst, Terra Filius, No. XLII. quoted in the next Part of 
this Essay. 

3i 8 University Society 

scholars. He look'd elderly, and was cynical and 
hersute in his behaviour.' 

The Wall Lectures were so called, as being delivered 
to the bare walls. Uffenbach 1 , from hearsay, de- 
scribes the same thing at Cambridge in 1710. ' Nur 
den Winter drey oder vier Lectiones von den Professo- 
ribus gehalten werden, die sie vor die Wdnde tJiuu, 
dann es kommt niemand hinein? 

The ceremony of circuiting was prescribed by the 
Oxford Statutes (ix. v. 1). It consisted in the in- 
tended graduate following bareheaded his Presenter 
and the Bedells to the lodgings of the Vice-chancellor, 
and of each of the Proctors, to sue for their attend- 
ance at a Congregation for his Degree next day. 

On April 4, 1722, Erasmus Philipps, 'Fellow-Com- 
moner' of Pembroke, Oxon., ' went a circuiting w th Mr 
Collins of our College. This is an Exercise previous 
to a Master's Degree.' (N. and Q. 2nd S. X. 444.) 
This custom however is not mentioned in ' Considera- 
tion on the Public Exercises, &c, Oxford, 1773.' 

It has been already explained (p. 283) that the 
Act at Oxford (on the first Tuesday in July) was 
properly only a solemn season for the conclusion 
of academical exercises and for full admission to 

Commemoration (which fell nearly at the same 
time of the year and which now lends its name to 
the ceremory for conferring honorary degrees, the 
recitation of prize compositions in the Sheldonian 

1 Reisen, III. 2. 1754. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 319 

Theatre, and the display of gaiety and hospitality 
which of old accompanied the public Act) is, strictly 
speaking, the Encaenia, or Celebration of Founders 
and Benefactors, now held in June, in the Theatre 
(which was opened formally July 9, 1669). In the 
Gentlemait's Magazine, for 1750, is a description of 
Oxford Commemoration in that year. 'Monday, July 
2. The Doctors &c. were entertained at lord Crewe's 
expence in New College hall. At 4 o'clock there 
was a procession to the theatre. Music was per- 
formed. The orator stood in the rostrum which had 
been moved into the centre of the area. Letters 
from the Chancellor were read, and an honorary 
degree conferred on the rt. hon. earl of Plymouth. 
The orator s speech lasted above an hour. An ode 
set by professor Hays {William Hayes who was 
succeeded by Philip Hayes in 1777).. The theatre 
was quite full, a very handsome appearance of ladies ; 
and the whole was conducted with great decorum.' 
In Gent. Mag. XXXIII. is an account of the Oxford 
Encaenia in 1763 ; and in vol. XLIII. that of 1773 
is described as ' the grandest that ever was.' 

It is interesting to us, who witnessed the visit of 
Alexander, Archbishop of Syros, Tenos, and Melos, 
in the spring of 1870, to know that in 1701 while 
Bentley was Vice-chancellor, 'a Greek Prelate, Neo- 
phytos, Archbishop of Philippopolis [Exarch of all 
Thrace and Drovogia], visiting England at the time, 
came to Cambridge and was presented to a degree 
of Doctor in Divinity by the University. On this 
occasion the Vice-chancellor, with great good-nature 

320 University Society 

and propriety, directed that he should be presented 
by the Greek Professor, Joshua Barnes ; who was 
thus gratified with the opportunity of delivering a 
Greek oration, a copy of which is still preserved 1 .' 
It seems that the archbishop replied, as Mr Cooper 
{Annals, IV. 46, n. 3) refers to a speech made by him 
on that occasion. As the title of the oration is not 
printed quite correctly in the notes to that valuable 
collection, I quote it from a copy which is bound up 
in a volume of tracts in St John's College library, 
Cambridge [Ee. 12. 10. J, "\6709 tov lepcoraTov /cal 
<re/3a<r/jU<oTa.Tov Neo<pvrov fjLrjTpoTroXiTov t^9 Qikuinrov- 
7roX6&)? 717309 dica,8r](JLLav TJ79 K.avTa/3piyia<;, vy <reiTT6fis- 
fipiou. "Ot fit's tt]v ratjiv t5sv i/cel ZepoSoSacr/cdXayv t?/9 
6eo\oyia<; eveypcupOrj. Oratio Sanctissimi et Reverend- 
issimi Viri Neophyti Metropolitae Philippopolis, Ad 
Academiam Cantabrigiensem, XIII Septembris, cum 
ad gradum Doctoratus in S. Theelogia admitteretur. 
Cum Versione Latina. Imprimatur, Ri. Bentley, Acad. 
Cantab. Procancellarius. Cantabrigiae, Typis Aca- 
demicis. MDCCI." pp. 7. 

The speech begins with an elegant and complimentary comparison 
of the University to bees, which not only gather honey but impart their 
sweets to others. We are fishers of men using the tackle of Wisdom 
and Learning, and in our turn we are enclosed in the net of God. 
Again, Man is light, as by wisdom he traverses all things, but he is 
in turn brought to the one Source of Motion, the very Wisdom, and the 
Light which lighteneth every man that cometh into the world. 

A threefold Wisdom is known to our Greek theologians ; first 
Natural Wisdom, and next Supernatural Wisdom of two kinds, viz. 
Create (which is Faith) and increate which is the Subsisting Wisdom 

1 Monk's Life of Bentley, I. 152, 153. 

in the' Eighteenth Century. 32 1 

(ivvirodTaros <ro<j>ia) of God, the Son and Word of God the Father, our 
Lord Jesus Christ. 

The first Wisdom leads to the second and the second to the divine 
Person of Wisdom : and without the first (natural wisdom) we cannot 
find the way which leads to Jerusalem which is above through the 
searching of the Scriptures. 

Then follows a comparison of the Chancellor (thij duke of Somerset) 
and the Vice-Chancellor (Bentley) to the Silver Trumpets mentioned in 
the Book of Numbers (x. i, 8.). Aio Toiatiras adXniyyas <t>ypZ *7<»> 
rov re i/^rjXoTarov Kal p:eya\aTrpeir4<FTaTov Kavr £i]\dpiov, AotjKav Swjuep- 
ffereuv, Kal tqv "BivT^ijKavT^TjXdptoy tt)s Trept$T}p.ov tgujttjs 'AKadi}p.las T77S 
KavTafDpiylas, 'fis ydp al XdXlrtyyes -xpwvrai jrveiifiaTi in t&v ivTOg- 
fflav i^epxoiUvif' ovra Kal 5) vptripa i^riXdrr/s, d lepol SiddffKaXoi., irpoa- 
XprJTCU rij (irade SidacrKaXta rod Tveip-aros ?s i^epxo^vr\i wpayfiareverai 
T] o-urijpta rdv dv&punruv. 

But I have not words to enumerate the excellences of the Chancellor 
the V.C., CD's, and all the rest. And who can sufficiently praise the 
harmony, proportions, and elegance of the Colleges, especially the most 
noble and beautiful college of Trinity? (tA ttjs iwepovvlov Tpidoos irepi- 
KaXX4<TTaT0i> Kal topaiSraTov;). 

He concludes with a solemn prayer, (A4opai p.ovov Tys piaKaptas Kal 
faoiroLou Kal ddiaiptrov Kal aavyxtirov Tpiddos, tvbs Ty ipdaei Kal povov 
Geoff,) for king William, the archbishop of Canterbury, and all the other 
archbishops and bishops of the English Church, as well as all the 
members of the University. 

The speech is signed '0 rairetvbs MyTpoiroXlryis QiXuriroviroXeus Neo- 


Mr George Williams remarks (The Orthodox and 
the Nonjurors, XXIII.) that, the original Oration de- 
livered by the Archbishop of Philippopolis before the 
Chancellor and Senate of our university, Sept. 13, 
1 701, is preserved in the British Museum (Brit, Mus. 
Addit. MSS. 22, 911, ff. 4 — 7) among the papers of 
Dr John Covel, master of Christ's, who had been 
chaplain to the embassy in Constantinople from 1670 
— •j'j, and to whom Archbishop Tenison gave Neo- 
phytus an introduction (The Orthodox and Nonjurors, 

L. B. E. 21 

322 University - Society " 

Mr Williams adds < that he has hot been able to 
find the name of "the- Greek archbishop among the 
Graduati Cantabrigienses ; yet that it is certain he 
was decorated with the same distinction at Cam- 
bridge as at Oxford. I am enabled by the kindness 
of the Reverend H. R. Luard, the Registrary of the 
University, to confirm this statement. There is in- 
deed no entry in the Orator's Book between the 
years 1700 and 1706; the grace^ for" the degree was 
riever entered' in the book, nor is the original grace 
itself to be found; none of the Greeks signed their 
names in the" book of' the subscriptions to the Three 
Articles ; but there is a transcript in the grace book 
pf the, following grace which clearly proves that the 
degrees were conferred, though the unusual circum- 
stances of the inauguration, happening as it did in 
vacation-time, may have led to the omission of some 
of the ordinary formalities.' 

'Lea: etCoHcess: Sep thri . s 13'""] Placeat vobis, ut 
Archiepiscopus Philippo'politanus una cum quatuor 
ex ejus comitatu habeant -literas testimoniales gra- 
duu7« suoru#z apud nos susceptorum Academiae 
sigillo signatas.' 

The archbishop's previous visit to Oxford is thus 
described, by E, Thwaites, fellow of Queen's and 
Greek Professor at Oxford, in a letter to Dr Charlett, 
master, of University. [Walker's] Oxoniana, iii. 146 
— 148 1 ., 
. '''Sept 2, 1701. Rev. Sir, Yesterday at three 

1 Th$ Rev; G. Williams B. D. gives a reference to the original 
'Ballard MSS.- in the .Bodleian, Vol. xm. art 22.' and adds that the 

in the Eighteenth Century. 323 

o'clock the Archbishop of Philippoli (sic) was created 
Doctor of Divinity, in the Convocation House, his. 
physician made D. Med., and his presbyters and 
deacon 1 Masters of Arts ; 'twas a mighty show, 1 and 1 
the solemnity was very decent. After their admis- 
sion, his grace made us a very excellent speech,-' all 
in plain, proper Hellenistic Greek, and continued 
speaking nearly half an hour ; all with great respect 
to the house, great gravity, great boldness, and a 
very manly voice. If you have not seen him, I hope 
you will in London : he is a man of admirable air, 
and makes a graceful appearance. 

' He commended the English nation for hospitality, 
the Church of England, the University, the Chancel- 
lor's [duke of Ormond's] civility to him, the Vice- 
chancellor's [Dr Roger Mander of Balliol's] kindness, 
&c, in very round periods. 

'After that we went to the theatre, had a Latin 
song or two, which made about half-an-hour's ."music, 
and the company dispersed. The "concourse was so ; 
great, I have not seen it greater, except at the Act. 

'The forms of presentation had nothing 'singular In 
them, except the last by the Orator {Will. Wyatt,' 
student of Christchurch, principal of S. Mary Hall], 
we had one of his rants. Praesento Vobis Ininc egre-- , 
gium Virum, Athanasium, diaconum, nomine sud tipud 
omnes orthodoxos venerandttm, ut gradti' Magistri hi 

letter is given in extenso in the Union Review, Vol. II. p. osa.;Loijilon,i 

1 ' Athanasius, Archdeacon; Neophitus,. Archimandrite; and Gre- 
gorius, Protosyncellus.' " ' 

21 — 2 

324 ' University' Society 

Artibus insignitus tandem fidem acrius 1 , quam ipsi 
Episcopi, tueatur: they are the words as I remember. 

' I am very sorry you were not here, at the reception 
and entertainment of this great man for reasons I 
cannot tell you in writing. 

' Indeed Dr Woodroof has. exerted himself and 
Shewn us that he does understand Greek.' 

' Benjamin Woodrofife, canon of Ch. Ch., who was 
Principal (1692— 1712) of Gloucester Hall (which in 
1 7 14 became Worcester College), had the charge of 
the five youths from Smyrna placed in that hall 
about 1694. Mr George Williams (formerly senior 
fellow of King's Coll. Camb.) has shewn in his 
Orthodox Church of the East in the eighteenth century,. 
pp. xix. xx. (Rivington's, 1868), that this colony 
of Greek students in Oxford was formed at the sug- 
gestion of Joseph Georgirenes, metropolitan of Samos 
(then a refugee in London), who, about 1682, or 
1683, petitioned archbishop Sancroft to further his 
scheme for the education in England of twelve 
Greeks, with a view to their returning to preach in 
their own country ' the true doctrine of the Church 
of England.' 

It will perhaps be remembered that in 1616 Me- 
trophanes Critopulus (afterwards patriarch of Alex- 
andria) was sent by Cyril Lucas, patriarch of Con- 
stantinople, to be educated at Balliol. Accordingly 
about the year 1689 a 'Greek College' was founded 
in Gloucester Hall for the education of twenty youths 
of the Greek communion in five years' residence. 
They were to be all alike habited in the gravest 

in the Eighteenth Century. "325 

"sort of habit worn in their own country, and to wear 
no other either in the University or anywhere else'. 
They were not to go out of the college without 
special leave, or without a companion, and were to 
have no vacations. Three of them were unfortu- 
nately enticed away to the continent by agents of 
the Roman Church ; among other adventures they 
were kept at Louvain for five months by order of 
the pope. Two of. them escaped back to England* 
and were sent home to Smyrna- by Mr. E. Stephens^ 
a loyal phil-helleh. But that gentleman received in 
1705 a letter from the Registrar of the Greek Church 
at Constantinople, stating that ' the irregular life of 
certain priests and lay-men of the Eastern Churchy 
living in London, is a matter of great concern to the 
Church. Wherefore the Church forbids any to go 
and study at Oxford, be they never so willing 2 ." 

In 1768 the king of Denmark, having received art 
honorary degree at Oxford, paid Cambridge a visit 
in the month of August, and was made to tremble 
by the portrait of Oliver Cromwell at Sidney 3 . 

On the 16th of October, 1775, 'the Prince of Hessd 
and the Danish ambassador arrived in Cambridge 
and, after viewing the public buildings, proceeded to 
Newmarket races 4 .' 

In April 1797 "the Prince and Princess of Orange* 

1 Mr Moore's Historical Hand-book and Guide to -Oxford, p. 21, 
Shrimptons, 1871, 

2 Mr G. Williams, The Orthodox and the Nonjurors, xxm— xxv. 

3 Cooper's Annals, v). 352, ■ \ 
* Ibid. 378. 

326 University Society 

visited Cambridge, and attended the University Ser^ 
mon on Sunday 1 .' 

It has been already mentioned incidentally (supra, 
p. 237), that king George III. visited Oxford in 1786). 
Of this occasion we have a most lively record in 
the Diary and Letters of Madame DArblay (ill. 76 
— 107), who, then known as Miss Burney, the au- 
thoress (in 1778, .1782) of Evelina and Cecilia, 
was spending her life as a keeper of the robes to 
queen Charlotte. It was unfortunately in the vaca- 
tion time, in August, not many days after the 
attempt made by the maniac Margaret Nicholson 
upon the life of the king; and the severe etiquette 
of the court would not permit Miss Burney to enjoy 
at her ease haunts so -congenial to her nature. She 
describes the reception in the Sheldonian theatre, 
the queen and princesses shedding tears at the men- 
tion in the address of the good king's escape. 
' Next followed music : a good organ, very well 
played, anthem-ed and voluntary-ed us for some 
time ' (ill. p. 97). The scenes in Oxford on this oc- 
casion must have been very strange : the younger 
men were not in residence, and the University was 
represented by old and grave men, most of whom 
were very shy and unaccustomed to the ceremonies 
of the court. She describes humorously the awk- 
ward attempts made by the ' worthy collegiates ' 
to kiss the king's hand: 'many in their confusion 
fairly arose by pulling his majesty's hand to raise 
them ' (ibid. 98). A strange contrast with the 
1 Cooper's Annals, IV. 458. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 327 

graceful retrograde march which, in spite of a sprain- 
ed ancle and a cumbrous train, lady Charlotte Bertie 
made before the king, no doubt to the admiration 
of doctors and masters no less than of Miss Burney 
herself. However it is not surprising that she, who 
from her childhood had watched Dr Johnson, 'the 
greater Bear,' swallowing cup after cup of bohea, 
should have taken goodnaturedly such compliments 
as were awkwardly proffered her. And though 
she had to endure tedious hours of standing and 
fasting, and then was forced to hide suddenly the 
smuggled apricots and bread when the queen came 
unexpectedly upon her retreat in the master's 
parlour at Wolsey's college (Magdalen, where Dr 
Home was president) : yet she felt well repaid with 
a sight of her father's and her own friend. Sir 
Joshua Reynolds' window in New College ante-chapel. 
And even when she might not sit down in the royal 
presence, nothing prevented her from pulling down 
book after book while she was waiting in Trinity 
College library. Doubtless too she entered into the 
humour of the situation when in attendance on the 
royal party feasting in Christchurch hall, the dons 
slily provided the back row of maids of honour and 
equerries 'with tea, coffee, chocolate, cakes, and 
bread and butter,' while some took it in turns to 
stand demurely as a screen between the royal ban- 
quetters and those in waiting who were engaged in 
a humbler way at the same employment. 

The question of the admission of ladies to the 
studies of the English universities was not (as far 

328 University Society 

as I am aware) moved in the eighteenth century. 
There are however instances recorded of their ad- 
mission in the infancy, and also in the riper years, of 
the great rival of the University of Paris. 

'One of the most singular points in the history 
of the University of Bologna' (writes Professor 
Henry Maiden, in his Essay on the Origin of Univer* 
sities, 1835, pp. 65, 64) 'is the admission of the female 
sex to its honours and offices. There is mention in 
early times of learned women on whom degrees were 
conferred. It is said that Novella d' Andrea [died in 
1366] read lectures on jurisprudence, but took the 
precaution of drawing a curtain between herself and 
hei; auditors. Mrs Piozzi mentions la Dotteressa 
Laura Bassi [1711,^1778], who taught mathematics 
and natural philosophy ; and Lady Morgan has intro- 
duced us to Signora Clotilda Tambroni [1758,^1817], 
a learned professor of Greek. But the boldest inroad 
into the scientific province of the ruder sex was made 
by Madonna Manzolina, who lectured on anatomy.' 

The following story is told by Ovid's friend and 
Augustus' freedman Hyginus (no very good authority 
indeed, fab. 274, ' Of Inventions''). There was a law 
at Athens that no woman should practise midwifery. 
But a certain lady named Agnodice, perceiving the 
inconvenience of the present custom, cut off her hair, 
and, disguising herself as a man, went to the lectures 
of Hierophilus, and subsequently attended ladies. 
The faculty, getting wind of this, trumped up an 
accusation against her in Areopagus, and when Agno- 
dice had cleared herself of the scandal, they alleged 

in the Eighteenth Century. 329 

the then existing law against obstetrices. But the 
court was so much moved by a deputation of Athe- 
nian matrons, that they not only acquitted Agnodice, 
but made it lawful for ladies (ingenuae) to study 

There had been a great falling-off in the literary 
culture of English gentlewomen 1 from the days 
of Roger Ascham and queen Elizabeth and the 
time of the Revolution ; just as Cornelia mother of 
the Gracchi had been succeeded by the matrons of 
Cicero's time, most of whom were ignorant, or else, 
like Sempronia wife of Decimus Junius Brutus, had 
but this one excellence of those which ennobled 
Cornelia, and so, though a few Roman wives might 
still have a taste for literature, the children of Rome 
were allowed to grow up without knowing even the 
laws of the Twelve Tables, which had in Cicero's 
own childhood 2 been as regular a lesson as the Church 
catechism with ourselves. Then, just as under the 
empire the past literature of Rome was a sealed 
book to Horace and to those who heard or read 
his poems, so too Addison found Chaucer forgotten 
and already almost unintelligible 3 . 

The study of the works of former years and 
generations received an impetus in the Roman empire 

1 Strype*s Life of Parker, b. n. ch. xxv. 

2 ' Discebamus enim pueri xn, ut carmen necessarium : quas iatrl 
nemo discit.' Cicero, de Legibus, II. xxm. 59. 

3 'Till Chaucer first a merry bard arose, 
And many a story told in rhyme and prose: 
But age has rusted what the poet writ, 
Worn out his language and obscurld his wit, 

330 University Society 

from the imitative character of the composition of 
the Flavian period : and such studies were fostered 
no doubt by the first imperial rhetoric professorships 
which were founded by Vespasian 1 . 

A generation later we find Juvenal 2 complaining 
-of learned ladies. 

But in England the revival of literary taste was 
not immediately due to any educational establish- 
ment : we are indebted for our acquaintance with the 
works of Shakespeare (which had been ill edited and 
then well-nigh forgotten) to the admiration express- 
ed by Steele in the Tatler z ; while Milton's poems 
would hardly have been so well known as they have 
been, were it not for the criticisms published by 
Addison in the Spectator*. 

One of the chief evils of society which the es- 
sayists strove to remedy was the low intellectual and 
moral tone of persons of fashion and especially of 
ladies. 'If fathers and brothers' (says Steele) 'will 
defend a lady's honour she is quite as safe as in her 
own innocence. Many of the distressed who suffer 
under the malice of evil tongues are so harmless that 

In vain he jests in his unpolished strain 
And tries to make his readers laugh in vain.' 

Addison's Account of the greatest English Poets to Mr H. Sache- 
verell, April 3, 1694. (Written when 22 years of age.) Compare the 
commentators on Horace, Epist. II. i. 86. 

1 Suetonius, Vesp. 18. Merivale's History of the Romans under the 
Empire, ch. lxiv. 

2 Juvenal, VI. 434—456. 

3 Taller, Nos. 8, 41, 68, go, m. 

4 Spectator,, 267 to 462 passim. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 331 

they are every day they live asleep till twelve at 
noon ; concern themselves with nothing but their own 
persons till two ; take their necessary food between 
that time and four, visit, go to the play, and sit up 
at cards till towards the ensuing morn.' What won- 
der they grew up to be thoughtless mothers 1 ; or that 
such mothers found their children wilful. What more 
graphic pictures can there be of the viciousness of 
abused society than in Sheridan's School for Scandal, 
and in the select lounge in the dressing-room of the 
countess in Hogarth's Marriage a la mode*- 

The account of a gentlewoman's daily occupations 
quoted above from Steele is hardly in excess of that 
given in Swift's specimens of modern polite conver- 
sation, or even of the evidence of Vanbrugh's Sir 
John Brute, when in his wife's clothes he 'scanda- 
lizes the women of quality.' At the commencement 
of the century few Englishwomen were known for 
their mental accomplishments except Pope's rival 
lady Mary Wortley Montagu. But the good heart 
of Steele led him (with the help of Addison and 
John Hughes) to make great efforts for the increase 
of the number. The papers in the Spectator* re- 
lating to books for ladies' reading, are familiar to us. 
Steele, who in the 248th number of the Tatler, in 
17 10, had promised some such undertaking, edited 

1 Spectator, 246. 

8 Pope's Rape of the Lock, 1. 

At every word a. reputation dies: 

Snuff and the fan supply the pause of chat, 

With singing laughing ogling and all that. 

* Nos. 37, 92, 140, 163, cf. Tatler, No. 248. 

33^ University Society 

in I714 The Lady's Library in three volumes oc- 
tavo 1 ; a book which breathes, no less than his Christ 
iian Hero, that spirit of purity and religion with 
Which he often sighed. Their efforts were not alto- 
gether vain. 'My fair readers' (writes Addison in 
the Spectator, No. 92) 'are already better scholars 
than the beaux. I could name some of them who 
talk much better than several gentlemen that make 
a figure at Will's ; and, as I frequently receive letters 
from the fine ladies and pretty fellows, I cannot but 
observe that the former are superior to the others,' 
not only in the sense, but in the spelling.' The 
picture drawn, in No. 37, of a literary lady's library 
is very suggestive. And as the century advanced, 
we find a small coterie of gentlewomen gathering 
round Dr Johnson, while another party rallied round 
the knight of the Blue Stocking, Mr Benjamin Stil- 
lingfleet 2 (1702^-1771), the grandson of the bishop 
of Worcester. The following list of literary ladies 
might be greatly increased. Eliz. Carter (1717 — 
1806), Eliz. Montagu (1720— 1800), Hester Lynch 
Piozzi (1739 — 1821), Sarah Trimmer (1741 — 1810), 
Lady Eleanor Fenn (1743 — 1813), Anna Laetitia 
Barbauld (1743 — 1825), Hannah More (1745' — 1833); 
Frances Burney (1752 — 1840), Joanna Baillie (1762 
— 185-1)-, Maria Edgworth (1764— -1849), Amelia Opie 
(1769 — 1853), Jane Austen (1775 — 1817). 

1 ' The Lady's Library, written by a Lady. Published by Mr Steele.' 1 
Tonson, 1714, 3 vols. 8vo. in Cambridge University Library '30. 6. 
88—90.' , 

2 Boswell's Life of Johnson, s. a. 1781. 

in the Eighteenth Cenhiry. 333 

It was hardly to be expected that institutions 
which were governed by a law of celibacy like the 
universities, should fall much under the consideration 
of intellectual ladies. There was however at least one 
who must not be forgotten, Ann J ebb, the wife of an 
important mover in the Cambridge world, John Jebb, 

(who was son of Dr John Jebb, dean of Cashel, born in 1736, and 
after spending some time at eight places of education, including 
Shrewsbury and Dublin University, was admitted pensioner of Peter- 
house, Nov. 9, 1754 [where his uncle Samuel Jebb, M.D. the non-juror, 
had .been sizar, B.A. 1712, died 1772], second wrangler in 1757, 
Professor Waring being senior, second members' prizeman in 1758, 
being beaten by W. Roberts [afterwards Provost of Eton]. He was 
confirmed fellow of Peterhouse in 1 761, after the regular year of proba- 
tion. In 1762 he was ordained deacon by the bishop of Lincoln, and 
priest fifteen months later, on which occasion he preached the ordination 
sermon. As moderator in 1762 — 3, when Paley was senior wrangler, 
and as taxor in the two following years, he was colleague of Ri. Watson 
who speaks of him as in 1774 'a very honest and intelligent but 
unpopular man 1 ,' but a friend of whom he was himself proud 2 . Jebb 
was again moderator in 1 763 — 4 with Fairclough; and in r 767 — 8, when 
Watson was once more associated with him, as well as in the two 
following years. After commencing the study of Hebrew in 1764, he 
was collated to the vicarage of Gamlingay, co. Beds., on the recom- 
mendation of Dr Edm. Law, master of his college; in less than four 
months he was instituted to the University living of Ovington, co. 

On the 29th of December, 1764, just a fortnight 
after he had been instituted to the rectory of Oving- 
ton, he married Ann Torkington, eldest daughter of the 
rector of Little Stukely, co. Huntingdon, and of lady 
Dorothy Sherard. One of her brothers succeeded 
their father as rector of Stukely. The other was. 
master of Clare Hall. 

1 Anecdotes ef the life of Ri. Watson, bp. of Llandaff, 1818, 1. 48. 

s Ibid. I. 10 1. 1 

334 University Society 

After an attempt to reside near Gamlingay, he gave up that vicarage 
and returned to Cambridge; where he entered on the curacy of S. 
Andrew's parish, and the lectureship which Henry Hubbard [B.D. 
Emmanuel, univ. Registrary 1758— 1778: see notes on 'a Fragment'' 
relating to the disorders in 1750 mentioned above, p. 66, where he 
figures as Harry] had held ' near twenty years.' 

In 1768 and 1770 he was an unsuccessful candidate for the Arabic 
Professorship, having studied that language for four or five years. In 
the spring of 1 769 he declared himself an opposer of the tory party in 
the university by voting in a minority of two, with Michael Tyson 
of Bene't (Corpus Christi, B.A. 1764) College, against the loyal address 
to King George III. on March 1 7. Within ~ few months John Jebb 
was presented to the vicarage of Flixton and the united rectories of 
Homersfield and St Cross, co. Suffolk, and was nominated chaplain to 
Ro. , earl of Harborough. A year later he resigned the university living 
of Ovington. It appears that in 1771 Jebb took considerable interest 
in the case of Robert Tyrwhitt of Jesus (grandson of bishop Gibson 1 ), 
who had proposed to argue questions on the Socinian side in the theo- 
logical schools, but had changed his theses at the instance of Professor 
Rutherforth. Later in the same year Jebb joined with Tyrwhitt and 
others in attempting to remove the rule requiring persons to subscribe 
the xxxix. Articles on their admiss'on to the degree of B.A. 

This grace was rejected by the caput; as had been another, for 
removing subscription to the Three Articles of King James, which 
Tyrwhitt had proposed in the summer. 

The following anecdote gives us a glimpse of the discussions on this 
subject at the time. 

'There was a society established at Cambridge, in the year 1757, by 
the Wranglers when Dr Waring was senior and Mr Jebb second, called 
The Hyson Club [see above, p. 158, where 1758 is the date given]. 
The members were accustomed to meet for the purpose of drinking tea 
and holding rational conversation. Several of the highest characters in 
the university were already enrolled amongst its members, when Doctor, 
then Mr Paley [B. A. 1 763] became an associate, soon after his establish- 
ment [1771] in the tuition of Christ's College. No particular subjects 
of discussion were proposed at their meetings; but accident, or the 
taste of the individuals, naturally led to topics in which literary men 
might fairly unbend themselves from severer pursuits. In a debate, one 
evening, on the justice and expediency of making some alteration in the 
ecclesiastical constitution of the country, for the relief of tender con- 

1 Dyer's Life of R. Robinson, p. 317; 

in the Eighteenth Century. 335 

sciences, Doctor Gordon 1 , fellow of Emmanuel College, and afterwards 
precentor of Lincoln [B.A. 1 748], an avowed tory in religious politics, 
when vehemently opposing the arguments of Mr Jebb, a strenuous sup- 
porter of all such improvements, exclaimed, with his usual heat, " You 
mean, Sir, to impose upon us a new church government." "You are 
mistaken, Sir," said Mr Paley; "Jebb only wants to ride his own 
horse, not to force you to get up behind him. 2 '" 

But Jebb was not content with private discussion. He attended the 
general meetings of 'numbers of the clergy who called themselves of 
the established church, Archdeacon Blackburn at the head of them 3 ,' in 
the Feathers' Tavern in London (July 17, 1771, &c.) and was a member 
of the committee which prepared a petition (Dec. 11) to the House of 
Commons. Meanwhile he was writing letters in the Whitehall Evening 
Post under the signature of Paulinus, while Dr Sam. Hallifax, of Jesus 
[B.A. 1754, afterwards Bp. of Gloster], was preaching and publishing 
three sermons on the other" side, and being answered by Sam. Blackall, 
fellow of Emmanuel [B.A. 1760]. 

The petition was presented Feb. 6, 1772, by Sir W. Meredith, 
seconded by Tho. Pitt (lord Camelford). The motion that the Speaker 
leave the chair to resolve the Commons into a Committee of the whole 
House was lost by 1 59 against 67. 

Dr Will. Sam. Powell, Master of St John's, had just before this 
printed the fourth edition of his Commencement Sermon which he had 
preached in 1757 in defence of subscription. 'A most impudent letter 
addressed to him 4 ' appeared under the signature of ' Camilhts' in the 
London Chronicle, of Jan. 22, 1772. 'It was probably forged at Mr 
[ebb's anvil : , though he even condescends to be an advocate for the 
Methodists, rather than not find matter of abuse : for I suppose Mr H. 
means Mr Hill, then a young Scholar of St John's College ; who while 
he was Undergraduate and not in orders, went preaching about in 
Cambridge, and the neighbouring villages, and particularly in a barn at 
Waterbeche where was a numerous seminary of the disciples of Mr 
Berridge of Clare Hall, called from him Berridges, and who to this day 
send out preachers, gardeners, collar-makers, shop-keepers, &c. into 

1 Author of a New Estimate of Manners and Principles. See 
Mayor's History of St John's, 711, 1. 18, 1022, 1. 23. In the index to 
Mr Mayor's book Gordon's Christian name is misprinted Jas. , for John. 

2 Facetia Cantabrigienses, ed. 3, 1836, p. 91. Meadley's. Memoirs 
of Paley, 1809, pp. 37, 46, 47- 

3 Calz.ap. Nichols' Lit. Anecd. I. 570. 
-* Ibid. I. 572. 

336 University ' Society ' 

many of the adjacent villages. It was for this irregularity, perhaps, that 
the master thought proper to refuse a testimonial. He is son, I think, 
of Sir Rowland Hill, and is now in orders, and in repute with his 
people; and has this year, 1777, printed a warm pamphlet against 
Mr John Wesley, one of the patriarchs of his order 1 .' 

On Sunday, Dec. 27 (St John's Day), 1772, Jebb preached on the 
question of 'subscription' (Acts xv. 10) before the University: and 
again, on the Holy Innocents', on the Spirit of Benevolence (reprinted 
1780 — 82). In the spring he was again busied with 'subscription' and 
'annual examination ; ' and at the close of the year he was enduring the 
disappointment of the hopes which he had fostered, that the new Vice- 
Chancellor, Dr W. Cooke of King's, would support his ' long projected 
institution' of a yearly examination 2 in the greek and latin classics, and 
the elements of geometry and algebra, without respect of noblemen and 
fellow-commoners, who were to be subjected to a second examination in 
Locke's Essay on the human understanding, natural philosophy and- 
modern history. Early in 1773 he published two editions of ' Remarks,' 
and a postscript on that subject. But it was on May 8 of that year that 
this most important scheme was brought officially before the University, 
by the presentation of his first grace for an annual examination. This 
having been rejected by the caput he offered three other graces in 
succession four days later, but they met with the same fate, Dr Powell 
of St John's having even contemplated to prevent Jebb by a grace from 
offering any more. Dr Law (the Master of his old College, Peterhouse) 
stood resolutely Jebb's friend. 'Several Johnians' he adds 'were 'for 
me, though their master was against me so bitterly. Dr Watson, and 
niany men of Trinity, were strenuously my friends.' He was determined 
to bring his proposal through the caput to the senate at all hazards. 

He had left Cambridge for Bungay only ten days in the summer of 
1-773) when a grace was offered to the senate (July 5) by the Vice- 
Chancellor himself that a syndicate should be appointed to consider the 
question, and was carried without opposition ! However the syndicate 
was called early in the October term, and the scheme was rejected. In 
December when Dr Lynford Caryl of Jesus was Vice-Chancellor, Jebb 
made a fruitless attempt to rescind the report of the syndicate as having 
been made too early in the term: but another more promising syndicate 
was appointed, though the scheme was lost owing to the opposition of 
Dr Thomas (dean of Ely), Dr Powell (master of St John's), Dr Sam. 
Hallifax (Jesus and Trin. Hall), Stephen Whisson of Trin. the univ. 

1 Cole ap. Nichols' Lit. Anecd, 1.^574, 

2 Jebb's Works, ii. 314, 

in the Eighteenth Century. 337 

librarian (who had been proposed for nomination at the previous election 
of Vice- Chancellor, though not 'head of a college') and ' the Emmanuel 
men 1 ' including Dr Ri. Farmer. It is said by Disney 'from good 
authority 2 ' that it was even proposed by this party to strike a. medal 
with the inscription ' Academia liberata, Apr. 19, 1774.' 

In August, 1773, Jebb had confided to his friends that he was about, 
to resign his preferment in the Church of England. For a time he 
ceased to read the prayers, though he preached occasionally. At the 
visitation in his church at Flixton, Jebb preached against ' subscription ' 
(his university sermon of the preceding March), for which archdeacon 
Goodall of Suffolk ' although a Wollastonian' rebuked him before the 
clergy at the public house where they met. In the following spring 
Theophilus Lindsey confided to him his own intention of secession and 
of ' his earnest wishes of meeting with a society of unitarian christians.' 
Jebb shewed great interest in this proposal, and, when afterwards he 
resided in London, was a constant attendant at the chapel in Essex-street. 
In June, 1774, he finally left Bungay, and, after spending two months 
with his father at Egham, saw his propositions for the annual examina- 
tion passed the caput but thrown out in the senate by one vote in the 
black-hood, or non-regent, house. A few days earlier ' A letter to the 
author of the plan- for the establishment of piiblic examinations' had 
appeared ; and in the following month (November) ' An observation on 
the design of establishing annual examinations' 1 [by Dr Powell, 1774]. 
To these 'Priscilla' [Mrs Ann Jebb] rejoined in 'A letter to the author 
of an observation? 

In March, 1775, Jebb in deference to advice abandoned his intention 
of immediately prosecuting his examination scheme by moving an appli- 
cation to the Chancellor, and turned his attention to the American slave 

In September the vacancy of Homersfield rectory and Flixton 
vicarage by his resignation was declared. 

In November he published ' A Short Statement of the Reasons for 
his late Resignation, To which are added Occasional Observations, and a 
Letter to the Right Rev. the Bishop of Norwich.' 1775. 

He still remained at Cambridge and declared his intention of pre- 
senting on Feb. 2t, 1776, a grace for annual examination. The Vice- 
Chancellor informed him that he had forfeited his vote according to the 
statute of 1603, ' De oppugnatoribus ecclesiae anglicanae.'' He was 
however suffered to present the grace : to which inconsistency he called 
public attention. The votes on which he had counted dwindled away, 

1 Disney's Jebb, 62. 2 Ibid. p. 71. 

L. B. E. 22 

338 University Society 

and the measure was again lost. He was attacked in a pamphlet 
' Resignation no Proof, a Letter to Mr Jebb, with occasional Remarks on 
his Spirit of Protestantism. ' The second issue bore the name of the rev. 
E. Tew, M.A. late fellow of King's. On the other hand. his sincerity- 
was applauded in ' A letter to the rev. John Jebb, M.A. occasioned by his 
Short View.' 

Being unable to get a livelihood in Cambridge by his lectures in 
mathematics and natural philosophy, he took sir Ri. Jebb's advice and 
attended Dr Colignon's anatomical lectures with a view to following the 
example of his uncle Samuel Jebb (sometime secretary of Jer. Collier) 
who, having been educated at Peterhouse, had as a nonjuror resigned 
his clerical functions to practise medicine. In Sept. 1776, John Jebb 
settled in Craven street, London, giving greek testament lectures while 
he went through two years probation (which was technically unnecessary 
after his university degree) before he began to practise medicine, 
attending the lectures of Hunter and others. March 18, 1777, he 
received his diploma as doctor of physic from S. Andrew's university, 
and was admitted licentiate of the coll. of physicians, June 25. In the 
same year Dr Priestley dedicated to him his ' Doctrine of Philosophical 
Necessity. ' 

Feb. 5, 1778, Dr Jebb began to practise, and was admitted F.R.S. 
a year later. In his attention to professional duties he several times 
caught serious illnesses which did not dissuade him from his practice, 
though in Nov. 1780 he admitted himself of Lincoln's inn with the 
thought, which he soon abandoned, of taking up the legal profession. 
In Feb. 1780 he proposed Fox as candidate for Westminster, and was a 
staunch supporter of that politician till his coalition with lord North in 
1783. In 1780 he contributed notes to Priestley's 'Harmony of the 
evangelists in English! 

He died March 1, 1786, and was buried in Bunhill-fields. In that 
place, which was opened under act of parliament to the public for 
purposes of peaceful recreation on Thursday, Oct. 14, 1869, lie also 
John Bunyan, I. Watts, Sam. Neal, Susannah mother of the Wesleys, 
Dan. Defoe, Will. Blake, J. Dunton, Jos. Ritson and others. 

While John Jebb had been engaged in the contro- 
versial strife at Cambridge, his wife had accompanied 
him to the battle on more than one occasion. While 
he was attacking ' subscription,' ' this lady, under the 
assumed title of Priscilla, assailed the most formi- 

in the Eighteenth Century. 339 

dable of her husband's opponents, answering their 
arguments, detecting their weak points, and rebuking 
their inveGtives, with great acuteness, poignancy, and 
effect 1 .' 

Again in 1772, 'in the stormy controversy which 
ensued ' on his propSsal for an annual public exami- 
nation which should include every order of student, 
' Mrs Jebb again took an active part, following her 
spouse to the contest like another Gildippe — sempre 
affissa al caro fianco. After scattering a few missiles 
in the Whitehall Post, she published a letter to the 
author of 'An Observation on the Design of establish- 
ing annual Examinations at Cambridge," generally 
ascribed to Dr Powell ; and it must be confessed, that 
the objections of the observer and his adherents were 
repelled with sufficient spirit and acuteness 2 .' 

Dr Disney in his life of Jebb, though he does not 
choose to enlighten the reader on the identity of 
Priscilla aind Mrs Jebb, seems to hint that it was 
generally known : ' it will be sufficient for me to say, 
that it (A letter to the author of an Observation, 
whom he identifies with Dr Powell) was written by a 
lady.... The notification of her victory may probably 
be more readily admitted upon the judgment of 
others than upon my own, and the citation of their 
testimony will acquit me of the imputation of a com- 
pliment 3 .' 

1 Discourse of Wm. Sam. Powell, D.D. prefixed to the rev. Tho. 
Smart Hughes' Divines of the Church of England, no. 91, p. xii.,a^. 
Mayor's Baker's Hist, of St John's, p. 1057, 1. 27. 

s Ibid. p. xvii. ap. Baker-Mayor, 1058, 1. 36. 

3 Disney's Jebb, 1. 81, 82. 

22 — 2 

34-0 University Society 

The following is an extract from the account of 
Mrs Jebb printed by Dyer, who mentions also that 
Meadley, the biographer of Paley, published a short 
sketch of her life. 

' Mrs Jebb was not content with being a silent 
observer; she became the active opponent of Dr 
Powel, the master of St John's College, who con- 
ducted the other side of the controversy on annual 
examinations, and who felt as sensibly the point of 
Mrs Jebb's pen, in the public prints, as he did those 
of the learned Doctor's. It was in reference to the 
force of argument contained in a smart Letter, written 
by Mrs Jebb, against Dr Randolph of Oxford, ["The. 
Reasonableness of Subscription to the Articles of 
Religion, from Persons to be admitted to Holy 
Orders, or a Cure of Souls, vindicated in a Charge 
delivered to the Clergy in the Diocese of Oxford in 
Dec. 1771."] under the signature of " Priscilla," that 
the late Dr Paley said at the time, [in his Defence 
of Bishop Law'j Considerations^ "The Lord had sold 
Sisera into the hands of a woman 1 ." 

'When Dr Jebb (having embraced some specula- 
tive opinions, which he thought made it necessary for 
him to resign his preferment and to leave the church) 
settled in London, he became a physician, and a 
strenuous political reformer. No name is better 
known among the advocates of parliamentary reform 
than that of Dr Jebb; and the active energy of 
Mrs Jebb is also well known : being an invalid, she 

1 Meadley's Life of Paley, ed. 18 10, 97, 98. Disney's Jebb, 1. 82 n. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 341 

lived a retired life ; but her zeal rose to the full level 
of her husband's— she saw with the same quickness, 
glowed with the same ardour, and wrote, occasionally, 
with the same spirit. 

' But Mrs Jebb was not more distinguished for the 
vigour of her mind, than the qualities of her heart. 
She was a Christian, without bigotry; a moralist 
.without severity; a politician without self-interest or 
ambition ; a sincere friend, without disguise and with- 
out reserve. With considerable powers of mind, she 
possessed all the amiable softness of the female 
character. With as few failings as could well fall to 
the lot of humanity, she exercised an unlimited 
candour in judging those of others. Candour and 
benignity were the prominent features of her cha- 
racter. Her friends therefore were numerous, and 
she could not have a single enemy. 

'These superior qualities of mind and heart were 
lodged in a body of the most delicate texture. In 
figure she was small : her frame was extremely feeble, 
her countenance always languid and wan. She used to 
recline on a sofa, and had not been out of her room 
above once or twice these twenty years — she seemed 
the shadow of a shade, or rather all soul and intellect, 
like one dropped from another sphere. For her 
ardour and patriotic firmness, mixed with urbanity 
and gentleness, and occasionally brightening with 
innocent playfulness, gave that to her countenance 
which the mere bloom of health cannot bestow, nor 
the pen describe ; it gave a singular interest to her 
character: it can only be felt, and will be lastingly 

342 University Society 

remembered, by her surviving friends. Mrs Jebb died 
at her house in Half-moon Street, Piccadilly, Jan. 20, 
1812.' Dyer's Supplement to the Hist, of Camb. II. 
(= Cambridge Fragments) pp. 168, 169. Privileges 
of the Univ. of Camb. II. London, 1824, quoting the 
Morning Chronicle, &c, Jan. 27, 1812.) 'The fugitive 
pieces of Mrs Jebb (for they have never been collected 
into a regular volume) appeared in different news- 
papers, the London Chronicle and Whitehall Evening 
Post, between the years 1771 and 1774, in numerous 
Letters and under different signatures, though most 
often under that of Priscilla; being Answers — to 
Dr Randolph's Reasonableness of Subscription.., .Dec. 
1771; — to Dr Hallifax's (afterwards Bishop) [Sam. 
Hallifa^ of Jesus, B.A. 1754, M.A. 1757, Trin. Hall, 
LL.D. 1764, D.D. per lit. regias 1775, bishop of St 
Asaph, regius professor of Laws 1770 — 82. His syl- 
labus of lectures, An Analysis of the Roman Civil 
Law, 1795, ed. 4. In 1768 he had defeated Jebb 
When he was for the first time candidate for the 
Arabic professorship. He called on Wilkie the pub- 
lisher, to advise him not to print any more of Mrs 
Jebb's letters 1 .] Three Sermons preached before the 
University of Cambridge, occasioned by an attempt 
to abolish Subscription to the 39 A rticles, published in 
1772; — to Dr Powel's Defence of the Subscription re- 
quired by the Church of England, a Sermon preached 
before the University of Cambridge on the Commence- 
ment Sunday, first published in 1757, republished in 

1 Hist, of St John's coll. Baker-Mayor, 1067, 1. 37. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 343 

1 772 ; — to Dr Balguy's Charge to the Clergy and A rch- 
deaconry of Winchester, 1772. 

' In 1774 Mrs Jebb published a Letter to the Author 
of the Design of Establishing Annual Examination 
at Cambridge, which was generally ascribed to Dr 
Powell, master of St John's; in 1792 a little piece, 
entitled Two Penny-worth of Truth for a Penny ; or 
a true State of Facts, with an Apology forlorn. Bull, 
in a Letter from Brother John; in 1793 Two Pemty- 
worth more of Truth, &c. These were a sort of play- 
ful replies to a pamphlet under the title of One Penny- 
worth of Truth, from Thomas Bull to Brother John, 
and relate to the French Revolution 1 .' 

When John Jebb wrote to congratulate bishop Ri. 
Watson on the publication of his Apology for Christi- 
anity in 1776, he thus assures him 2 ; — ' My wife who 
has a veneration for you is also prodigiously satisfied; 
she is only a little alarmed lest you have found out 
a greater mathematician than her friend Waring.' 
[coll. S. M. Magd., Lucasian prof, mathemat. 1760 — 

In pre-reformational times the members of the 
colleges had no more thought of marriage in that 
condition than had the inmates of any religious 

Soon after the Norman conquest celibacy had been 
enjoined on the English clergy down to the order 
of subdeacon. In the time of pope Gregory VII. (Hil- 
debrand) the first canon of the synod of bishops held 

1 Dyer, Priv. Camb. II. part 2, pp. 168, 169. 

* Anecdotes of the Life ofK\. Watson, by himself , 1. 102, ed. 1818. 

344 University Society 

at Winchester in 1076, when Lanfranc was archbishop 
of Canterbury 1 , had prepared the way for the more 
decided decree of 1 102 under his successor Anselm. 

In Lanfranc's days (says dean Hook), ' in those 
cathedrals which were served by the secular clergy, 
the canons were generally married men.' About 
• 1 1 30, when archbishop William of Corbeuil as legate 
demanded the enforcement of the canon, the king 
made it a subject for dispensation 2 . In the 30th 
canon of the council of Osney, near Oxford, at which 
archbishop Stephen Langton presided in 1222, men- 
tion is made of sons of the clergy, but there, as 
in the 28th canon, their wives are stigmatised as con- 

In the following centuries the appearance at least 
of celibacy was kept up if it was not enforced farther 
down the scale of orders. For instance it was ordered 
in 1440, that when the bishop of Lincoln visited 
"his cathedral (which was in the hands of seculars; and 
so, strictly speaking, not a ' minster,') he should 
take with him into the chapter-house notarium pro- 
prium, et unum clericum quem uohterit, honestos uiros 
11011 coniugatos. 

Some interesting documents, which will probably 
throw a new light upon the condition of some of 
the English clergy previous to the reformation, have 
lately been discovered by an eminent Lincolnshire 
antiquary, and will soon it is hoped become publici 

1 Hook's Lives of the Archbishops, II. 147. 

' Ibid. p. 317. 3 Ibid. p. 752. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 345 

^ n 1 535 began the business of dissolving the 
monasteries ; but four years later, when the king was 
already in treaty for a fourth consort, a cruel sting 
was put in the third and fourth tail of the six articles, 
in shape of an injunction of celibacy on all the 
clergy ; while at the same time the regulars were 
reminded that they were still bound by their vow 
even though they had been unhoused from their 
retreats, not excepting any who took no benefice. 
(31 Hen. VIII. cap. 14, §§ 5, 7—10.) 

In the following year (32 Hen. VIII. c. 10, § 1) it had 
been found impossible to exact the penalty of death 
in the numerous cases which had arisen, and it was 
commuted for forfeitures. 

In 1547 — 9 king Edward repealed the above-men- 
tioned statutes of his father (1 Ed. VI. c. 12, § 3) and 
' all and every law and laws positive, canons, constitu- 
tions and ordinances heretofore made by authority 
of man only' which forbade marriage to any eccle- 
siastical or spiritual person (2 & 3 Ed. VI. c. 21, § 2), 
at the same time recommending celibacy and exclud- 
ing anticipators from the benefit of the act. In 155 1 
— 2 it was found necessary to support by the autho- 
rity of a fresh statute those who took advantage of 
that which has just been cited: and in the latter year 
the XXXI st Article (answering to the first clause of 
the existing Articles of Religion of 1 571) confirmed 
the law for ecclesiastical persons. Even in one 
particular case the king gave special licence to 
a vice-master of Trinity college, Cambridge (Tho- 
mas Dovel, B. D.), to enjoy his fellowship and 

346 University Society 

vice-mastership, although he was married : anno 
1551 1 . 

In 1553 — 4 (1 Mary sess. 2, cap. 2) the queen re- 
vived the old ecclesiastical laws by repealing 2 & 3 
Ed. VI. c. 21 and 5 & 6 Ed. VI. c. 12. It does not 
appear from Law's Ecclesiastical Statutes at large 
(1847) that 1 Ed. VI. c. 12, § 3 was formally repealed. 
It is declared moreover in Burn's Ecclesiastical Law, 
(art. marriage?) that it 'finally repealed' 31 Hen. 
VIII. c. 14. On the other hand, it is stated gene- 
rally in the following page (II. 453), that 'in Queen 
Mary's time, King Edward's laws being repealed, the 
clergy were again brought under the severe laws 
of King Henry VIII., and so continued during all 
that reign, and (which is remarkable) during also the 
whole reign of Elizabeth.' At all events, it appears 
from the case of John Rogers in 1555, and others, 
that queen Mary's chancellor (bishop Gardiner) and 
council proceeded under the statute of her father. 
Thus all who would continue in their benefices were 
forced to renounce their wives, and those who had 
formerly been regulars were not only deprived but 
forced to be separated from their wives as well 2 - 
Though this was a literal revival of her father's law, 
it was practically a dealing of much harder measure 
upon seculars* who like Rogers had returned to 
England at a time when married clergy were recog- 

1 Cooper's Annals, II. 58, referring to Strype, Eccl. Mem. II. ii. 22. 
* See Henry Wharton ap. Wordsworth, Eccl. Biog. II. 336 n. 
3 Ibid. 11. 304, n. (pace Fox). See also 11. 315, 316, 330—4, 343, 
376, 4"< ed. I839- 

in the Eighteenth Century. 347 

nized by law. Such rigour was contrary to the first 
canon of the council of Winton (1076), to the fifth of 
the apostolic canons, and to the example of St Peter, 
of whom S. Clemens Alexandrinus 1 relates that his 
wife was comforted by him and went before him to 
martyrdom. The rule of enforced clerical celibacy, 
which was at least improbable from the Bible, con- 
trary to some of the earliest canons (e. g. Gangran IV., 
A. D. 324, which was received by the undivided 
Church ; Trullan xill., A. D. 692, the existing rule of 
the Eastern Church, according to which the bishops 
only are bound to be unmarried 2 ), and proved by 
experience to be impracticable, has been abrogated 
for the Church of England by the XXXII nd Article, 
which was revised and passed by convocation, set 
forth by royal authority, and enjoined for subscription 
by act of parliament in 1571, 13 Eliz. 

It was not however till 2 James I. c. 25, §§ 49, 59, 
that 1 Mary, sess. 2, c. 2, was formally repealed, and 
2 & 3 Ed. VI. c. 21, and 5 & 6 Ed. VI. c. 12, 
made perpetual. It may have been that queen Eliza- 
beth did not choose that parliament should appear 
to have any special prerogative in ecclesiastical mat- 
ters. ' Or perhaps, in order to have the clergy more 
dependent, she might be willing that this matter 
should continue doubtful.' (Burn's Eccl. Law, II. 453 
= [454].) Her policy in the case of the universities 
was unmistakeable. 

1 Strom. 7, ap. Euseb. H. E. in. 30. 

' Other authorities will be found in the Bishop of Ely's Exposition 
of Article XXXII. 

-348 University Society 

With remarkable foresight bishops Hugh de Bal- 
sham and Walter de Merton had set the example of 
founding colleges in connexion with the secular and 
hot with the regular clergy towards the close of the 
thirteenth century. Accordingly, at the dissolution 
of monasteries in the reign of Henry VIIL, their 
foundations remained and formed the model for new 
corporations, such as Trinity and Christ-Church, to 
rise out of the dissolved religious houses. The cleri- 
cal members of the universities would have lived 
therefore, as a general rule, under the same condition 
in queen Elizabeth's reign as other clerks who had 
taken no vows. But there were other regulations 
which affected them. Many were already bound to 
celibacy (so long as they remained upon the founda- 
tion) by the old statutes of their colleges, and it 
can hardly be thought that these were over-ridden 
by the XXXI st Article of 1562 which was promul- 
gated by royal authority; for the queen had, only 
a few months previously, in 1561, sent an ' Injunction 
that no Head or member of any College or Cathe- 
dral Church being married, shall keep his Wife or 
family within the Precincts of the same on Pain of 
forfeiting all his Ecclesiastical Promotions there.' 
(Dated Ipswich, Aug. 9, 156.1 1 .) It is mentioned 
that of late 'within certain of the same Houses as 
well the chief Governors, as the Prebendaries, Stu- 
dents, and Members thereof being married, do keep 
particular Households with their Wives, Children, and 
Nurses, whereof no small Offence groweth to the 

1 Dyer's Privileges of Cambridge, I. 49, 131. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 349 

Intent of the Founders, and to the quiet and orderly- 
Profession of Study and Learning within the same.' 
The reason assigned for royal interference was ' least 
by Sufferance thereof, the rest of the Colleges, speci- 
ally such as be so replenished with young Students 
as the very Rooms and Buildings be not answerable 
for such Families and young Children, should follow 
the like examples ;' and it will be observed that the 
objection is laid, not to the infringement of celibacy, 
but to the inconveniencing of scholastic habits. 

At the same time the will of queen Elizabeth 
cannot be disguised. ' When secretary Cecil sent 
this injunction to the Archbishop [M. Parker], he 
knew that it could not be well taken by him who was 
himself a married man, and much for the Clergy's 
liberty of marriage ; and so was Cecil himself : but 
he plainly told the Archbishop how the Queen still 
continued an enemy to the state of matrimony in 
Priests ; and was near at a point to have forbidden it 
then absolutely, had he not been very stiff at this 
juncture 1 .' 

Among other of the archbishop's suffragans, bishop 
Cox of Ely was not well pleased with the injunctions 
dutifully forwarded to him. He was afraid that the 
enforcement of them in the cathedral, where sepa- 
rate houses were provided for deans and prebenda- 
ries, would give rise to the evil of non-residence. In 
his own cathedral however there was only ' one Pre- 
bendary continually dwelling with his family in Ely 

1 Strype's Life of Mattheia (Parker) Archbishop of Canterbury, n. 
ch. 8, anno 1561. 

350 University Society 

church.' ' Turn him out ' (the bishop writes), ' daws 
and owls may dwell there for any continual house- 
keeping 1 .' At the same time he thought it 'very 
reasonable that places for students should be in all 
quietness among themselves, and not troubled with 
any families of women or babes.' He was a good 
authority on this point, for (according to Cole in his 
Athenae Cantabrigienses) his own wife was introduced 
into Christ-Church while he was dean there about 
1550, and she with the wife of Peter Martyr, one of 
the canons of that cathedral, were ' the first women 
ever introduced into a cloister or college, and upon 
that account gave no small scandal at the time.' 

How far the injunctions were obeyed we may 
gather from a fact related by Strype in the next 
chapter of his Life of Parker (11. ix.) ; that the Arch- 
bishop himself and the bishop of London, only a few. 
weeks later in the same year 1561, procured the 
admission of Laurence Humfrey as President of 
Magdalen College, Oxford, though one of the objec- 
tions urged against him by the fellows of that society 
was that he was a married man. 

In June 1604 a bill entitled 'An Act prohibiting 
the Residence of Married Men, with their Wives and 
Families, in Colleges, Cathedral Churches, Collegiate 
Houses and Halls of the Universities of Oxford and 
Cambridge,' was sent up to the house of lords but 
stopped in committee after the second reading 2 . In 

1 Strype's Life of Matthew (Parker) Archbishop of Canterbury, 11. 
ch. 8, anno 1561. 

! Cooper's Annals, in. 5. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 351 

1605 — 6 it was again introduced and, after some 
technical difficulties had obstructed its progress, was 
finally lost on the second reading in the house of 
lords 1 . 

In the Elizabethan statutes of 15 70 (which as has 
been remarked were given ' under the broad seal ; 
but not confirmed by act of Parliament, as most of 
our Charters are,' Dyer, Priv. Camb. I. 158) is the 
following [cap. 50, De ordinationibus collegiis prae- 
scriptis, § 33) : Socios collegiorum maritos esse- non per- 
mittimus, sed statim postquam quis tixorem duxerit 
socius collegii desinat esse: ordinem tamen gradus 
sui in academia tenere potest. 

Dyer had remarked in another place {Hist. Camb. 
I. 94), 'Let it be noticed, that the old statutes by 
using the word ecclesiasticos, ecclesiastics, as effectu- 
ally barred the heads of houses from marrying as 
fellows. Cranmer, in the old statutes, pared down 
the word ecclesiasticos to socios, leaving the door wide 
enough for masters to enter, though too narrow for 
fellows : still the authority, even for the marriage 
of the masters, was not positive, but left room for 
dispute. The cause was agitated; and, in 1575, -the 
masters triumphed in the person of Dr Goad, and on 
the ground that queen Elizabeth's statutes said no- 
thing on the subject.' 

The accusations laid against provost Goad by his 
fellows were various, and he came off with flying 
colours. It is hinted by Strype 2 that there was mali- 

1 Cooper's Annals, p. 20. 

2 Strype, Annals, II. ii. (p. 39, ed. Oxon.) = 42i< 

352 University Society 

cious personal feeling in the case. ' One of these 
fellows was Lakes, of a haughty disposition, who had 
been provoked by the provost, having reproved him 
for his habit unbecoming a scholar. For he wore 
under his gowri, a cut taffeta doublet of the fashion 
[1575] with his sleeves out, and a great pair of galli- 
gastion hose. For this disguised apparel, so unmeet 
for a scholar, the provost punished him a week's 
commons. This had ever after stuck in his stomach, 
and he had sundry expostulations afterwards with 
the provost about it : such was his stout nature and 
impenitency to be reproved.' Provost Goad was a 
strict disciplinarian. When acting as deputy vice- 
chancellor he reprimanded Mr Newman, Mr Pricke 
and Mr Nanton, who were found walking in King's 
college chapel, and bound them over in virtue of the 
oath which they had previously taken to obey the 
vice-chancellor and his deputy. 

But for provost Roger Goad himself, one of the 
complaints laid against him was ' of his wife ; that 
she came within the quadrant of the college ; (though 
she came never twice within the quadrant, but kept 
within the lodgings). That their statutes did forbid 
the provost to marry ; though the statutes, as the pro- 
vost in his answer shewed, did not forbid the provost's 
marriage: and that the visitor's statutes in the begin- 
ning of the queen's reign, and the university statutes 
lately made, allowed heads of colleges to marry.' 

In Loggan's Cantabrigia Depicta, published about 
1680 — 90, the master's wife is represented taking the 
air in his trim Dutch garden in Jesus college, fan in 

in the Eighteenth Cenhiry. 353 

hand, accompanied by her spaniel. The like is de- 
picted in his engraving of Trinity Oxon. in 1672 — 3. 

Early in the reign of king George III. some of the 
fellows of colleges began to demand that the same 
privilege should be granted themselves as had been 
conceded to the heads of several of the colleges. The 
earliest mention of the subject at that period which 
I have seen is in the Bodleian \Gough, Camb. 36], 
' The Council in the Moon. A litur Vitium vivitque 
tegendo. VlRG. Cambridge. Sold by Fletcher and 
Hodson on the Market Hill. Sold also by Messrs. 
Wilson and Fell, in Paternoster- Row, London, and all 
other Booksellers in England. 1765.' pp. 23. It is a 
miserable production. 

In Cooper's Annals (rv. 340) is printed a letter from 
Edward Betham, fellow of King's, to Cole in the fol- 
lowing year (3 1 Jan. 1766). " In the University we have 
all of late been in a most violent flame, labouring 
under the same disorder that carried off poor Dr M. 
some years agone. Young and old have formed a 
resolution of marrying.... But it must be confessed in- 
deed they go on with more prudence than your honest 
and simple friend... The scheme therefore is— a wife 
and a Fellowship with her. For this purpose the 
University is to Petition the Parliament, to release 
the Fellows of the several Colleges from the observ- 
ance of all such Statutes of our Founders, as oblige 
them to Celibacy.... This affair has been canvassed 
and warmly agitated among us between two and 
three months. There were those, who would not 
believe it was or could be intended in earnest: who 
L. B. E. 23 

354 University Society 

imagined it to be a jest only. However, the pro- 
jectors and abettors of the scheme were in earnest. 
Accordingly a Grace was drawn up, and on Friday 
last brought into the House. Mr Ashby [Geo. Ashby, 
St John's, B.A. 1744], who, in a manner with the whole 
of St John's, was exceeding warm and zealous in the 
cause, was fixed upon to present the Grace : but for 
some reason or other then declined it. There was 
the greatest confusion imaginable in the House : this 
added to the tumult ; did not in the least allay or' 
abate : but excited and heightened the warmth and 
ardour of the Partizans. The Grace was shewn, but 
not in form proposed to the Vote of the whole House.'' 
Nothing therefore was determined at the Congre-" 
gation. The party however continues hot, and is in 
hope of downing to the ground with Celibacy. 

"The Preamble of the Grace is, Cum Celeberrimae 
quaeque et florentissimae Universitates apud exteras- 
gentes quae ad reformatam Fidem accesserunt, libe- 
ram Matrimonii celebrandi Potestatem Academicis 
suis permiserint, ut se in libertatem cum Politicam 
turn Christianam vindicent in Nostra Academia socii :■ 
Placeat vobis, &c. [' The grace is in full in MS. Cole, 
xxiii. 73 #.']... You observe the foundation they go 
upon. The restraint from marrying they look upon 
as a Remnant of Popery... This is an affair of so 
extraordinary a nature that I thought you would like 
to have some account of it." 

In 1783 a bill passed the House of Commons (3rd 
reading Jan. 24) to remove the restriction of celibacy 
from the Heads of such colleges as were still bound 

in the Eighteenth Century. 355 

by their statutes in that respect. It appears however 
that in committee the name of Cambridge was re- 
moved from the bill 1 . 

It appears that while the case of these masters 
of colleges was before the public, the grievances of 
the fellows were again brought up. In the Gentle- 
man 's Magazine (LIU. 129) married fellowships are 
advocated : and it was (I should conjecture) on this, 
occasion that there appeared on the same side ' A 
Fair Statement : irepl iravTwv epa> icadiicacrTov i<pe%r/<; 
ical ovSev Ikwv irapaKeu^rcn. Dem. pro Cor.' pp. 1 1. 
M. Watson, Printer, Cambridge. [Bodl. Godwiii 
Pamph. 908. No title or date.] In the opening of 
this pamphlet the abolition of the restriction of celi- 
bacy in the case of Cambridge fellows is said to 
be ' a measure loudly called for by the great body 
of the University' on the ground that fellows are 
exempted as ' ecclesiastical Persons' by 1 Jac. I. XXV; 
48 — 50, and inasmuch as compulsory celibacy is con- 
trary to Scripture. 

There is evidence of a fresh stir in the matter about 
the years 1793 — 8. 

In 1794 'A Letter on the Celibacy of Fellows of 
Colleges' was published by Johnson, St Paul's Church 
Yard, and in 1798 appeared 'Reflections on the 
Caelibacy of Fellows of Colleges. Semper nocuit 
differre paratis. Lucan. — Cambridge, Sold by J. 
Deighton, 1798. Price sixpence.' pp. 25. [Bodl. Gough, 
Camb. 66.] This had been written in October, 1793, 
which is made an excuse 'to account for allusions..: 
1 Copper's Annals, IV. 407. 


356 University Society 

to books which are now, or ought to be forgotten.' 
The books referred to are, I believe, Frend's Peace 
and Union (1793), Godwin's Political Justice (1793), 
and, possibly, Paley's Elements of Moral and Political 
Philosophy (1785). It is stated in the pamphlet be- 
fore us (p. 8), that compulsory celibacy has an evil 
effect on the character and the reputation of fel- 
.lows. It is proposed (p. 21) that the tutor should 
be the only married man who should occupy rooms 
in college, and even he should not have his family 
within the walls. On page 19 it is recorded that 
'since writing this a member of the university of 
Cambridge has had it in contemplation to present a 
grace to the senate, to prevent colleges from admit- 
ting more young men than can be accommodated 
with appartments within the walls of the colleges.' 

Both the 'Letter' and the 'Reflections' are quoted 
in ' Toleration of Marriage in the Universities, recom- 
mended to the attention of the Heads of House's ; 
with remarks on the provisions with which it should 
be guarded. By Charles Farish, B. D., Fellow of 
Queen's [sic] College, Cambridge, Crudelis quoque tu 
neque alma mater. — Cambridge ; printed by Francis 
Hodson, and sold by J. Deighton. Price Two Shil- 
lings.' Farish's is by far the most interesting pamph- 
let which appeared on the subject. 'On the 23rd 
of March (1798) an unsuccessful attempt was made 
to pass a grace for appointing a syndicate to decide 
on the best means of abolishing the law by which, 
fellows of colleges are bound to a life of celibacy 1 .' 
1 Cooper's Annals, IV. 462. 

in the Eighteenth Cenhiry. 357 

The dissatisfaction on this point seems to have 
kept up a smouldering existence, for there is in my 
father's possession a copy of a pamphlet which be- 
longed formerly to Mr Geo. Dyer (who however does 
not mention it in his History of Cambridge, I. 94 n. 
1 8 14). It is 

'Forbidding to Marry, a Departure from the Faith: A Sermon, 
preached before the University of Cambridge 'at Great St. Mary's Church, 
on Sunday, Nov. 8, 1812. By James Plumptre, B.D., Fellow of Clare 
Hall, and Vicar of Great Gransden in Huntingdonshire. Cambridge : 
printed by J. Hodson : and sold by J. Deighton and J. Nicholson, 
Cambridge : and by F. C. & J. Rivington, St. Paul's Church Yard ; 
and J. Hatchard, no. 190, Piccadilly, London. Price one shilling. 
1812.' [pp. 15, with a curious list of Books by the same author, 
including a Sermon on the Small-Pox and Cow-Pock, another on 
sea-bathing at Margate, the Camb. Bible Society, and works relating to 
the expurgation of the drama, and Aikin's Songs.] Dedication to the 
Chancellor, V.C., representatives in parliament, heads, and senate. 
Reference is made to Farish's pamphlet, to Reflections on the Celibacy, 
&c, and also to Ro. A. Ingram's ' Disquisition on Population, in which 
the Principles of the Essay on Population by the Rev. T. R. Malthus are 
examined and refuted' ; and to the British Critic for Sept. 1S11, Vol. 
XXXVIII. p. 290, besides Henry Wharton's erudite Treatise on the 
Celibacy of the Clergy printed more than a century earlier. 

Oxford men will not need to be reminded of the 
doings at Merton which Anthony Wood deplored 
in his Life when about a twelvemonth after the re- 
storation Sir Thomas Clayton was made warden and 
found his way into the college in spite of the at- 
tempts of the fellows for a fortnight or 3 weeks to 
bar him out ; and how he learnt that the key of the 
stables would unlock the chapel door. But though 
A. W. complains bitterly of the cost to which the 
College was 1 put by the 'great dislike... taken by the 

. * Cooper's Annals, 11. 348. 

358 University Society 

lady Clayton to the warden's standing goods, namely 
chaires, stooles, tables, chimney-furniture, the furni- 
ture belonging to the kitchin, scullery, &c. all which 
was well liked by D r Goddard, Brent, Savile, &c... 
Secondly, the warden's garden must be alter' d, new 
trees planted, arbours made, rootes of choice flowers 
bought, [Rootes of flowers, which cost 5 shil. a root] 
&c. All which tho unnecessary, yet the poore coll. 
must pay for them, and all this to please a woman. 
Not content with these matters, there must be a new 
summer-house built at the south-end of the warden's 
garden, wherein her ladyship and her gossips may 
take their pleasure, and any eaves-dropper of the 
family may hearken what any of the fellows should 
accidentally talk of in the passage to their own gar- 
den.' And well they might complain, for there sure 
enough in Loggan's view of Merton (which must 
have been drawn in warden Clayton's time) is shewn, 
beside the arbour on the north, a lordly watch-tower 
built on the wall of the south terrace walk, a con- 
siderable stone building mounted by 16 steps and 
commanding a fine view of the meadows, which how- 
ever might have been had before from ' the larg bay- 
window... at it's south-end 1 .' Though he further com- 
plained of his ' burdning his accompts with frivolous 
expenqes to pleasure his proud lady, as (1) For a 
key to the lock of the ladies seat in St Marie's church, 
to which she would commonly resort. (2) For shoes 
and other things for the foot-boy ' — [and the grievance 

1 ibid. p. 122. Ed. Oxon. 184S. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 359 

did not cease, for as late as ' Hilary terme 1674/ the 
bursar had to pay about 10 li. ' for a very larg looking- 
glass for her to see her ugly face and body to the 
.middle:' which looking-glass they did carry 'to their 
country seat, called the Vach' in Buckinghamshire] 
still it would not be true to say that the fellows' 
dislike of warden Clayton was due to his bringing 
a wife into college, any more than it would be correct 
to refer the opposition shewn to D r Bentley, at Trin. 
Coll. Cambridge, half a century later, to his wasting 
the goods of the College. Bentley built a new .sum- 
mer-house contiguous to his own study 1 , he laid out 
the garden of the Lodge and made a terrace at the 
expense of the College, but without any order from 
the seniority. Clayton did the like. The master 
of Trinity extorted leave to erect a handsome new 
staircase 2 &c. at a cost far above his estimate : war- 
den Clayton's summer-house cost about five times 
the 20 pounds which he had asked at first 3 . Each 
of these heads with profuse meanness consumed in 
their own houses the fuel which belonged to the 
College. But these offences were not the first grounds 
of the unpopularity of either : each of them was dis- 
liked before he set foot within the College which he 
was to govern. Otherwise it is not impossible that 
Bentley might have built his noble staircase without 
hearing a murmur from the fellows, and Clayton 
might have brought his wife into College in 1661 
without provoking much discontent. But the warden 

1 Monk's Bentley, II. 23, 24. 2 Ibid. I. 175. 

3 Ibid, 11. 201. Cp. A. Wood's Life, p. 122. 

360 University Society 

of Merton was known to be 'the very lol-poop of 
the university/ a person of scandalous life, a turn- 
coat, who 'had sided with the times after the grand 
rebellion broke out in 1642,' and a stranger 1 ; while 
the master of Trinity, as all were aware, had been 
a Tartar to those who had thought to catch him, and 
a Johnian. 

The late professor Conington, in his answers in 
evidence (p. 116) to the Oxford University Com- 
mission, 1852, speaks thus of the restriction of celi- 
bacy of fellows : ' Like that of Orders it is not purely 
arbitrary but serves a distinct purpose, though scarcely 
that which originally suggested its introduction. Yet 
it would be difficult to make out that the end here, 
any more than in the case of Orders, either justified 
or necessitated the means employed. The end I 
take to be two-fold : — to carry out the Collegiate 
system by securing the residence of tutors within 
the walls, and to expedite the succession to Fellow- 
ships by increasing the chance of vacancies. The 
first thing to be observed is that these considerations, 
taken at their best, obviously apply to a part of the 
body of Fellows, not to the whole... Those for whom 
residence within College walls is desirable are clearly 
the tutors : those whose Fellowships it is important 
to make terminable must be the sinecurists and the 
non-residents... So long as married heads of Colleges 
occupy a part of the College buildings a proposal 
to allow a similar privilege to married tutors is not 

1 Ant. Wood's Autobieg. pp. n8, 119.. Bliss, 1848. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 361 

to be treated as an absurdity ; much less to be put 
down by paltry sneers about domestic details.' 

On the other hand the Cambridge Univ. Com- 
mission, 1852, reports (p. 172) that 'We notice the 
condition of celibacy which by law or practice is now 
invariably attached to the tenure of all Fellowships 
in Cambridge, only to say that it cannot in our 
opinion be conveniently separated from the Colle- 
giate system. We do not doubt, however, that the 
condition has tended to prevent many men of ability 
and eminence from continuing their residence in the 
University so long as might have been desirable. 
We have accordingly proposed a scheme for the 
extension of the Professorial body and the creation 
of an entirely new one under the name of Public 
Lecturers, which, among other recommendations, 
appears likely to compensate for the difficulties ex^ 
perienced in retaining the most eminent Graduates 
in the immediate service of the University owing to 
the condition of celibacy attached to ail the Fellow- 
ships. Upon this point we may remark that the 
Statutes of some Colleges are silent, probably be- 
cause in Roman Catholic times the celibacy of the 
Fellows of a College was assumed to be indispen- 
sable and no express law was required to enforce it. 
It is, however, understood that, in the case of the 
Colleges referred to, one of the " Ordinances pre- 
scribed for Colleges " contained in Cap. L. of the 
Statutes of the University (xii. Eliz.) has supplied 
the omission of the condition in their particular Codes. 

' The following is the Ordinance in question : 

362 University Society 

" Socios Collegiorum maritos esse non permittimus, 
sed . statim postquam quis uxorem duxerit, socius 
Collegii desinat esse : ordinem tamen gradus sui in 
academia tenere potest." 

' In revising the Statutes of the University and of 
the Colleges, it will, be necessary to make provision 
for the continuance of this rule.' 

At the present time, in some Colleges and under 
certain conditions fellows do not at once vacate their 
fellowships by marriage, but in no case can their 
families reside within the walls. 

While Dr Goad was Vice-chancellor in 1576 — 7, 
it had been his duty to commit the Minister of 
Trinity parish to prison for having solemnized an 
irregular marriage between John Byron (of Newstead, 
(o. Nottingham), scholar of Queens', aged 19, and 
a daughter of Nic. Beaumont of Cole Orton. Two 
masters of arts who had been present at the ceremony 
were also imprisoned. 

The Injunctions of king Charles I. (dated New- 
market, Mar. 4 t0 1629) speak of another difficulty: 

' We have been informed that of late years many 
Students of.. .our university, not regarding their own 
birth, degree and quality, have made divers contracts 
of marriage with women of mean estate and of no 
good fame in that town [of Cambridge], to their 
great disparagement, the discontent of their parents 
and friends, and to the dishonour of the government of 
our university : We will and command you, that at all 
times hereafter if any taverner, victualler or In-holder, 
or any other inhabitant of that town or within the 

in the Eighteenth Century. 363 

jurisdiction of that University, shall keep any daugh- 
ter or other woman in his house to whom there shall 
resort any scholars of that University of what con- 
dition soever, to mispend their time, or otherwise to 
misbehave themselves, or to engage themselves in 
marriage without the consent of those that have the 
guardiance and tuition of them ; that... you command 
the said woman or women, thus suspected (according 
to the form of your charter against women de malo 
suspectas) to remove out of the said University and 
four miles of the same.' 

In 1712 a case of this kind came to light 1 , for in 
that year Sarah Howel and Car. Morgan were prose- 
cuted for entertaining scholars and carrying on court- 
ships between them and certain women. It was owing 
perhaps partly to laxity of discipline, and partly to 
the fact that the inmates of the Universities were 
drawn in less proportion from gentlemen's families 
than at present, that there was more common inter- 
course between them and the families of tradesmen 
in the University towns. The custom of drinking 
toasts must also have contributed in some measure to 
the same result. The consequence was that acade- 
mics used to keep company with such well-dressed 
young women as found nothing better to do, some- 
thing in the way in which young 'prentices may now 
be seen making holiday on Sunday afternoons : but 
in the days of ceremony, snuff-boxes and fans. 

It appears from Dr Rawlinson's MSS. that early 

1 See Index I. in the Registrary's Office, Acta Curiae. 

364 University Society 

in the last century a good deal of attention was paid 
to the promenades and gardens of Oxford. In 1706 
' Trinity Coll. Grove altered, and Merton Coll. Sum- 
mer House built.' The latter was, I suppose, 
a rival edifice to Mrs Clayton's watch-tower {supra 
p. 358]. In the following year he records 'A new 
terrace walk in Merton Coll. Garden, made upon 
the Town Wall, 74 yards long.' Zachary Conrad 
v. Uffenbach, who was there a few years later (Sept. 3, 
1 7 10), after mentioning the sun-dial in the court 
whereof the gnomon is a pillar, adds that the repre- 
sentation of the history of John Baptist shewn him 
over the door by the worthy ' Socius Collegii ' who 
lionized him was nothing remarkable. 'Nor is the 
Garden, which is considered however the finest in 
Oxford. It consists of a grove or some dark low 
walks, which, as they have no proper air, are not 
pleasant. At the side is a raised path and a poor 
pleasure-house 1 .' Three days later he walked in the 
alUe behind Magdalene. 

Merton Garden had been celebrated by bishop 
John Earle [of Worcester and Sarum, dean of West- 
minster, translator of Icdn basilike, and of Hooker's 
Ecclesiastical Polity, and author of ' Microcosmographie, 
or a Peece of the World discovered ; in Essayes and 
Characters,' 3 editions in 1628. Reprinted lately by 
Mr A roer] in his poem, Hortus Mertonensis*, written 

1 Uffenbach, Reisen, III. 152. 

a Ap. Jo. Aubrey's Natural Hist, and Antiq. of Surrey, IV. 167, &c. 
quoted d, propos of Howard's ' long Hope,' i. e. according to Virgil, 
deductus vallis. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 365 

while a fellow of that society [M.A. 1624]. He con- 
trasts the natural growth of the trees under the care 
of Thomas Hawkins, the old gardener, with the 
fashionable stiff Dutch clipping of shrubs into gro- 
tesques. He mentions the game of bowls and the 
rustic seats there. 

Z. C. von Uffenbach, at the close of his account of 
a visit to S. John's Coll., Oxford in 1710, Sept. 25, 
says, ' the hall is small but tolerably clean, and smells 
not so ill as the rest generally. There hang certain 
portraits of sundry benefactors of the college therein. 
Next we went on to a garden, which they call Para- 
dise Garden. This is hard by an end of the town 
near a tavern, which is in connexion with it, and at 
the back of which on the water are countless little 
boxes partitioned by hedges, where the fellows drink 
in summer. [In dem hinten an dem Wasser unzehliche 
kleine Cabinete von Hecken gezogen neben einander 
sind, da die Heeren Fellows (Socii) im Sommer darin- 
nen trinken 1 .] 

' The garden in itself is not otherwise remarkable, 
and is for the most part devoted to the kitchen ; how- 
ever, there are beautiful fruit-trees, and in particular 
many yew-trees there. I have never before seen such 
plenty of these together, as there is a whole nursery 
of young ones in this place. Those in the walk had,, 
all of them at least that were young, a kind of fruit 
which I had not seen before. They are little red 
berries hollow inside, just like raspberries, except 
that these are rather smaller, rounder, and quite 

1 fffenbach's Reisen, III, 171, 

366 University Society 

smooth. Their colour and transparency, as well as 
the opening in the centre, is in other respects similar. 
Mention of this fruit has already been made in Bor^ 
richius. [Olaus Borch, a Danish medical writer 
1626, + 1690.] Also the door or wicket of this garden 
is worthy of notice.' 

This pleasaunce appears in the map of T. Neale 
and Radulph Agas (1566 — 78), engraved by Loggan 
a century later, as 'Paradise;' and in Loggan's own 
(1675) as 'Paradise garden,' — at the bend of the river 
to the south of the Castle. ' Paradise Walks' is the 
scene of the three first acts of The Humours of Ox± 
ford, a play by James Miller of Wadham (1 703, -f-i 744). 
In the third report (1872) of the Historical MSS. 
Commission is mentioned ' a curious drawing of Wad-- 
ham College Gardens, A.D. 171 1, and pen-and-pencil 
sketches of the heads of Oxford authorities of the 
period,' in Vol. XLIH. of the MSS. of the Reverend Sir 
William Cope, Bart., at Bramshill House, co. Hants. 

' The Oxford Packet, London, Printed for J. Ro- 
berts, 17 14.' [in St John's Coll. library Cambridge, 
Hh. II. 27] contains ' I. News from Magdalen College 
[Sacheverell's Inscription on a piece of Plate]. — II. 
Antigamus : or a Satire against Marriage, Written by 
Mr Thomas Sawyer. — III. A Vindication of the Ox- 
ford Ladies, wherein are displayed the Amours of 
some Gentlemen of All Souls and St John's Colleges.! 

In 1716 'the wall under the town wall (commonly 
called the Dead-man's wall, from being so warm as tq 
revive a man almost dead with cold, and by others 
Montpelier) at the back of Merton College was raised. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 367 

At the same time Christ Church White Walk was 
made wider, and part of the said wall rebuilt. 

' 17 1 7, Aug. 14. The back-door to Merton College 
Garden was shut up, on account of its being too much 
frequented by young scholars and ladies on Sunday 
nights. And June 17, 17 18, for the same reason, by 
order of the warden and fellows, the garden was to be 
kept locked every Sunday 1 .' Hearne has recorded 2 
the incident which immediately occasioned the for- 
mer step. 

'Aug. 23, i7i7...Last week was published a six- 
penny pamphlett, written in verse by one (as 'tis 
said) of St. John's Coll., called Merton Walks, or the 
Oxford Beauties. Though 'tis but poor stuff yet it 
was mightily bought up [a copy now in the library 
of St John's Coll. Camb., classed Gg. 7. 16]. The' 
characters are so far from being different that there 
is, as it were, the same character running throughout, 
and that is the praise or commendation of the ladies. 
The society of Merton college have since ordered the 
garden to be kept close and the steps to be pulled 
down. One of the beauties in this pamphlett is one 
Mrs Fiddes that lodges against the Angel Inn at 
Shipway's the barber's. She is daughter of Mr 
Fiddes, S.T.B....very conceited but void, as it were, 
of understanding.' This young lady was nicknamed, 
after her father's work, the ' Body of Divinity 3 .'; 
'Thereupon the young gentlemen and others betook 

1 Dr Rawlinson's MSS. ap. [Walker's] Oxoniana, IV. 229. 

2 Reliqu. Hearn. Bliss, n. 51, 52 (ed. 1869). 

3 Ibid. 11. 223. 

368 University Society 

themselves to Magdalen college walk, which is now 
[1723] every Sunday night in summer time strangely 
filled, just like a fair, which hath occasioned a printed 
letter giving an account of an accident which hap- 
pened between a young gentleman and a young 
woman 1 .' 

Hearne mentions Alderman White's daughters as 
being Oxford Toasts 2 . 

We find again that in 1727, 'Aug. 12, Merton 
Coll. back-gate that led into the fields was shut up, 
and another opened through the grove 3 .' 

Erasmus Philipps, when a 'Fellow Commoner' 
(gentleman commoner) of Pembroke Coll., Oxon., 
paid ioj. for a key of the college garden, Aug. 4, 
1720 (as Gibbon, when gentleman commoner at Mag- 
dalene, was presented with • a key of the library), 
which, in Sept. 1722, he made over to Mr Andrew 
Hughe, scholar of the college 4 . 

On April 21, 1721, appeared the 28th number of 
Terrae pilius, wherein Amherst gives his sketch of 
the Oxford Ladies or Toasts of the time. He hints 
that from prudential motives their lives were respect- 
able (p. 157), that they were frequently daughters 
' of the townsmen of Oxford (who are, many of them, 
matriculated men), who would marry them 'to advan- 
tage, if they could, in which I can see no great harm 
on their parts' (p. 153). 

After speaking of the Royal letter sent to our 

1 Rawlinson, MSS. ap. Oxoniana, 11. 170. 

2 Ibid. 11.. 89. 3. Ibid. IV. 241. 
4 Notes and Queries, 2nd S. pp. 365, 4444 

in the Eighteenth Century. 369 

university in 1629, he proceeds to say : ' Happy is 
it for the present generation of Oxford TOASTS, that 
King Charles I. (so much unlike that accomplish'd 
gentleman, his son) was long ago laid in the dust! 
Were that rigid king now alive, my mind misgives me 
strangely, that I should soon see an end of all the 
balls and cabals, and junketings at Oxford; that 
several of our most celebrated and right beautiful 
madams would pluck off their fine feathers, and 
betake themselves to an honest livelihood; or make 
their personal appearance before the lords of his 
majesty's privy-council, to answer their contempt, and 
such matters as should be objected against them. 

But He is dead ! and the sculls, as much as 
they talk for him at some certain seasons, have not 
respect enough for him, or have too much respect 
for the ladies, to take his advice in this particular, 
I do not charge all the Oxford TOASTS with the 
same ill fame, or the same ill designs ; nor would I, 
knowingly, charge any one of them with any one 
thing of which she is guiltless : but an Oxford Toast, 
in the common acceptation of that phrase, is such a 
creature as I am now going to describe. 

She is born, as the King says, of mean estate, being 
the daughter of some insolent mechanick, who fancies 
himself a gentleman; and resolves to keep up his 
family by marrying his girl to a parson or a school- 
master : to which end, he and his wife ca^i. her pretty 
Miss, as soon as she knows what it means, and send 
her to the dancing-school to learn to hold up her head, 
and turn out her toes : she is taught, from a child, not 
L. B. E. 24 

■ijq University Society 

to play with, any of the dirty boys and girjs in the 
neighbourhood ; but to mind her dancing, and have-, 
a great respect for the gown. This foundation being 
laid, she goes on fast enough of herself, without any 
farther assistance, except an hoop, a gay suit of cloaths, 
and two or three new holland smocks. Thus equipt,. 
she frequents all the balls and publick walks in Oxford; 
where it is a great chance if she does not, in time,. 
meet with some raw coxcomb or other, who is her. 
humble servant ; waits upon her home ; calls upon 
her again the next day ; dangles after her from place, 
to place ; and is at last, with some art and manage- 
ment, drawn in to marry her. 

She has impudence — therefore she has wit ; 
She is proud — therefore she is well-bred ; •. 

She hasfne Cloaths — therefore she is genteel.' 
In one of his papers of Advice ' to all gentlemen 
School-Boys in his majesty's dominions, who are de- 
sign'd for the university of Oxford' (Terrae Filius, 
XXXIII.) he refers to the same subject in terms which, 
if not to be taken cum grano, need at least, like all 
dishes served up by a malcontent cook, to be swal- 
lowed warily in suspicion of heat and seasoning. , 
' JIave a particular regard how you speak of those 
gaudy things which flutter about Oxford in prodigious- 
numbers in summer time, called Toasts ; take care 
how you reflect on their parentage, their condition, 
their Virtue, or their beauty ; ever remembering that 
of the Poet, 

'Hell has no Fury like a Woman scorn'd,' 

especially when they have spiritual bravoes on their 

in the Eighteenth Century. 371 

side.' (Hogarth's frontispiece to the Terrae Filius 
Essays when collected in 1726, represents that per- 
sonage as torn to pieces by enraged Toasts and Dons*) 
: 'Not long ago, a bitter lampoon was published 
upon the most celebrated of these petticoat-professors ; 
•as soon as it came out, the town was in an uproar, 
and a very severe sentence 'was passed upon the 
-author of this ' anonymous libel : to discover whom, 
no pains were spared ; all the disgusted ill-natured 
; 'fellows in the university were, one after another, sus- 
pected upon this occasion. At last, I know not how, 
'it was peremptorily fixed upon one ; whether justly 
'or not, I can't say ; but the parties offended resolved 
; to make an example of some body for such an enor- 
mous crime, and one of them (more enraged than the 
rest) was heard to declare [with an oath] that, right 
or wrong, that impudent scoundrel (mentioning his 
Name) should be expelled ; and that She Iiad interest 
enough with the President and Senior Fellows 
of his College, to get his business done. Accordingly, 
within a year after this, he was (almost unanimously) 
expelled from his Fellowship, in the presence of some 
of the persons injured, who came thither to see the 

1 Felix, quern faciunt aliena pericula cautum, was the 
Thesis pitch'd upon by the excluding doctors for, the 
undergraduates to moralize upon in a public exercise 
upon this occasion.' 

In the library of St John's Coll. Camb. is bound 
up with ' Merton Walks, or The Oxford Beauties : 
&c. 17 1 7, pp. 31. [Gg. 7. 16.] a copy of Strephoris 

372 University Society 

Revenge : A Satire on the Oxford Toasts. Inscribed 
to the Author of Merton Walks,' 2nd ed. corrected, 
1718. It begins with a complaint of 'the almost 
universal corruption of our youth, which is to be 
imputed to nothing so much as to that multitude of 
Female Residentiaries' who encourage idleness and 
foppery. These ladies, it appears, went about with- 
out chaperons ; and many of them were children of 
poor tradesmen 1 . Page iv, describes one of their 

/hangers-on: 'A College-Smart is a Character, which 
few perhaps are acquainted with ; He is one that 
spends his Time in a constant Circle of Engagements 
and Assignations ; He rises at Ten, tattles over his 
Tea-Table till Twelve, Dines, Dresses, waits upon his 
Mistress, drinks Tea again, flutters about in Publick 
'till it is dark, then to the Tavern, knocks into Col- 

v lege at Two in the morning, sleeps till Ten again,' 
and so on. 

This account does not differ much from the de- 
scription of 'the Lownger' in the Oxford Sausage, 
which was first published in 1764. 

'I rise about nine, get to Breakfast by ten, 
Blow a Tune on my Flute, or perhaps make a Pen; 
Read a Play 'till eleven, or cock my lac'd Hat; 
Then step to my Neighbours, 'till Dinner, to chat. 
Dinner over, to Toms, or to James's I go, 
The News of the Town so impatient to know; 
While Law, Locke, and Newton, and all the rum Race, 
That talk of their Modes, their Ellipses, and Space, 
The Seat of the Soul, and new Systems on high, 
In Holes, as abtruse as their Mysteries, lie. 

1 Or college servants. Terra Filius, No. xxxv. 

in the Eighteenth Cenhiry. 373 

From the Coffee-house then I to Tennis away, 

And at five I post back to my College to pray: 

I sup before eight, and secure from all Duns, 

Undauntedly march to the Mitre or Tuns; 

Where in Punch or good Claret my Sorrows I drown, 

And toss off a Bowl "To the best in the Town:" 

At One in the Morning, I call what's to pay, \ 

Then Home to my College I stagger away, \ 

Thus I tope all the Night, as I trifle all Day.' ' 

These lines had appeared previously in the Student 
II. 279, in 175 1, with the slight variations of six, 
for five, as the hour of Chapel service, and Clapham's 
(for James's which is mentioned in Tom Warton's 
'Panegyric on Oxford Ale:' see p. 146 supra), which 
and Tom's are described at the foot as ' Noted coffee- 
houses in Cambridge! In an earlier number of 'the 
Student or Oxf. and Camb. Monthly Miscellany 1 ' 
we are told that ' In every college there is a set of 
idle people called Lowngers whose whole business is 
to fly from the painful task of thinking... Whomsoever 
these Remoras of a college adhere to, they instantly 
benumb to all sense of reputation, or desire of learn- 
ing.' In the summer of 171 1, Steele had described 
a new sect of philosophers at Cambridge, called 
Lowngers in the language of that university. ' Our 
young students are content to carry their speculations 
as yet no farther than bowling-greens, billiard-tables, 
and such like places.' Steele, who had been at 
Oxford (of Merton College) about fifteen years ear- 
lier, goes on to say ' I must be so just as to observe, 
I have formerly seen of this sect at our other uni- 

1 175°, I; p- «« 

J 74" 'Uhivirsity'Sdciety 

versity ; though not distinguished by the appellation 
which the learned historian, my correspondent, re- 
ports they bear at Cambridge. They were ever 
looked upon as a people that impaired themselves 
more by their strict application to the rules of their 
order, than any other students whatever. Others 
seldom hurt themselves any further than to gain 
weak eyes, and. sometimes headaches; but these 
philosophers are seized all over with general ina- 
bility, indolence, and weariness, and a certain im- 
patience of the place they are in, with an heaviness 
in removing to another 1 .' 

A letter from Leo the Second, dated at his Den" 
in— ; college in Cambridge, in the summer of 1713 2 ,' 
records, that there is ' at present a very flourishing 
Society of. People called Lowngers, Gentlemen whose' 
Observations are mostly itinerant, and who think 
they have already too much Good-sense of their own 
to be in need of staying at home to read other 

The following sketch was published in the Con-. 
noUseur, Aug. 21, 1755 V 

'A Lownger. is a creature that you will often see' 
lolling in a coffee-house, or sauntering about the 
streets, with great calmness, and a most inflexible 
stupidity in his countenance. He takes as much' 
pains as the Sot to fly from his own thoughts ; and 
is at length happily arrived at the highest pitch of 
indolence, both in mind and body. He would be 

1 Spectator, 54. 
s Guardian, 124. ., 3 Connoisseur, 82. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 375 

as inoffensive as he is dull, if it were not that his 
idleness is contagious ; for like the torpedo, he is sure 
to benumb and take away all sense of feeling from 
every one with whom he happens to come in contact.' 
The Oxford Smart in 1721, is described in the 
46th No. of Amherst's Terrae Filius : — 

' " Oxford a boorish place ! — poor wretch ! I am sorry for thy igno- 
rance. Who wears finer lace or better linnen than Jack Flutter? who 
lias handsomer tie-wigs, or more fashionable cloaths, or cuts a bolder bosh 
than Tom Paroquet? Where can you find a more handy man at a Ted- 
Table than Robin Tattle? Or, without vanity I may say it, one that 
plays better at Ombre than him who subscribes himself as an enemy... 
Valentine Frippery." [Dated 'Christ-Church College, July J.'] 

' He is a Smart of the first rank, and is one of those who come, in 
their academical undress, every morning between ten and eleven to Lyne's 
coffee-house; after which he takes a turn or two upon the Park, or 
under Merton- Wall, whilst the dull regulars are at dinner in their hall, 
according to statute; about one he dines alone in his chamber upon a 
'boiVd chicken, or some pettitoes; after which he allows himself an hour 
at least to dress in, to make his afternoon appearance at Lyne's ; from 
whence he adjourns to Hamilton'?, about five; from whence (after 
strutting about the room for a while, and drinking a dram of citron) he 
goes to chapel, to shew how genteely he dresses, and how well he can 
chaunt. After prayers he drinks Tea with some celebrated toast, and 
then waits upon her to Maudlin Grove, or Paradise- Garden, and back 
again. He seldom eats any supper, and never reads any thing but 
novels and romances. 

' When he walks the street, he is easily distinguished by a stiff silk 
gown, which rustles in the wind, as he struts along ; a flaxen tie-wig, or 
sometimes a long natural one, which reaches down below his rump ; 
a broad bully-cock 'd hat, or a square cap of above twice the usual size ; 
white stockings, thin Spanish leather shoes; his cloaths lined with tawdry 
silk, and his shirt ruffled down the bosom as well as at the wrists. 
Besides all which marks, he has a delicate jaunt in his gait, and smells 
very philosophically of essence. 

' This is a true description of my correspondent ; arid I leave the 
reader to judge, whether this is properly good breeding, or ridiculous 
grimace, and inconsistent college foppery. There is not, I agree with 
Mr. Frippery, a deficiency of this sort of politeness in Oxford; but 

376 University Society 

a man, in my opinion, may be very ill-manner 'd under a silk gown, and 
do very uncivil things, for all he wears lawn ruffles. For instance, why 
may not one of these well-dress 1 d sparks damn all strangers, or knock 
them down, (provided he has a mob to defend him,) as well as a ragged 
servitor of Jesus, or an halfstarv'd scholar of St. John's? Is he ever 
the better bred for being better clad? Or do good manners consist in 
tufts or silk stockings? — That a gay suit olcloaths often hides a bad skin, 
and that a light wig sets off a dirty countenance, I am well enough 
convinc'd ; but that they can hide too a multitude of rudenesses and ill 
manners, or atone for them, is what I never yet read either in holy 
scripture, or profane philosophy. I should not, for my part, like a kick 
of the breech ever the better from having it from a red topt shoe ; nor do 
I think that a broken head would smart the less, tho' it were to be done 
with a clouded cane. 

' I know it is an hard thing to make any of my wary readers believe 
that beaux can be quarrelsome; but I can assure them, upon the word 
and honour of an English author, that five or six years ago, some 
twenty or thirty of these Oxford smarts did actually frighten three or 
four poor-spirited foreigners, and kick a presbyterian parson out of a 

' My dear friends the smarts have another very scurvy trick. Would 
they be content to be foppish and ignorant themselves, (which seems to 
be their sole study and ambition,) I could freely forgive them ; but they 
cannot forbear laughing at every body, that obeys the statutes, and differs 
from them ; or (as my correspondent expresses it, in the proper dialect 
of the place) that does not cut as bold a bosh as they do. They have 
singly, for the most part, very good assurance; but when they walk to- 
gether in bodies, (as they often do,) how impregnable are their foreheads? 
They point at every soul they meet, laugh very loud, and whisper as 
loud as they laugh. Demme, Jack, there goes a prig! Let us blow the 
puppy up — Upon which, they all stare him full in the face, turn him 
from the wall as he passes by, and set up an horse-laugh, which puts the 
plain, raw novice out of countenance, and occasions great triumph 
amongst these tawdery desperadoes. 

' There is, I confess, one thing in which the aforesaid gownmen are 
very courtly and well-bred; I mean in paying their debts: for you are 
not to suppose that they wear all this rich drapery at their own proper 
costs and charges ; all the Smarts in Oxford are not noblemen and 
gentlemen-commoners, but chiefly of a meaner rank, who cannot afford 
to be thus fine any longer than their mercers, taylors, shoe-makers, and 
perriwig-makers will lick with them; which now and then lasts three or 

in the Eighteenth Century. 377 

jour years ; after which they brush off, and return, like meteors, into 
the same obscurity from whence they arose. 

I have observed a great many of these transitory foplings, who came 
to the university with their fathers (rusty, old country farmers) in linsey- 
wolsey coats, greasy sun-bumt heads of hair, clouted shoes, yarn stock- 
ings, flapping hats, with silver hat-bands, and long muslin neckcloths 
run with red at the bottom. A month or two afterwards I have met 
them with bob-wigs and new shoes, Oxford-cut; a month or two more 
after this, they appear'd in drugget cloaths and worsted stockings; then in 
tye-wigs and ruffles; and then in silk gowns; till by degrees they were 
metamorphosed into compleat Smarts, and damn'd the old country 
putts, their fathers, with twenty foppish airs and gesticulations. 

* Two or three years afterwards, I have met the same persons in 
goions and cassocks, walking with demure looks and an holy leer; so 
easy (as a learned divine said upon a quite different occasion) is the transi- 
tion from dancing to preaching, and from the bowling-green to the 
pulpit I' 

It is interesting to compare with this the account 
given by bishop Earle 1 an old Merton man, of 'A 
meere young Gentleman of the Vniuersitie , in 1628 : 

' one that comes there to weare a gowne, and to say hereafter, hee has 
beene at the Vniuersitie. His Father sent him thither, because hee 
heard there were the best Fencing and Dancing Schooles, from these 
he has his education, from his Tutor the ouersight. The first Element 
of his knowledge is to be shewne the Colledges, and initiated in a 
Tauerne by the way, which hereafter hee will learne of himselfe. The 
two markes of his Senioritie, is the bare Veluet of his gowne, and his 
proficiencie at Tennis, where when hee can once play a Set, he is 
a Fresh-man no more. His Studie has commonly handsome Shelues, 
his Bookes neate Silke strings, which hee shewes to his Fathers man, 
and is loth to vntye or take downe for fear of misplacing. Vpon foule 
dayes for recreation hee retyres thither, and looks ouer the prety booke 
his Tutor Reades to him, which is commonly some short Historie, or a 
piece of Euphormio; for which his Tutor giues him Money to spend 
next day. His maine loytering is at the Library, where hee studies 
Armes and bookes of Honour, and turnes a Gentleman-Critick in 
Pedigrees. Of all things hee endures not to be mistaken for a Scholler, 

1 Microcosmographie, § 23 (Mr Arber's reprint). 

378 University Society 

and hates a black suit though it bee of Sattin. His companion is ordi- 
narily some stale fellow, that ha's beene notorious for an Ingle to gold 
hatbands, whorn hee admires at first, afterward scornes. If hee haue 
spirit or wit, hee may light of better company, and may learne some 
flashes of wit, which may doe him Knights seruice in the Country 
hereafter. But hee is gone to the Inns of Court, where hee studies to 
forget what hee learn'd before, his acquaintance and the fashion.' 

The Gradus ad Cantab rigiam, 1S03 and 1824, re- 
cognizes the term ' Lounger/ ' to Lounge,' ' to take a 
Lounge,' and ' Lounging Book.' This last is ex- 
plained to mean ' a novel, or any book, but a mathe- 
matical one. The late Mr Maps, of Trumpington- 
street, possessed the most choice collection of Loung- 
ing Books that the genius of Indolence could desire. 
The writer of these pages recollects seeing Rflbelgis 
in English ; several copies of the Reverend Mr Sterne's 
Tristram Shandy; Wycherly and Congreve's Plays; 
Joe Miller's Jests; Mrs Behn's Novels; and Lord 
Rochester's Poems, which are very moving! And to 
these we beg to add [ed. 1824] — The Cambridge 
Tart, and Facetiae Cantabrigienses! The first edition 
of the work just quoted, in i6mo. 1803, containing 
about 150 pages, is said, in the Dedication, to have 
been adapted to the pocket with a view to being a 
complete Lounging Book. So also 'Tavern Anec-" 
dotes. ..By One of the Old School,' 1825, professes on 
its title-page to be 'Intended as a Lounge-Book for 
Londoners and their Country Cousins.' 

This is the proper place to mention the ' Mappesian 
Library ; founded by the late Mr John Nicholson, 
alias Maps [His portrait which now, in 1824, adorns 
the stair-case of the Public Library, was presented by 

in the 'Eighteenth "Century. 379 

the Undergraduates], of Trumpington-street. Mr 1 
Maps, if Fame lie not, was originally by profession a 
staymaker, which, strange to relate, had not attraction. 
sufficient to bind him;to it long. He afterwards took 
to crying and hawking of maps about the several CoU 
leges in the University, whence he acquired all his. 
claim to eccentricity!!' (Gradus ad Cantab) Gun- 
ning, in his Reminiscences 1 , says, that this character 
was universally known by the name of Maps, though 
his only son, to whom he left a handsome property, 
discovered he was entitled to the name of Nicholson.. 
When he first began business, he was a seller of maps ; 
and. pictures,- which he exhibited in the streets on a 
small movable stall ; but when I came to College [in. 
1784] he was living in an old-fashioned, but large and 
commodious house belonging to King's College, and" 
adjoining to what was then the Provost's Lodge. He- 
had a very large stock of books required at college: 
lectures, both classical and mathematical ; and I do 
not' believe I expended during my undergraduateship. 
twenty shillings in the purchase of books for the lec- 
ture-room. His terms of subscription were five shil- 
lings and threepence per quarter, but were afterwards 
increased to seven shillings and sixpence. When his 
house was pulled down to make way for the Screen 
which connects the Chapel of King's with the New 
Building, he built and removed to the house now oc- 
cupied by Macmillan. He was indefatigable in pur- 
suit of business, and was to be seen most part of the 
day loaded with books going from room to room, in 

1 Ed. 1854, I. 198 — 200. 

380 University Society 

the different colleges, and announcing himself by 
shouting Maps as he proceeded. Persons requiring 
themes or declamations, or compositions on occa- 
sional subjects, were in the habit of applying to him, 
and if they had no objection to pay a high price, 
were furnished with articles of considerable literary 
merit. It was said that manuscript sermons might 
be obtained through him ; but in every transaction of 
the kind he strictly concealed the names of the par- 
ties concerned. By the desire of Dr Farmer [of Em- 
manuel], his truly characteristic portrait was placed 
on the staircase of the Public Library, a distinction 
he was better entitled to, than a smirking Professor in 
scarlet robes who hangs very near him.' 

Mr Geo. Dyer mentions 1 the full-length portrait by 
Reinagle, and states that Nicholson began by selling 
maps about the country, and also that 'the gownsmen 
and he lived in the exercise of constant depredations 
on each other. The fact seems to be, that the former 
began first to crib the books of the latter, and the lat- 
ter was, therefore, compelled to make reprisals, or, 
otherwise, he must at length have had an empty shop. 
Maps's tricks came under the act of se defendendo; 
so that, though the gownsmen were often obliged to 
watch him like a sharper, still he was allowed, by 
general consent, to have deserved the character of an 
honest man.' He has won for his portrait a place 
among the town worthies' in the Free Library, as 
well as in that of the university. 

1 Cambridge Fragments, pp. 88 — 90 in Vol. II. of Privileges of 

in the Eighteenth Century. 381 

In the Cambridge Tart 1823, p. 135, are some 

'Lines on seeing the portrait of "Old Maps" a well-known biblio- 
thist of Cambridge, placed over the door of a country library.' 

I reprint them without attempt at emendation. 

'Can I forget thee, Maps? no! scanty praise 
Our learned Granta fail'd not to resound, 
As erst thy hasty steps pac'd classic ground. 
Thou bustling caterer for letter'd bays ! 
When judgment sound might wrangler's honours rise 
How hast thou bid my spirits to rejoice 
When not a surly dun, but thine own voice, 
Welcom'd no trifling novel of the day ; 
'Twas armful large ! — a soil'd and tatter'd stock : 
Euclid, and Conies, Algebra, and Locke, 
And Newton, philosophic head supreme! 
And all the minor morals in array. 
Now, 'tis but Sonnetteer can sound thy fame, 
Thy son's superior merit dignifies the name.' 

This looks not unlike a puff of John Nicholson, 
junior : the following is a bona fide advertisement, the 
only one on the original indigo-coloured boards of 
the Camb. Univ. Calendar for 1802 which he pub- 
lished : 

'Nicholson's Circulating Library, near the Senate- 
House, Cambridge, Established Fifty Years. Sub- 
scription, Js. 6d. per Quarter; For which each Sub- 
scriber is allowed to have Fifteen Books at once. A 
Quarter's advance to be paid at the time of Sub- 
scribing. Stationary, Of all Kinds, and of the best 
Quality, and on the lowest Terms. New Publications 
and Books of every Description, procured on the 
shortest Notice. Bookbinding executed in a variety 
of plain or elegant Fashions. Cambridge: printed by 
F. Hodson! [Corner of Green-street.J 

3 8:2 University Society 

In the same calendar, pp. 19, 20, is a note to the 
effect that ' A Syllabus of each Public Lecture (Mo- 
dern History excepted) may be had at Nicholson's 
and. Brighton's, to the latter of whom the namete of 
the Attendants at the different .Lectures are requested 
to be delivered.' In the Introduction to the same 
volume, / — Hi, ifi a ' copy of Verses, which appeared 
on a Tripos paper:' in fact the Tripos verses for 1781 
when the subject of them was yet alive. 

' IloXXa re tJStj 

HOM. II. II. 2T3. 

' O Tu Tyronis pariter, pariterque Sophistae 
Deliciae ! si vel mavis Grantanus Apollo, 
Seu magis illustri titulo Maps nomine gaudes, 
Nunc ades, et felix audacibus annue coeptis. 

Nil mihi Pierides : Parnassi somnia nulla: 
Nee sitiens unquam properavi Heliconis ad undas; 
Attamen aggrediens vestrae praeconia famae 
Mirifico videor perculsus Numinis oestrQ, 
Intils et insolitos patiens inflarier ignes, 
Heu rapior! flagranti animo, prodire Poeta. 

Haud procul a. celebri statuit quam Granta PalaestrS 
' Aemula qua- Pubes contorta Sophismata vibrant, 
Stat domus ; haud equidem Pariis innixa columnfs, 
Neve minans albo jrrumpere in aethera tecto ; 
Cujus Apollinea clams tamen Incola in arte, 
Granimaticus, Rhetor, Geometres, omnis in usum 
Ornatumque sciens artis, summusque Magister. , 

Oh ego si pptui.(catus utpote Bunbury) vivam 1 

Effigiem vultumque viri depingere; chartjs 
Perpetub nostris tua, Maps, spiraret Imago. . 
Qui decor obsequii ! blandi quae gratia Vultus ! 
Tu quoties properans Juve,num ' succurrere votis > 

Suaviter arrides; tu scilicet omnibus Idem, 
Dona tuas quieunque repehdunt annua ad aras. 

in the 'Eighteenth Century. 383 

Fallor ! an ante oculos subitb sese atria pandunt 
Templi — (Fama noces mendax — infama Tabernae 
Nomen quae dederis,) premit undique turba togata, 
Quisque sibi Lucem spondens et Pocula sacra; 
Hie petit Euclidem; Newtonum deperit ille, 
Tertius exorat Mopsae et Corydonis amores, 
Quos legat ignavo solvens sua membra cubili. 
Nonne vides ? quam mente vacans ! Incuria frontis 
Regna -tenens, sensus Lethaeo rore soporat. 
Auctores tititlosque librorum agnoverit ille 
Tanquam ungues digitosque suos; quicquid tamen intiis 
Lockius erudiit, Mentisqne Animique recessus 
Arcanos pandens, vix altera saecla docebunt. 
Rarior has sedes 1 visit tamen ille, capillis 
Incomptis sciss&ve togS qui mente capaci 
Newtono invigilans nocturnam absirmit olivam. 
Summa Mathematicae referet mox praemia palmae 
Victor, et agninS, gradietur Epomide Primus. 

Haud tamen exercet Maps sola domestica cura, 
Nee satis esse put'at proprios coluisse Penates, 
Impiger excurrit per vicos; quaeque tulere 
Sen Veterum gravior Sapientia, sive Recentum 
Acrius ingenium ; nulli non commodus offert. 
Et quamvis humeris graviter tibi Musa, Mathesis, 
Incumbant, Sophiaeque omni farragine pressus 
Incedas, et fessa labet sub pondere cervix, 
Frons tua laeta tamen, mira est tibi gratia Risus. 
Et veluti quondam sylvas Rhodopei'us Orpheus 
Immitesque tigres et saxa sequentia duxit, 
Vox tua si nostras veniat fortasse per aures, 
Te subitb petimus properi, oblitusque laborum 
Quisque, tibi sua Sacra refert et Numen adorat. 

Si quem dura premant Tutoris jussa, Minerv^ 
Invita ut multum sudet miserabile carmen, 
Scilicet elatus quia Majestate Sophistae, 
Noctu finitimis voluit fera bella fenestris; 
Thure pio supplex tibi si cumulaverit aras, 
Hue Flacci rediisse Sales, tonitruque Maronis. 
In superas iterum jures re>ocarier auras* 
Rhetoris an labor impositus? male sordidus esset 
Qui per ayaritiam patitur dispendia ; famae : 

384 University Society 

Ah potius tribuens sua Maps munuscula, summus 
Prodeat Orator Cicerone disertior ipso. 
Jamque oro veniam, si nomen, Delie, vestrum 
Ille ferat posthac; nee det ceil Marsya poenas, 
Judice quo — fama- pariles sunt MAPS et Apollo. 

Si te fatidicae praesse putaveris arti, 
Ex Tripode ea nostrum fundentem Oracula Vatera, 
Neve magis quam Maps praenuncia Pythia Veri. 
Seu jactes medicinam! at noster Bibliopola 
Aegrotis Opifer longe praeclarior audit: 
Scilicet hie nunquam vacuus queribundus in aures, 
" Heu Domino hand prosunt quae prosunt omnibus Artes." 
Roma Palatinos tibi si decreverit arces, 
Annon ipse vides assurgunt huic quoque templa, 
Queis pretiosa magis, minus etsi lauta supellex! 

Ter venerande Pater! si quid mea carmina possunt, 
Nulla dies unquam memtiri tete eximet aevo. 
Virgilius citiiis morietur; Horatius ipse 
Ovidiusque simul; " quos non Jovis ira, nee ignis 
Nee potent ferrum, nee edax abolere Vetustas;'' 
Quam, Maps, ulla tuae venient oblivia famae.' 

' Previous to the Senate-House Examinations, Maps annually made 
an arrangement of the Honors with a foresight almost oracular 1 .' 

I noticed lately in Mr E. Johnson's shop a well- 
Worn copy of Ludlam's Algebra. Within the first 
board was a label of Nicholson's Circulating Library 
almost effaced. Some borrower had written the 
name ' Mapps' in it, for which young Nicholson had 
substituted his own name. A later hand had then 
written ' Do not be ashamed of y r name, your Father 
never was. Ma-^rs avrov icaXeovo-i, deoi avSpes Se Nt- 

In a volume of tracts in the Cambridge Free Li- 

1 Came, Univ, Calendar, 1802, p. lii. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 385 

brary [B. 13. 50] is an advertisement of Stevenson's 
(late Nicholson and Son's) Circulating Library* 

From the Year Book of 'ingenuous Hone' {col. 
682), we learn that old Nicholson died Aug. 8, 1796, 
aged 66, lamented by an unparalleled circle of 
friends; it is said that he was known 'by the name 
of " Maps and Pictures." He presented to the Uni- 
versity a whole length portrait of himself, loaded 
with books, which hangs in the staircase of the public 
library, and under it a print engraven from it' 

It was to oblige 'Maps' that, in 1786, Porson 
added some notes to an edition of Hutchinson's 
Xenophon's Anabasis, which was then about to be 
published 1 . 

Lending libraries were first tried in England a few 
years before the middle of the eighteenth century; but 
William Jones of Nayland (1726 — 1800) complains, 
in Letters from a Tutor to his Pupils, No. V, of the 
prevalence of novel-reading : ' this fashion, which has 
increased so much of late years, as nearly to swallow 
up all other reading; like the lean kine of Pharaoh, 
which swallowed up all the fat ones, and did not look 
the better for it.' 

In the Bodleian [Gough, Oxford 90] is a paper re- 
lating to James Fletcher's Reading-Room for fifty 
subscribers, about 1780. In [Dr Caswall's] 'A New 
Art teaching how to be Plucked] &c. by Scriblerus 
Redivivus, Oxford, J. Vincent, ed. 3, 1835, pp. 17, 18, 
it is stated that ' there be four places in Oxford where 

1 Life, by Watson, p. 49. 
L. B. E. 25 

386 University Society 

novels are to be got; Mr Weatherstone's, Mr Dewe's, 
Mr Hawkins', and Mr Richards' ; whereof the first, 
which is the oldest, is in St Aldates' ; the second, 
which hath many new books and various, is. in Broad- 
street; the third, in High-street; and the fourth, in 

A passage in Nevile's Poor Scholer, 1662, Act ii. 
sc. 4, shews that hiring books was an old shift, though 
(we may hope) not often practised with so sinister a 
design. — ' Pegs. Thus you must steer your course, 
step to a Book-sellers, and give him this angel [puts 
money out of 's pocket] which Tie lend you, for the use 
of (the many-languag'd Bibles lately publisht) for a 
week, their price is 12 pound, when you have once 
got 'um into your study, invite your father to your 
chamber, show him your Library, and tell him you 
are 12 /out of purse for those large volumes.' 

I have already mentioned (p. 144) the library in 
Emmanuel coffee-house in 1763, and on pp. 151, 152, 
I have quoted from An Account of several Public 
Buildings in Oxford, never before described, in the 
Student, Vol. II. No. 10 (July 3, 1751). In that paper 
is included the following humorous sketch : — ' In the 
university there are several libraries (besides those of 
Radcliffe, Bodley, and of private colleges), which 
were instituted to remedy the great neglect of read- 
ing so prevalent amongst us, as well as for the benefit 
of those gownsmert who are incapable of reading 
Greek or Latin [p. 374], and also to promote that 
most edifying practice of lownging. For as, according 
to the old maxim of Pliny, mallem nihil agere quam 

in the Eighteenth Century. 387 

agere nihil, i. e. I had rather do nothing than have 
nothing to do ; so is it better surely to read books of 
no use at all, than to read no books at all. There- 
fore, these libraries, to render them the more uni- 
versal, are conjoin'd with the several coffee-houses: 
but the most remarkable is that lately erected near 
New-College, which, from the matter it contains, has 
obtained the appellation of IIAM<I>AETIKON. The 
number of books, which, for a very plain reason, are 
entirely in English, still daily encrease. But, for fur- 
ther particulars, we must refer the curious to its ori- 
ginal founder and present librarian, the great Professor 
Johnson. It seems to be an universal maxim for 
the students in these libraries to keep a profound si- 
lence. At one of them in particular, near St. Mary's, 
is a place purposely set apart for those of a superior 
degree, who have sense enough to hold their tongues. 
This is call'd the Temple of Silence. The disciples are 
directly opposite to those of Pythagoras : for, in- 
stead of being silent from the first seven years from 
their coming to the University, they are allow'd to 
talk a great deal of nothing for that time, but ever 
after never to open their lips.' 

The paper concludes with a promise to the reader 
of a more complete book, ' already in the press,' on 
the subject. It was not, I believe, until 1762, that a 
fuller jeu d 'esprit of that nature was published, no 
doubt by the same author, Tom Warton junior, fel- 
low of Trin. Coll., Oxon. (though it has been asserted 
by A. Chalmers, in his English Poets, I. xiv., that 
'The "Guide to the Companion" was the production 

25 — 2 

388 University Society 

of Mr Huddesford'). Though it was re-edited in 
1806 by Mr Cooke of Oxford, with the original cuts, 
it is now a scarce book. I will, therefore, quote the 
title at length, and a passage which bears upon p. 1 5 1 
of this present compilation, as well as on the topic of 

1 A Companion to the Guide and a Guide to the. 
Companion 1 : being a Complete supplement to all the 
Accounts of Oxford hitherto published. Containing 
An accurate Description of several Halls, Libraries... 
&c. The whole interspersed with Original Anecdotes, 
and interesting Discoveries, occasionally resulting from 
the Subject. And embellished with perspective Views 
and Elevations neatly engraved. 

Avia Pieridum peragro loca : Nuttitis ante 

Trita solo Lucret. IV. 1. 

London: Printed for H. Payne, at Dryden's Head 
in Paternoster Row : and sold by the Booksellers of 
Oxford. [Price Sixpence].' (No date, pp. i — iv, 5 — 40. 
Bodl. Douce O. 56). 

Page 8. ' I have discovered no less than 

Twelve Halls, 
never yet enumerated nor described, namely, 

" Fox Hall, 

Tit-up Hall, 
Clay Hall, 
Cabbage Hall, 
Caterpillar Hall, 
Stump Hall, 
Lemon Hall, 

Feather Hall, 
Kettle Hall, 
Tripe Hall, 
Westminster Hall. 

1 ' Tu tibi Dux Comiti; tu Comes ipsa Duci.' 

Ovid, Heroid. XIV. 106. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 389 

Lastly, to these we must add, 

Kidney Hall, 

which has been long in esteem as a noted Seminary; and has lately- 
been re-founded by the Name of Diamond Hall. 

' With these Halls we must mention a Thirteenth, formerly distin- 
guished by the name of Redcock Hall : This House has been for 
some years [p. 9] unhappily alienated from the purposes of Literature, 
and is at present inhabited by two widow gentlewomen. 

' The notion is equally erroneous with regard to the number of our 
Libraries. Besides those of Radcliffe, Badley, and the private col- 
leges, there have of late years been many Libraries founded in our 
Coffee-Houses, for the benefit of such of the Academics as have neglect- 
ed, or lost, their Latin and Greek. In these useful Repositories Crown- 
Gentlemen are accommodated with the Cyclopaedia in the most expedi- 
tious and easy manner. — The Magazines afford History, Divinity, 
Philosophy, Mathematics, Geography, Astronomy, Biography, Arts, 
Sciences, and Poetry. — The Reviews form the complete Critic, without 
consulting the dry rules of Aristotle, Quintilian, and Bossu; and enable 
the student to pass his judgment on volumes which he never read, after 
the mojt compendious method. — Novels supply the place of expe- 
rience, and give lectures of Intrigue and Gallantry Occasional 

Poems diffuse the itch of rhyming, and happily tempt many a young 
fellow to forsake Logic, turn smart, and commence Author, either in 
the Pastoral, Lyric, or Elegiac way. — Political Pamphlets teach 
the inexpediency of Continental Connections ; that for the punishment 
of French Perfidy, we should wage perpetual war with that nation; 
and that our Conquests in America will raise the jealousy of all Europe. 
As there are here Books suited to every Taste, so there are Liquors 
adapted to every species of reading. Amorous Tales may be perused 
over Arrack Punch and fellies; Insipid Odes over Orgeat or Capilaire; 
Politics over Coffee; Divinity over Port; and Defences of bad Generals 
and bad Ministers over Whipt Syllabubs. In a word, in these Libraries 
Instruction and Pleasure go hand in hand ; and we may pronounce, in a 
literal sense, that Learning remains no longer a dry pursuit. 

' The most ancient and considerable of these, is that in New College- 
Lane, founded by the memorable Mr Johnson. He was accordingly 
constituted the first Librarian, and upon his retiring to the Isle of Wight, 
for the private pursuit of his Studies, was succeeded by Librarian 
Hadley, who, though now removed, still accommodates Students on 
their way to London : and a female Librarian at present fills this impor- 
tant department with applause. ; 

390 University Society 

' With regard to the Manuscripts of these Libraries, they are oblong 
folios [p. n], bound in parchment, lettered on the plan of Mr Locke's 
Common Place Book; are written by, and kept under the sole care of 
the Librarian. These Manuscripts, which in process of time amount 
to many volumes, are carefully preserved in the Archives of each re- 
spective Library. 

' That the reader may not be surprised at our mentioning a female 
Librarian at Oxford (which indeed would be less extraordinary if our 
Fellows of Colleges were allowed to marry), it must be remarked that 
the other Libraries, established on this plan, viz. James's, Tom's, John's, 
&c, are also conducted by Females; who, though properly the sub- 
Librarians, have usurped the right of their Husbands in the execution 
of this office.* 

Gray, writing from Peterhouse to his friend Whar- 
ton, April 26, 1744, mentions that the bars at Dick's 
and the Rainbow coffee-houses were kept by women. 
It appears also from Cradock's Memoirs, iv. 226, 
quoted in Gray's works, I. lxvi, that ' it was the cus- 
tom at Cambridge, when a book was ordered at a 
coffee-house, that four subscribers' names should be 
previously signed.' 

The Book Club, or Society for Promoting Useful 
Knowledge, was established at Cambridge in 1784, 
and met in the Bull Inn till about 1841 1 . 

Having given references already (pp. 153 — 155) to 
the tory high borlace (1732 — 65) and the lady patron- 
esses of that club, it must be said that this was not 
the only society of the kind at Oxford. It is recorded 
by Chalmers, in his English Poets, xvm. 76, of Tom 
Warton, that 'in 1747 and 1748 he held the office of 
poet laureate, conferred upon him, according to an 
ancient practice, in the common room of Trinity Col- 

1 Cooper's Annals, rv. 409. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 391 

lege. The duty of this office was to celebrate the 
lady chosen by the same authority, as the lady pa- 
troness, and Warton performed the task, on an ap- 
pointed day, crowned with a wreath of laurel. The 
verses, which Mr Mant says are still to be seen in the 
common-room, are written in an elegant and flowing 
style, but have not been thought worthy of tran- 

A notice of university wits and poets must be re- 
served for the second division of this compilation. 

The custom of naming a lady as ' an excuse for the 
glass' seems strange and unnatural to us who are not 
'to the manner born:' but it was customary at the 
universities as early as 1730 1 ; and we read of Dr Ri. 
Farmer, that, 'from his first coming to College, he 
always gave Miss Benskin as a toast, and never could 
mention her name without evident feelings of the 
most ardent affection 2 .' Compare also supra, p. 160. 

In 17 10 UfFenbach was particularly pleased with 
Clare walks. He also admired the fine new buildings 
behind that college, or hall, as it was then more eu- 
phoniously called. His taste was that of the times ; 
and so he despises the old buildings of Queens' as 
not much better than ' Magdalene College 3 .' In the 
last century there was a general detestation of any- 
thing gothic : pointed arches were studiously reduced 
to a horizontal, and the world went mad over Italian 
and classical decoration. 

1 James Miller's Humours of Oxford, Act IV. Sc. I. 

2 Gorham's Martytis, p. Qg. 
* Reisen, III. J, 24. 

39 2 University Society 

Bentley had mutilated the south-west of the great 
court of Trinity, Sir Nathaniel Lloyd had left a 
legacy (1735) for the facing or defacing of Trinity 
Hall. But in the middle of the century the most an- 
cient foundation set the example of ' improvements.' 

In 1762 the fellows of Peterhouse, in the absence 
of the Master (bishop Law), voted to face the court 
with stone, the windows were made square, and every- 
thing smoothed clean away. In the guide-book, 
printed after 1763, it is described as 'entirely new 
cased with stone in an elegant manner. The lesser 
court, next the street, is divided by the chapel ; and 
on the north side is a lofty elegant building, faced 
with stone, lately erected.' In the edition of 1796 
this is described as 'a lofty modern building faced 
with stone:' novelty and elegance being of course sy- 
nonymous. In 1773 St John's followed this example, 
and faced the first court, on the south side, ' at such 
an expence as it would be preposterous to go on in 
the same manner 1 .' This, says the guide-book, ' makes 
a handsome appearance.' 

The highest praise was lavished on ' Emanuel Col- 
lege. On the west, next the street, is erected a very 
handsome building (of which the plate annexed is an 
exact representation), which makes the principal 
court a very beautiful one, having on the south an 
elegant uniform stone building, adorned with a balus- 
trade and parapet ; and opposite to it, on the north, 
the hall, combination-room, and master's lodge ; on 
the east is a fine cloister with 13 arches, and an hand- 
1 Cole ap. Mayor, 611. 19. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 393 

some gallery over it, well furnished and adorned with 
portraits of the founder, several of the benefactors, 
and former members of the college. In the middle 
of the cloister is the entrance into the chapel. 

' The chapel, including the ante-chapel, is 84 feet 
long, 30 broad, and 27 high, and is extremely well 
adorned -and furnished. The altar-piece is a very 
grand painting of the prodigal son, by Ammiconi : 
the floor is marble, and the ceiling stucco. There is 
a neat organ, and a gallery for the master's family. 
In the middle of the chapel hangs a curious glass 
chandelier, which has a beautiful appearance when 

'The hall is one of the most elegant in the uni- 
versity, having been fitted up in a grand taste ; the 
carved work, wainscotting, and fret-work of the ceiling 
being highly finished. There are two fine bow-win- 
dows, opposite to each other, at the upper end of the 
hall, and a gallery for music over the screens. The 
gardens are extensive and pleasant, with a bowling- 
green, and cold-bath, over which is a neat brick build- 
ing, sashed in front, containing a commodious little 
room to dress in. The curious take notice of a fine 
young cedar-tree in this garden.' 

At the same time the buildings of Queens' are dis- 
missed as ' two courts besides a pile of buildings near 
the gardens:' but the readers are comforted by the 
information that 'The front of the college next the 
water, including the president's lodge, is intended to 
be rebuilt in an elegant manner, part of which is 
already finished, and when the whole is completed, it 

394 University Society 

will make an exceeding grand front (see the annexed 

Of course they would have done well to have put 
themselves under the guidance of Sir James Bur- 
rough, master of Caius (1754 — 64), the leader of the 
vandal revival. Still we shall not quarrel with the 
Guide for commending Queens' 'grove and gardens; 
which, lying on both sides of the river, are connected 
with each other and the college by two bridges of 
wood; one of which is of a curious structure, built of 
one arch upon piers of stone: the gardens being very 
extensive, well planted with fruit and adorned with 
rows of elms, and fine walks, make it a very agree- 
able retirement for students.' 

The following extracts from A Pocket Companion 
for Oxford, 1761, should have come a few pages 

Magdalen. ' One unparalleled Beauty belonging to this College is 
the extensive Out let. The Grove seems perfectly adapted to indulge 
Contemplation; being a pleasant kind of Solitude,' laid out in Walks, 
and well planted with Elms and other large Trees. It has likewise a 
Bowling-Green in it, and having some beautiful Lawns, feeds about 
forty Head of Deer. 

'Besides the Walks which are in the Grove there is a very delight- 
ful and much frequented One, round a Meadow containing about 
13 Acres, and that surrounded by the several Branches of the Cherwell; 
from whence it is called the Water- Walk; which yields all the Variety 
could be wished: Some Parts of it running in straight Lines, with the 
Trees regularly cut ; others winding, and the Trees growing little other- 
wise than as Nature directs : There is plenty of Water as well as 
Verdure, and an agreeable View of the Country adjacent.' 

St John's College. ' The Gardens belonging to this College are ex- 
tremely agreeable, very extensive, and well laid out. They still retain 
the Names they formerly had, when they had nothing to boast of but 
a Plantation of tall Elms, viz. the outer and inner Grove. But now the 

in the Eighteenth Century. 395 

outer one is disposed in regular Walks and Grass-Plots, the Walls 
thereof covered with Evergreens and neatly cut, and finely shaded by 
Trees of various Kinds, viz. the middle Walk by a Row of Lime Trees 
on each Side cut arch-wise, u. Row of cut Elms by the Side-Walks, 
and at each End and across the middle two Groups of beautiful Chest- 
nut Trees. The inner Grove is of quite a different Cast to this, being 
so contrived as to satiate the Eye at once, but its various Parts present 
themselves gradually to view. No Spot whatever is calculated to yield 
a more pleasing Variety; for, except Water, it has all that could be 

Merton College. ' The Gardens are very pleasant, having the Ad- 
vantage of a Prospect of the adjacent Walks and Country from the 
South Terrass.' 

Christ Church. 'Next to the Buildings of Christ- Church, their 
long Gravel walk, planted on each side with Elms, deserves our 
Notice, being a Quarter of a Mile in Length, and of a proportionate 
Breadth. This is much the finest Walk about Oxford. 

' Parallel to this is another Walk under the Walls of Corpus-Christi 
and Merton Colleges, which is much resorted to by Invalids, on account 
of its being sheltered from the North Winds by the Colleges above- 

New College Library. 'From hence we pass through the middle 
Gate into the Garden-Court, which widens by Breaks as we approach 
the Garden. This Court is separated from the Garden, by an Iron 
Gate and Palisade which extend 130 Feet in Length, and admit of a 
most agreeable Prospect of the Garden through them. In the middle 
of the Garden is a beautiful Mount with an easy Ascent to the Top of 
it, and the Walks round about it, as well as the Summit of it, guarded 
with Yew Hedges. The Area before the Mount being divided into 
four Quarters, in one is the King's Arms, with the Garter and Motto ■ 
in that opposite to it the Founder's ; in the Third a Sun-Dial, and the 
Fourth a Garden-Knot ; all planted in Box, and neatly cut. 

' The whole is surrounded by a Terras. On each Side are Lime- 
Trees planted ; and on the North Side in particular there is a serpentine 
Walk planted with flowering Shrubs. Behind the Mount likewise is 
a fine Collection of Shrubs so contrived as to rise gradually one above, 
the other, and over them, a Row of Horse Chestnut Trees, which 
spread in such a Manner as to cover the Garden Wall, and carry the 
Eye on to a most beautiful Mantle of tall Elms, which terminates the 
View, and seems to be the only Boundary to that End of the Garden ; 
but we are obliged to Magdalen College Grove for this additional 

396 University Society 

' At the South East Corner of the Garden we enter the Bowling- 
Green ; which is in all Respects neat and commodious. Opposite to 
the Entrance is a Pavilion or Temple; on the Right a Terras with flow- 
ring Shrubs, and a Row of Elms to shade the Green in the Evening, 
that Side being almost due West ; and on the Left a Row of Sycamores 
which are mentioned by Dr Plot, in his Natural History of Oxfordshire, 
as a great Curiosity ; being incorporated from one End of the Row to 
the other. 

' Having conducted our Reader to the furthest Part of the College, 
we would recommend to him a View of the Building from the Mount ; 
whence the Garden-Court, in particular, has v. very grand Effect : For 
from thence the Wings appear properly display'd, and the whole is seen 
at a convenient Distance. The Perspective View annexed was taken 
from the first Landing-place, and may be compared with the Original. 
From the top of the Mount likewise there is an extensive and agreeable 
Prospect of the Country, and of some other Buildings in the Uni- 

As an example of the critical taste of the time we may select the 
following from the Account of Trinity College : 'The Chapel here is exqui- 
sitely finished ; its Screen and Altar-Piece are of Cedar curiously work'd, 
and the latter is embellished with Carvings of that eminent Artist Mr 
Guibbons ; the Floor is laid with black and white Marble; the Cieling 
adorned with admirable Stucco of a very high Relief, in the Middle of 
which is an Ascension finely painted ; and that which appears to be 
the Frame round this Picture is a curious Deceptio Visits, or Deception 
of the Sight; for it does not really project, but is on a Level with the 
rest of the Cieling. In a Word, this Chapel is a Pattern of Elegance 
joined with Simplicity. 

' The Hall is a handsome Gothick Room, adorned with the Pictures 
of their Founders and Benefactors.' 

The contemporary descriptions of other college 
chapels must be reserved for the third, and those of 
the Physick or Botanick Gardens, for the second part 
of this Compilation. 

Feb. 10, 1779, the Corporation ordered the trees 
on Erasmus's walk at the north end of Queens' Green 
to be sold 1 , but the University paid 50/. to preserve 

1 Cooper's Annals, IV. 389. 

in the Eighteenth Centicry. 397 

them, Sept. 26, 1780. So in an engraving of King's 
College Chapel, published in 1793 (by W. & J. Walker, 
from an Original Drawing by J. Walker, figures by 
Burney), a party of ladies and university men are de- 
picted as enjoying a summer's afternoon on that walk, 
while others are punting themselves and their friends 
on the river, the larger barges being towed by horses 
who wade in the water. 

In one of Loggan's views of Clare Hall (about 
1690), two men, in business-like costume, are rowing 
two ladies and a beau, who sit under an awning in 
the stern, while another pleasure party watch them 
over the wall of the fellows' garden. 

William Pattison, the poet of Sidney Sussex Col- 
lege, who used to amuse himself with fishing, also, 
about 1725, wrote a poem to the Cambridge Beauties 
Aureuchia, Sylvia and Delia, Belinda and Flora. A 
few years later appeared 'A Poem, in answer to a 
Lampoon, which was wrote on the Cambridge Ladies, 
London, 1731.' [Bodl. Gough, Camb. 103]. It relates 
to the virtues of the Beauties who attended the Cam- 
bridge churches : as, Alinda, Flavia, and Flora at the 
University Church; Clarissa a 'Less St Marian;' 
'thy fair oh Benne't;' 'the Andrian fair;' and 'the 
fair Botolphian maid.' 

' Surprized I gaze on each unerring Fair, 
Whom health requires to take refreshing Air, 
To King's cool shades where restless Lovers walk, 
In different Ways on diff' rent Subjects talk. 
But ah how fatal oft these Walks do prove 
To injur'd Innocence, and constant Love, 
Let Lucia witness.' 

398 University Society 

The following passage from 'The Friendly and 
Honest Advice of an Old Tory to the Vice-Chancellor 
of Cambridge,' 175 1 [Bodl. Gough, Camb. 36, 47], 
p. 26, describes a condition of things very strange to us. 

'The Wranglers I am told on the first Day of their 
Exercise have usually expected that all the young 
Ladies of their Acquaintance (whether such as have 
sometimes made their Bands, or who are more gen- 
teely employed in keeping the Bar at a Tavern or a 
Coffee-house) should wish them Joy of their Honours. 
To give them an opportunity of doing so, their Man- 
ner has been to spend the Morning in going to several 
of their Houses.' 

The second volume of the Student or Oxford and 
Cambridge Monthly Miscellany contains several pa- 
pers written by ' the Female Student,' and dated frofh 
Cambridge in 1751, though I have my suspicions that 
they were written by an Oxonian. The career of a 
Toast or Beauty is sketched in a lively manner. She 
is the daughter of a fellow of a college who was se- 
cretly married to the daughter of a 'matriculated 
tradesman' (a barber, a bookseller, a butler or cook of 
college, 11. 256; a tailor's daughter is mentioned, ibid. 
303). She had picked up as much information as she 
could from the inside of wig-boxes and from the 
curling papers twisted round pipes (p. 49), and her 
unknown father had carefully taught her Latin and 
one science after another. After she had ceased to 
be the care of freshmen of fortune over the tea-table 
and of gold tufts and ' the genteelest, or (in the mo- 
dern dialect) the jemmiest ' of all our violin-playing 

in the Eighteenth Century. 399 

fellow-commoners at concerts (I. 131, II. 51, 105), she, 
by her wit, becomes a favourite with older members 
of the university. What she might come to in time 
is shewn in the description of her predecessor, Miss 
Betsy Peevish (11. 349), an old maid who "goes to 
church constantly (with a large quarto bible under 
her arm) twice a day; and after prayers are over, she 
confabulates with some pious old woman about the 
faults of her neighbours.' 

It must have been shortly after this that Goldsmith 
wrote his Double Transformation. A Tale. 

' Secluded from domestic strife 

Jack Book-worm led a college life; 

A Fellowship at twenty-five 

Made him the happiest man alive, 

He drank his Glass, and crack'd his Joke, 

And Freshmen wonder'd as he spoke. 

Such Pleasures unalloy'd with Care, 

Could any accident impair? 

Could Cupid's shaft at length transfix 

Our Swain, arrived at thirty-six? 

O had the Archer ne'er come down 

To ravage in a Country Town ! 

Or Flavia been content to stop 

At triumphs in a Fleet-Street Shop! 

Skill'd in no other arts was she 
But Dressing, Patching, Repartee. 
And, just as Humour rose or fell, 
By turns a Slattern or a Belle.' 

I have already given an extract (on p. 158) from 
T. Warton's Progress of Discontent, which was com- 
posed not much before this time. The hero of that 
piece, having given up his fellowship to take a living 

400 University Society 

and to marry 'a cousin of the 'squire,' repents at his 
leisure, and sighs for his old college days : — 

'No cares were there for forward Peas 
A yearly longing wife to please; 
My thoughts no Christ'ning Dinners crost, 
No children cry'd for butter'd Toast; 
And every Night I went to bed 
Without a modus in my head.' 

After all, the universities had no great reputation 
for politeness. [Bishop] John Earl (1628, when fellow 
of Merton) in his Microcosmographie, § 20, says, of 
A downe-right Scholler that 

'His scrape is homely and his nod worse. He cannot kisse his 
hand and cry Madame, nor talke idly enough to beare her company. 
His smacking of a Gentle-woman is somewhat too sauory, and he mis- 
takes her nose for her lippe. A very Wood-cocke would puzzle him in 
earning, and hee wants the logicke of a Capon. He has not the glib 
faculty of sliding over a tale, but his words come squemishly out of his 
mouth, and the laughter commonly before the iest. He names this 
word Colledge too often, and his discourse beats too much on the 
Vniversity. The perplexity of mannerlinesse will not let him feed, and 
he is sharp set at an argument when hee should cut his meate. He is 
discarded for a gamester at all games but one and thirty, and at tables 
he reaches not beyond doublets. His fingers are not long and drawn 
out to handle a Fiddle, but his fist is cluncht with the habit of dis- 
puting. Hee ascends a horse somewhat sinisterly, though not on the 
left side, and they both goe iogging in griefe together. He is exceed- 
ingly censur'd by the innes a Court men, fpr that hainous Vice being 
out of fashion. He cannot speake to a Dogge in his owne Dialect, and 
vnderstands Greeke better then the language of a Falconer. Hee has 
beene vsed to a darke roome, and darke clothes, and his eyes dazzle at 
a Sattin Doublet. The Hermitage of his Study, has made him somwhat 
vncouth in the world, and men make him worse by staring on him. 
Thus is hee silly and ridiculous, and it continues with him for some 
quarter of a yeare, out of the Vniuersitie. But practise him a little in 
men, and brush him ore with good companie, and hee shall out balance 
those glisterers as much as solid substance do's a feather, or Gold 

in the Eighteenth Century. 401 

A dramatist's opinion is thus expressed by Far- 
quhar {Love and a Bottle, II. 2) in 1698: 

' Widow Bullfinch. Champagne is a fine liquor, 
which all your great beaux drink to make 'em witty. 

' Mockmode. We dare not have wit there [at the 
university] for fear of being counted rakes. Your 
solid philosophy is all read there, which is clear 
another thing.' 

Jack Lizard is represented in the Guardian of 
April 8, 171 3 (No. 24), as coming home for his first 
vacation (he was only about fifteen years old), and 
making his friends uncomfortable by applied science 
of a disagreeable description, and by telling, in com- 
pany, long stories about the college cook. The 77th 
number of Hugh Kelly's Babler illustrates, in the 
person of Tom Welbank, the ignorance of the world 
displayed by a university man when in company 
with Mr Pope and Lady Mary Wortley Montague. 
The testimony of Nic. Amherst, in Terrae Filius, 
ed. 2, p. 193, is in the same direction. 

In 'the Author's Farce, and the Pleasures of the 
Town,' I. 5, Witmore is made to say, ' But for a man 
to preach up Love and the Muses in a Garret, it 
wou'd not make me more sick to hear Honesty talked 
of at Court, Conscience at Westminster, Politeness at 
the University.' 
And Swift says, 

' A scholard when just from his college broke loose, 
Can hardly tell how to cry Bo to a goose.' 

The Female Student, however, makes a distinction. 
L. B. E. 26 

4-02 University Society 

Speaking of masters of arts she writes {Student, or 
Oxf. and Camb. Monthly Miscellany, 175 1, 11. 301, 

' A. magisterial strut, a "wise gravity of countenance, and a general 
stiffness in all his actions denote him for a man of consequence. He is 
taught to entertain a sovereign contempt for undergraduates, and, for- 
sooth scorns to demean himself by conversing with his inferiors. Hence 
the whole scene of his life is confin'd to those of his own standing : and 
the college-hall, the common-room, the coffee-house, and now and then 
a ride on Gog-magog-hills, is all the variety he has a taste for enjoying. 
One half of the human creation, (which men have complaisantly term'd 
the Fair) he is an utter stranger to; and that softness, that delicacy, 
that je ne scai quoy elegance of address, which our company imper- 
ceptibly inspires, is in his eyes a foolish impertinent affectation. Thus 

does he gradually degenerate into a mere what I don't care to 

name ; 'till at last he has liv'd so long at college, that he is not fit to 
live any where else. 

' That I have traced the true source of ACADEMICAL ill-breeding, 
is plain from the awkward carriage of our rusty dons, whenever they 
are saddled with the company of strangers. But at the same time let 
me do justice to those of our younkers (especially among the fellow- 
commoners) who by studied grimace, formal elocution, and forc'd 
action, are equally excessive in the practice, as others are in the neglect 
of politeness. This affectation I attribute to the vain ambition of 
monopolizing the regards of what they call beauties amongst us, who 
(poor souls!) deal out their good graces indiscriminately to all that 
dance after them. However, as the honour of sauntering with them in 
publick, is seldom indulg'd but to the jaunty, he is sure to have the 
reputation at least of being a favourite, who by this mark of their esteem 
is preferr'd for politeness.' 

Richardson, in Sir Charles Grandison (1753), gives 
an amusing sketch of Mr Walden, a pedantic and 
conceited ' Oxford Scholar of family and fortune ; but 
quaint and opinionated, despising every one who had 
not had the benefit of an university education.' Har- 
riet Byron writes thus to her confidential friend, Miss 
Selby {Letter X.): ' By the way let me ask my uncle 

in the Eighteenth Century. 403 

if the word "scholar" means not the learner rather 
than the learned? If it originally means no more, I 
would suppose that formerly the most learned men 
were the most modest, contenting themselves with 
being thought learners.' 

Judging from the specimens which she gives of 
their conversation at table, we should now say that 
all the gentlemen were impolite (perhaps they were 
drawn so intentionally to lead up to the immaculate 
Sir Charles); but Mr Walden is offensively and ex- 
cessively rude. This is the style of his conversation 
{Letter XII.) : 

' It has been whispered to me that you have had 
great advantages from a grandfather, of whose learn- 
ing and politeness we have heard much. He was a 
scholar. He was of Christ Church in our university, 
if I am not mistaken. You have thrown out some 
extraordinary things for a lady, and especially for so 
young a lady. From you we expect the opinions of 
your worthy grandfather, as well as your own no- 

' Have you, madam, read Swift's Tale of a Tub? 
There is such a book, Sir Hargrave...' 

' I have, sir.' 

' Why, then, madam, you no doubt read, bound up 
with it, Tlte Battle of the Books: a very fine piece 
written in favour of the ancients, and against the 
moderns.' One of the other gentlemen puts in ma- 
liciously, ' The young gentlemen at both universities 
are already in more danger of becoming fine gentle- 
men than fine scholars! [Letter XIII.) However, Mr 

26 — 2 

4.04 University Society 

Walden is said to have had 'very few admirers in 
the university to which, out of it, he is so fond of 
boasting a relation :' and we can sympathize with 
Miss Clement's whispered thanksgiving that 'all scho- 
lars are not like this.' 

If we may trust a lady's account, scholars were 
ignorant of the fashionable slang. (Mrs Cowley's 
Who's the Dupe f 1779, L 3-) 

'Charlotte. Knowledge, as you manage it, is a 
downright bore. 

' Gradus. "Boar!" what relation can there be be- 
tween knowledge and a "hog!" 

• Char. Lord bless me ! how ridiculous. You have 
spent your life in learning the dead languages, and 
are ignorant of the living. Why sir, "bore'' is all the 

'Grad. "Ton!" "ton!" What may that be ? It 
cannot be orthology: I do not recollect its root in 
the present languages. 

'Char. Ha, ha, ha! better and better. Why, sir, 
"ton" means — "ton" is — Pho! what signifies where 
the root is? These kinds of words are the short 
hand of conversation, and convey whole sentences at 
once. All one likes is "ton," and all one hates is 

How far ignorance of the world may have been 
produced by the difficulties of locomotion, it is not 
easy to say. Only a small proportion of the Ox- 
onians can have enjoyed the fashionable society of 
Astrop wells {Spectator, No. 154, and compare p. 105 
supra), and still fewer the more fashionable ' watering- 

in the Eighteenth Century. 405 

place' the Bath, like John Thorpe in Miss Austen's 
Northanger A bbey. 

Since the time when master Hobson jogged be- 
tween Cambridge and the Bull in Bishopsgate-street, 
there had been considerable advance in the facilities 
of conveyance; but still communication between dis- 
tant counties was no trifling matter. 

About 1670 the Flying Coach' 1 performed the journey from Lon- 
don to Oxford in r 3 hours in summer : in cold weather it took two 

Dr Bliss says 2 that in 1724 Haynes's flying coach from Oxford to 
London took two days in winter, and one in summer, when they ran 
three days a week. In 1707 there was only one carrier once a fortnight 
between Oxford and Bath, Oxford and Birmingham, Oxford and Read- 
ing. To Shrewsbury once a month ; to Exeter once in five weeks ; to 
Westmoreland thrice a year. In Nov. 1731 the licensed waggoners, 
Mr Thos. Godfrey and the widow Stafford, put one Barnes into the 
Vice-Chancellor's Court for having set up a waggon to carry goods to 
and fro from London without his licence 3 . 

July 17, 1702, Fr. Burman left London in a coach and four at 5 in 
in the morning and reached Cambridge at 8 p.m. 

Aug. 16, 1710, when Z. C. von Uffenbach 4 was driving from Bices- 
ter to Oxford, one of the wheels of his coach broke, and the passengers 
had to walk the remaining ten miles. 

Ralph Thoresby's journey and narrow escape from a similar accident 
in the summer of 1714, has already been quoted (pp. 259, 260). 

June 24, 1 74 1 5 , a daily post was established between Cambridge 
and London by the Postmaster-General. Mr Cooper (Annals, III. 463) 
quotes an advertisement of the autumn of 1654: 'A Stage Coach goes 
from the Swan at Grayes Inn Lane end in Holborn to the Rose in 
Cambridge every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday for ioj\, and from 
the Rose in Cambridge every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday for ioj. 
Letters and small packets are sent by them.' 'This seems to have been 
the coach afterwards called the Fly, which went by the Epping road, 
and which many years since put up at the Queen's Head, in Gray's Inn 

1 Hone's Year Book, col. 269. 
5 Reliqu. Hearn. Bliss, II. 215 n. 3 Ibid. III. 77. 

* Rdsen, III. 85. 6 Cooper's Annals, IV. 243. 

406 University Society 

Lane, till removed to the George and Blue Boar in Holborn. It con- 
tinued to run from the Rose till the nth of April, 1808, when it started 
from the Red Lion. From Chamberlayne's Angliae Notitia, 1671, it 
appears the coaches from London to Cambridge performed the journey 
in 12 hours ['at a low price as about is. for every 5 miles.' Hone's Year 
Book, col. 1451, where reference is made to the flying-coaches of 1720], 
' ' not counting the time for dining, setting forth not too early and coming 
in not too late." In the early part of George the Second's reign, espe- 
cially in the winter season, although the coaches had six horses, they 
were frequently two days in performing the journey hence to London.' 

The fares for hackney coachmen 1 between Cambridge and Sturbridge 
fair in 1688 were fixed at u. for one, two, three, or four persons from 
sunrising to sunset; and after sunset \%d. In 1729 2 the fare was only 
id., and was raised to 6d. by day, and is. in the evening. 

About 1 749 the University licensed eleven letter-carriers : and there 
Were two coaches to London. 

According to the Cambridge Guide 3 , about the year 1770, there were 

'Post days at Cambridge. 

'London. In every day (except Monday) at 9 in the morning 
[8, ed. 1 796]. Out every night (except Saturday) at 9 o'clock [alternate 
days at 5 or 6 p.m. in 1763]. 

' Caxton [Huntingdon, 1766] and the North. In every day (except 
Sunday) at 9 in the morning [10, 1763; 8, 1796]. Out every day (ex- 
cept Monday) at 9 in the evening. 

'Norfolk, Bury, &c. In every day at 9 [8, 1796] in the morning. 
Out every night at 9 o'clock. 

' Ely. In every Wednesday, Friday, and Sunday, at 9 in the morn- 
ing [every evening (except Saturday), 1796]. Out the same mornings 
at 10 o'clock [every night at 7 o'clock (except Monday), 1796].' 

In the same Guide eight Coaches are mentioned (in 1763 only three). 
Among these are : ' The Fly for 4 passengers at us. each [12s. in 1 763 ; 
i8j. in 1796], which goes to London every day by Chesterford, Hock- 
erill, and Epping ; set out at 7 o'clock from the Rose, in the market- 
place, and arrives at the Queen's Head, Gray's Inn Lane [George and 
Blue Boar, Holborn, 1796], at 5 o'clock the same evening; from whence 
another Fly sets out every morning at 8 o'clock for Cambridge.' 
['Whereas many Gentlemen of the University and others have much 

J - Cooper's Annals, III. 540. 
2 Ibid. JV. 205, 206. 3 Ibid. IV. 273. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 407 

desired they might be at Liberty, when travelling in the Fly, either to 
Dine, or not, upon the Road : We the Proprietors of the said Fly, for 
the more speedy Conveyance of Passengers, do not stop on the Road 
to dine (except desired), by which means near an Hour will be saved in 
the Journey ; and nothing shall be wanting to render the said Machines 
in all other respects, as compleat, safe, and expeditious as any in the 
Kingdom, By A. S. Forlow & Co.' of the Rose. He took the credit of 
being ' the first Undertaker of conveying Gentlemen, in this expeditious 
manner, to and from London.' Cooper's Annals, IV. 336.] 'The 
London and Cambridge Diligence for 3 passengers at 15J. each' [1/. in 
1796], 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. from the Hoop to the White-Horse, Fetter Lane. 
'Woodward and Co.'s Ipswich Stage,' 'Smith and Co.'s Post Coach 
from Cambridge to Birmingham in 2 days, at 1/. ioj-. each,' &c. &c. 
E. Gillam's, J. Burleigh's, J. Cock's, and Oliver's Waggons, and several 
carriers are enumerated. In 1764 there was also a Fly to Ely, six 
horses, on week-days, 8 a.m. to n p.m. Return 3 p.m. to 6 p.m. 
Insides 4^. outsides is. 

The first mail coach direct from London to Cambridge (in y£ hours) 
was that from London to Wisbech, which began to run Feb. 6, 1792. 

The Cambridge Chronicle^, price i\d. was first published Sat., Oct. 
30, 1762. With it was afterwards incorporated the Cambridge Journal 
and Weekly Flying Post, which first appeared in Sept. 1 744. 

In March, 1785, Cambridge bags were sent to and brought from . 
Bournbridge 2 , when the plan of Mr Palmer of Bath for mails was set 
on foot between London and Norwich. ' Before that time letters were 
conveyed on horseback, and I have seen ' (says Professor Pryme) ' the 
post-lad with a portmanteau strapped behind him on his horse, of which 
he could so easily have been robbed, riding between Newark and Not- 

' Pack-horses were used for conveying goods, and I have seen long 
strings of them with their panniers in the North of Yorkshire and in 

' A gentlemen of olden time travelled, when alone, by " riding 
post," that is, hiring for eightpence a mile at each stage two horses, 
with a post-boy, who carried the portmanteau behind him, and took the 
tired horses back when fresh ones were had. Every gentleman visited 
London at least once in his lifetime. Pillion was the usual mode of 
conveyance for women among farmers, and even the gentry. I have 
seen hundreds riding so 3 ;' 

1 Cooper's Annals, IV. 323, 249. * Ibid. IV. 415. 

3 .AutoHog. Recoil, of. Geo. Pryme f 18 Jo, pp. 62, 63. 

408 University Society 

At the end of the Camb. Univ. Calendar for 1802 are advertised 
nine coaches: The Telegraph light Coach, Mail, Fly, Heavy, Lord 
Nelson, Bury, Birmingham, Old Birmingham, and Ipswich. When 
the Telegraph was first announced to do the distance between this and 
London in the time there stated (7 hours) 1 , 'people anticipated that it 
would' never last, and that the horses would shortly break down from 
fatigue. The coaches went very slowly : a man walking between Bury 
St Edmund's and Newmarket was offered a lift on one as it passed him. 
He had been in the habit of accepting it, but on this occasion said, 
"No, thank you, I'm in a hurry to-day." I myself have travelled with 
my uncle from Nottingham to Hull by coach, when it took two days 
to perform the journey (72 miles), and have witnessed two men, who 
spoke to the coachman as he left Newark, arrive on foot at the half-way 
house between that and Lincoln, a distance of 16 miles, just as we 
drove out of it after baiting the horses.' 

Among Dightan's caricatures is A View of the Telegraph, Cam- 
bridge, May, 1809, a portrait of 'Dick Vaughan,' in black hat, brown 
top-coat, white neckcloth, yellow waistcoat and top boots, employed 
in knotting his long coaching whip. 

In the Cambridge University Calendars a list of Coaches precedes 
the Index from the year 1805 onwards. But in 1842 'the list of Coaches 
is altogether omitted as, owing to the frequent changes in the time of 
their starting, consequent upon the progress of the different railroads, 
&c, its insertion would not have given information that could have been 
depended upon.' There is an advertisement of the Post Office in 
Sidney Street. 

I have heard it said that our Floralia in the ' May 
term' have become quite a different thing within the 
memory of our elder residents, since railways have 
brought up our aunts and cousins from a distance. 

It would be a hopeless task to attempt to enumerate 
all the trivial particulars in which modern invention 
have altered or modified the habits of the university. 
Gas, for instance, has in most places supplanted 
oil-lamps in the courts and on the staircases, though 
we may still be proud to retain tapers in the Chapels 
1 Autobiog. Recoil, oj Geo. Pryme, pp. 61, 62, s, „. 1804. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 409 

of some of our colleges. Mr E. Johnson, of Trinity- 
street, has a caricature ('Topham fecit') of the under- 
porter of Trin. coll. ; he carries a lamp-lighter's lad- 
der and a capacious oil can, like a garden watering 
pot : just such an one as that from which the uncon- 
scious lamplighter is pouring oil into the open chair 
in Hogarth's 4th cartoon of the Rake's Progress, on 
S. David's day. 

Gunning records 1 a curious story relating to this 
custom. 'Castley [of Jesus] was a man of penurious, 
habits, of which the following may be taken as an il- 
lustration : — John Brooke, whose rooms were on the 
same staircase, proposed that they should furnish a 
lamp at their mutual charges, to prevent the recur- 
rence of much inconvenience to which they had been 
subjected of an evening from the darkness of the 
staircase. Castley said he considered it a piece of 
needless extravagance ; but after a time he agreed to 
the proposition, with the condition that he should be 
allowed to furnish the oil on alternate nights, for he 
thought the porter, whom Brooke had proposed to 
employ, would charge too much. This was agreed 

'To Brooke's great surprise, he frequently found the 
lamp on Castley's nights burning brightly at a late 
hour, whereas, when the porter lighted it on his night, 
it had burnt out much earlier. One evening when 
Brooke was reading in his room with his door sported 
(fastened), he heard a very quiet step on the landing- 

1 Reminiscences, II. 139, 140. 

4io University Society 

place ; and opening his door gently he surprised Cast- 
ley in the very act of puffing out the lamp, by which 
dexterous manoeuvre, on alternate nights, he was en- 
abled to shirk the expense of providing oil!' 

Mr Mayor says {Hist, of St John's, 1095, 1. 10), 'As 
an undergraduate Dr Wood "kept" in a garret in the 
2nd court letter O. The college tradition that he 
studied by the light of the rush candle on the stair- 
case, with his feet in straw, not being able to afford 
fire and candle, is confirmed by H. T. Riley, esq., 
who heard it from Dr Wood's bedmaker/ 

Dr Ro. Plumptre, in his Hints respecting some of 
the university Officers in 1782 (p. 23), asks 'If... we 
cannot well afford to pave the streets, would it not be 
as well to light them?' Both were done by the act 
of 1788. * 

It has been seen already (pp. 101 foil.) that in old 
days the sizars, servitors, battelers, and poor scholars, 
undertook, to a great extent, the menial offices, which 
in time devolved upon college servants : the cook, 
steward, and barber, being as much parcel of the 
foundation as the college porters and chapel clerks.. 

In 1625 (J. Gostlin, V. C), a decree of the heads was 
made to prohibit the admission of bedmakers, illiterate 
boys and men, and even women, into colleges to per- 
form those menial offices which had aforetime been a 
source of income to poor scholars — 'a studiosis egenis 
adeorum impensas sustentandas.' John Strype, writing 
to his mother, 16 Aug., 1664, from St Katharine-Hall, 
Cambridge, says of his tutor's account, 'Bedmaker 
and Laundresse are set down for a whole last Quarter.' 

in the Eighteenth Century. 411 

Among Vincent Bourne's Latin poems is a notice of 
Isaac Newton's (male) bedmaker at Trinity. 

astrologum cantabrigiensem. 

' Lusit, amabiliter lusit Fortuna jocosa, 

Et tunc, siquando, tunc oculata fuit; 
Cum tibi, Johannes, Newtoni sternere lectum; 

Cum tibi museum verrere diva dedit. 

Nam dum ille intentus studiis caelestibus haesit, 

Concipiens ambos mente capace polos : 

Tu qtoque cognatus stellis, Martique Jovique, 

Mercurio et Veneri non rudis hospes eras: 

Cum musis musae famulantur, et avtibus artes, 

Majori (ut fas est) obsequiosa minor; 
Nee melior lex est nee convenientior aequo, 

Quam siet astronomo seruus ut astrologus.' 

.The same author wrote some elegant Latin elegiacs 
to Charon 'in obitum Roussaei, collegio Trinitatis 
servi a cubiculis, anno 1721,' who was drowned in the 
Cam on which he had so often rowed. 

The following extract is from the Student or Oxford 
and Cambridge Monthly Miscellany, I. 55 : 'T'other 
day I caught my bedmaker, a grave old matron, 
poring very seriously over a folio that lay upon my 
table... Lord bless you master, says she, who I reading! 

Reference to college barbers has been made above, 
pp. 130—8. 

Though I gather from the reminiscences of a friend 
who was at Cambridge in 18 12, that there has not 
been any great addition to the articles of furniture 
usually found in college rooms since his time, there' 

412 University Society 

has clearly been a considerable advance in luxury- 
even in the last dozen years, in expence, ease, and 
ornament. However, I gather from a note on p. 13, 
of Hints to Freshmen at the Univ. of Cambridge (ed. 
4, 1822), that sofas had not universally a place in 
undergraduates' rooms. The change since the last 
century is still more clearly marked. In the illustra- 
tion to the poem of 'the Lounger' (see p. 372), in the 
Oxford Sausage of 1764, the hero sits in a bare room, 
with one little round table, one chair, an empty grate, 
and (above the chimney-piece, which is quite una- 
dorned), something which may stand either for a map 
qf England or for a much fractured oblong mirror. 
Gray, in a letter written 9 Oct., 1740, says that he 
'saw in one of the vastest palaces in Rome... a bed 
that most servants in England would disdain to lie 
in, and furniture much like that of a soph at Cam- 
bridge for convenience and neatness.' 

The Oxford Guide for 1761, however, records that 
at All Souls 'The private Apartments of the College 
are generally very neat and convenient. The room 
in the old quadrangle, which was formerly the library 
(before the new one above described was finished), is 
lately fitted up, by one of the Fellows, in a very ele- 
gant manner, in the Gothic taste; and is deservedly 
esteemed one of the curiosities of the house.' 

William Whiston tells in his Memoirs (ed. 1. Vol. I. 
p. 23), that, when an undergraduate at Clare-Hall in 
1687, he was much concerned at finding his sight 
impaired, till a narrative of Mr Boyle suggested the 
cause and the remedy. 'For I and my Chamber- 

in the Eighteenth Century. 413 

Fellow had newly-whitened our Room, into which 
almost all the Afternoon the Sun shone, and where I 
used to read. I therefore retired to my Study [pro- 
bably the museum or recess in their common " keep- 
ing-room," see above p. 89], and hung it with Green, 
by which means I recovered my usual Sight, which 
God be praised, is hardly worse now, that I perceive, 
at fourscore years of Age, than it was in my youthful 
Days.' Whiston writes in 1746 of his residence at 
Clare about 1686: 'had the Expences of a Collegiate 
Life been as extravagant then as they are now come 
to be, or had I not lived as frugally as possible, she 
[his Widow Mother] would not have been able to 
have given me my Degrees ; especially that of Master 
of Arts. In which the Present of £$ from Bishop 
Moor, was then a kind and seasonable Addition ; and 
partly an Occasion of my Acceptance of the Place of 
his Chaplain afterwards. However I find from my 
Accounts still preserved, that tho' I was a Pensioner 
for the last half Year, yet did my whole Expences for 
the last three Years and half, till my first Degree in- 
clusive, not amount to so much as 100/. See Dr 
Newton's very prudent Pamphlet, called The Expence 
of University Education Reduc'd.' {Ibid. I. pp. 25, 26.) 
George Whitfield, when a servitor of Pembroke coll., 
Oxon. (1728), did not cost his relations more than 24/. 
in three years, having a kind tutor and being a handy 
and popular servitor. But about 40 years earlier 
Sam. Wesley the elder had managed to keep himself 
as a 'poor scholar' at Exeter coll. with less than three 
guineas, and by frugal living, by taking pupils, and 

414 University Society 

writing exercises for money, to bring away with him 
10/. 15-r. 1 27 Jan. 1776, the master and seniors of St 
John's, Cambridge, made a strict rule for the quarterly 
payment of the cook's bills 2 . 

Beloe, in the Sexagenarian, I. 29, 30, mentions a 
letter from a good authority at Balliol in 1760, who 
says that 80/. per annum was enough, but a gentlemen- 
commoner spent 200/. About 1620 a fellow-com- 
moner's expenses at St John's, Camb., did not exceed 
60/. 3 Edmund Burke spent about 150/. per annum at 
Trinity, Dtiblin, in 1745. Sir Erasmus Philipps, when 
'fellow-commoner 'of Pembroke, Oxon, about 1720, paid 
2/. to the esquire bedell of divinity at matriculation ; 
10/. 'caution money' to the college, which sum on 
leaving he handed over for the use of the society ; ioj. 
on admission to Bodley's library. Charles Simeon's* 
whole income, when at King's about 1780, was 125/. 
per annum: he used to dispose of one-third of that 
sum in 'charity.' 

Daniel Wilson 5 (bp. of Calcutta), at S. Edmund 
Hall, 1798 — 1 801, had an allowance of 100 guineas a 
year; and he continued to make it suffice. The col- 
lege records shew that his battels averaged about 8s. 
a week. 

In 1790 'The price of Hair-dressing, Room-rent, 
Washing, Attendants, &c. &c. is even lower than at 
most places. The Collegiate and University dues are 

1 Philip's Whitfield, p. 27 ; Soi;they's Wesley, I. 47. 

2 Mayor, 1085, 1. 30. 

3 Life of Sir Symonds D'Ewes, I. 119. 

4 Life, by Cams, p. 22. 5 Life, by Bateman, p. 56. 

in the' Eighteenth Century. 415 

peculiarly trifling. The charges of Tuition are, ac- 
cording to your own confession Sir, even culpably 
inconsiderable. And the sum paid by Pupils for at- 
tendance at the different Public Lectures is by no 
means equal to the sum required in London by the 
Professors of the Experimental branches of Science 1 .' 
Many of the Public Schools are nearly as expensive 
as Oxford : Private Tuition, the Army, Law and Me- 
dicine, more so 2 .' 

In very early times it had been found necessary to 
devise expedients for the defence of scholars against 
the exorbitance and oppression of the town's people. 
' Frederic II. when he founded his university at Na- 
ples, fixed a maximttm price for lodgings, and enacted 
besides that all lodgings should be let according to 
the joint valuation of two citizens and two scholars. 
\Conring, Diss. V. s. 9.] The latter regulation was in 
force in the English universities. At Bologna, in like 
manner, four taxors were appointed to regulate the 
price of lodgings. Elsewhere it was provided, that 
when a scholar had once hired lodgings, he should not 
be disturbed in possession of them so long as he paid 
his rent 3 .' See the letters patent of K. Henry III. 
1231 4 . 

When colleges had been built at Cambridge, the 
office of Taxors or Aediles {Taxatores) was to super- 
intend the assize of bread 5 . 

1 Philalethes, Answer to V. Knox, p. 10. s Ibid. 

3 Prof. H. Maiden On the Origin of Universities, p. 32. 

4 Peacock On the Statutes, pp. 2$, 2611. 

5 Ashton's Collectanea in Stat, xxxvn. fol. 29. 

41 6 University Society 

Fuller says, Hist, of Univ. Camb., Introd. § 38, 
' Their name remains, but office is altered at this day 
[1655]. For after the bounty of Founders had raised 
Halls and Colledges for Scholars free abode, their libe- 
rality gave the Taxers a Writ of ease, no more to 
meddle with the needless prizing of Townsmens 
houses. However, two Taxers are still annually cho- 
sen, whose place is of profit and credit, as employed 
in matters of weight, and to see the true gage of all 
measures, especially such as concern the victuals of 
Scholars. For, where the belly is abused in its food, 
the brains will soon be distempered in their study.' 

In this respect they were like the Roman aediles, 
who were also curatores annonae: compare 

' sese aliquid credens italo quod honore supinus 
fregerit heminas Arreti aedilis iniquas.' 

Persius, 1. 129. 


* praetextam sumere mauis, 
an Fidenarum Gabiorumque esse potestas 
et de mensura ius dicere, uasa minora 
frangere pannosus uacuis aedilis Ulubris?' 

Juvenal, x. 100. 

By the Award between the University and Town 
of Camb., anno 1502, at the instance of Margaret 
Countess of Richmond and Derby and mother of 
K. Hen. VII., it was agreed inter alia, 'That every 
Burgess and Dweller in the Town shall have all his 
Corn, Grain, Coal, and other Things measured at the 
Water Side by the Taxor's Bushel ; or with their own, 
sealed by the Taxors, for 4d. only, for a whole year. 

'That neither Proctors nor Taxors shall take of 

in the Eighteenth Century. 417 

any one, for setting up Baking or Brewing in the 
Town, more than 3-y. 4^.' 

The office of taxor, however, required to be revived 
in 1546 1 , having been merged in the proctor's in 1540 
on account of the miserable poverty of the university 2 . 

By the Elizabethan Statutes {cap. xxxvi.) in 1570, 
two regents or non-regents were to be nominated 
every year by a pair of Colleges (after the same com- 
bination as the proctors had been since the year 
1557) as Ediles or Taxors: the Heads of their Col- 
leges were to present them before Sept. 1, and the 
Regents were to elect them. The custom of pre- 
sentation had died out, and was revived by a grace 
of Oct. 13, 1722. 

In the curious painting kept in the Registrary's 
office, executed in bedel Stokys' time in 1590, in 
the right-hand corner are represented two taxors in 
academicals, and two tradesmen with aprons, weighing 
loaves out of a basket. In three compartments of 
the picture are painted various weights and measures. 
There are also scrolls containing tables of the same, 
and ' the Gagers marke with five differences! In the 
same room is preserved a measure bearing the date 
164.1, C. R. and royal arms. 

Dr Ro. Plumptre of Queens', in his Hints respecting 
some of the University Officers, 1782, p. 11, says, that 
the taxors in his time were paid quite as well as they 

Among the Bowtell collection at Downing College 

1 Cooper's Annals, I. 441. 

2 Peacock On the Statutes, p. 26 n. 

L. B. E. 27 

4J 8 University Society 

is a .memorandum (which Mr H. T. Riley assigns to 
Q. Elizabeth's time, Hist. MSS. $rd Report, p. 325) 
of ' Quae reddenda Taxatoribus. Imprimis, a brasen 
busshell, with a strike of woode. Item, a gallon, a 
pinte of brasse. Item, a tubb with one busshell of 
musterd seede, and a keler. Item, 2 payre of scales 
for breade, with 2 piles of brasse. Item, 2 scales for 
barrells, and another for the busshell of the towne. 
Item, a key for the markett-bell.' 

'In Sept. 1733 there was a dispute between the 
University and the Corporation as to the right to 
weigh hops at Sturbridge fair, as there had been in 
several previous years. The matter was referred to 
the Commissary of the University and the Recorder 
of the Town, who decided in favour of the University. 
A paper on the subject was drawn up and published 
by Thomas Johnson, of Magd. Coll., one of the 
taxors 1 .' 

March 26, 1784, the work of the taxors was in- 
creased, and more definitely stated by a grace of the 
senate 2 . 

The Camb. Univ. Commissioners, in their Report of 
1852 (p. 11), recommended the discontinuance of the 
office. It was abolished by the award of sir John 
Patteson (Aug. 31, 1855) between the town and uni- 
versity. The taxors are not mentioned in the Bill 
('the Cambridge Award Act') which confirmed the 
award in the following year. 

The reverend Richard Shilleto wrote to me on 

1 Cooper's Annals, IV. 213. 2 Ibid. iv. 411. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 419 

St S within' s, 1872: 'The very names of men once spe- 
cially recommended in the Bidding Prayer are utterly 
unknown ! Dr Gifford did some years ago, having 
an antiquated copy, recite the once well-known words, 
" the Proctors, T a x o r s, and all that bear office in 
this our body." I told him immediately after his ser- 
mon that I for one should not come to hear him next 
Sunday. "You are a rank Papist." Of course he 
asked the grounds of this grave accusation. "Why, 
you have been praying for men who have been dead 
to my certain knowledge some ten years ago." I do 
not think they have been prayed for — or rather bid- 
den to be prayed for — since.' The Vice-Chancellor 
has still magisterial jurisdiction with the mayor : and 
the proctors, and their deputies, have constabular po- 
sition within the circuit of the university 1 . 

Dr Waterland 2 , when at Magdalene, maintained the 
rights of the university against some magistrates of 
the town, who had bailed a person committed by the 

In 1705 the mayor was discommuned 3 , and read a 
confession of his offence in the University Church, for 
having refused precedency to the Vice-Chancellor in 
the joint seat in the Guildhall. 

Izaak Walton mentions that Ro. Sanderson (of 
Lincoln college, Oxon.), when senior proctor in 1616, 
'did not use his power of punishing to an extremity; 

1 1732—3, Cooper's Annals, IV. 212; 1749; ibid. IV. 274; 1765, 
ibid. IV. 336; 1771, ibid. IV. 362; 1785, tripos verses. 
■ Van Mildert, I. i. 34. 
3 Cooper's Annals, IV. 73, 74. 

27 — 2 

420 University Society 

but did usually take their names, and a promise to 
appear before him unsent for next morning : and 
when they did, convinced them with such obliging- 
ness, and reason added to it, that they parted from 
him with such resolutions as the man after God's own 
heart was possessed with, when he said to God, There 
is mercy with thee, and therefore thou shalt be feared. 
(Psal. cxxx.) And by this, and a like behaviour to 
all men, he was so happy as to lay down this danger- 
ous employment, as but few, if any have done, even 
without an enemy.' 

Fra. Dickens, a friend of Tho. Baker, fellow of 
Trinity Hall, was twice proctor, and executed the 
office 'with great lenity and tenderness 1 .' 

Dr Tho. Townson, fellow of Magd. coll., Oxon. 
was senior proctor in 1749, 'and it is remembered 2 of 
him that, in performing the duties of that difficult 
office, he so tempered salutary discipline with just 
lenity, and so recommended whatever he did by the 
manner of doing it, that he was universally esteemed 
and beloved. The Radcliffe Library was opened this 
year with a speech by the famed orator, Dr King; 
and the celebrity, graced with a large and splendid 
company of the friends of the university, was dis- 
tinguished also by conferring degrees on the trustees 
of Dr Radcliffe's benefaction.' 

Townson, in his speech at the end of his year of 
office as senior proctor, applauds the elegance of 
Dr King, and makes honourable mention of Drake 

1 Masters' Baker, no. 

' Life, by Archdeacon Churton, p. xv. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 421 

(his companion in travel), and Bagot (his pupil, lord 
Bagot), who had received degrees. He also bestows 
a generous compliment on Lowth, professor of Poetry, 
and author of Praelections on Hebrew Poetry. 

From the earliest times there has frequently arisen 
discord between the townsmen and the members of 
the university, their neighbours. 

As Dr Whewell says [Principles of English Uni- 
versity Education, 1837, p. 129) : ' If by ancient usage 
the students wear a peculiar dress, their position will 
generate the turbulence and the pride of the gown. If 
they are not so distinguished from their fellow-towns- 
men, they will soon find means themselves of marking 
the difference between the Bursch and the Pkilister? 
This distinction has sometimes led to internecine 
strife, scarcely less deadly than the affrays of the 
caterua at Caesarea of Mauritania, which the preach- 
ing of S. Augustine quelled: 'pugnam ciuilem, uel 
potius plus quam ciuilem, quam cateruam uocabant : 
neque enim ciues tantummodo, uerum etiam propin- 
qui et fratres, postremo parentes ac filii lapidibus inter 
se in duas partes diuisi, per aliquot dies continuos, 
certo tempore anni, sollemniter dimicabant, et quisque 
ut quemque poterat occidebat 1 .' 

At Oxford, in 1354, 'on the Feast of St. Scholas- 
tic^ the Virgin [Feb. 10, 548 A.D. sister of S. Bene- 
dict, founded a convent in the valley of Monte Cas- 
sino], several Scholars going to a Tavern then called 
Swyndlestock, and in some modern Deeds Swynstock 

1 De d'octrina Christiana, IV. 

422 University Society 

(but lately known by the Name of the Mermaid), at 
Cairfax ["Quatervois" or Carfax], and being served 
with bad Wine, order'd the Vintner [John de Croy- 
don] to change the same for better, and for his sawcy 
Language they broke his Head with the Flagon ; who 
thereon went and laid the matter of his Grief before 
his Servants and some of his Neighbours 1 .' They 
rejoiced to have a good occasion for a fray, and rang 
the bell of S. Martin's to summon the Townsmen, 
who fell upon the Scholars and even the Chancellor, 
Humphrey de Charleton. By his orders S. Mary's 
bell was tolled, and the Scholars then 'defended 
themselves till Night parted them, without any Mis- 
chief done on either side.' Next morning the Chan- 
cellor issued proclamation that both 'sides should lay 
down their arms, but the Townsmen going to the 
Austin Schools 'assaulted a D.D. in his Determina- 
tions together with his Auditory, and then by the 
means of an Ambuscade of 80 Persons plac'd in St 
Giles's Church, they surrounded the Students in the 
Fields called the Beaumonts, and soon put them to 
flight, being without Arms, some getting into the 
Austin Convent, and others into the City, with the 
loss of one slain, and others miserably wounded.' 

The Scholars were much harassed, and many of 
their Halls burnt, priests insulted, and all the friars' 
crosses overthrown, the peasants having been induced 
to break open the city gates, which had been shut 
against them. A royal proclamation restored peace; 

1 Ayliffe's Aniient and Present State of Oxford, I. 126. 1714. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 423 

and the authorities were summoned to appear 'before; 
K. Edward III. at Woodstock. The bishop of Lin-, 
coin (John Gynewell), in whose diocese it then wasj 
put Oxford under an interdict to be published every 
Sunday and holyday. All the scholars went into rus- 
tication, with the exception of those of Merton. But 
having surrendered their privileges to the king,' they 
returned by degrees, and were exhorted by him to re- 
sume their studies regularly : for, ' as it is said to have 
formerly happen'd at Athens, on a Quarrel of the like 
Nature, between the Scholars and Citizens; where 
the Sophists, on refusal to do any publick Exercises, 
taught the Youth in their private Houses ; even so 
here were the Scholars altogether instructed in pri- 
vate for some time, until the King publickly open'd 
the Mouths of the Lecturers ; and, for an Encourage- 
ment, now granted to them the most ample Charter 
yet obtain'd, containing many antient and modern 
privileges, some of which were taken away from the 
City and conferr'd on the University 1 .' 

In 1357 the bishop took off the Interdict on con- 
dition ' That the City on St Scholasticds Day, should 
Celebrate so many Masses at the City's Expence, for 
the Souls of the Scholars and others kill'd in this Tu- 
mult : Others say that the Mayor and Bailiffs, with 
60 of the chief Burgesses, were obliged on that Day 
at St Marys, to swear Observance of the customary 
Rights of the University, unless they have a Cause of 
Absence to be approv'd by the Vice- Chancellor; and 

* Ayliffe, I. 131. See further [Walker's] Qxoniana, I. 119— 138. 

424 University Society 

also, at their own Costs, there to say Mass by a Dea- 
con or Subdeacon, for the Souls of the slain : and it 
was further ordered that the said Number of Citizens 
should after Mass ended, singly offer up a Penny at 
the high Altar, of which forty Pence was to be dis- 
tributed to Poor Scholars, and the Residue to the 
Curate of St Mary's! As long as this was performed 
the City was exempt from their engagement to pay 
100 marks, ' till Q. Elizabeths Reign, when the Scho- 
lars impleaded them in the Summ of 1500 Marks, for 
omitting the same for 15 Years, by reason of a Pro- 
hibition to celebrate Mass according to the Tenor of 
the said Agreement : wherefore it was order'd by the 
Privy Council, that instead of the Mass on this Day, 
there should be a Sermon and Communion at this 
Church, with the aforesaid Offering, and at length 
this came only to publick Prayers, with the Oblation 
of sixty Pence as now in Use. Londinensis says, that 
the Mayor was obliged to wear a Halter or Rope 
about his Neck in this Procession, which through the 
Dignity of his Office was afterwards chang'd into a 
Silken Ribband [compare the tradition of the Burgo- 
masters of Ghent], with whom I cannot agree, tho' 
'tis certain the young Scholars were wont to rally him 
with much Contempt on this Occasion, till this Inso- 
lence was restrain'd by a Statute, under the Pain of 
Imprisonment 1 .' In process of time the City autho- 
rities began to rebel against this indignity. 

1 68 1, Jan. 13. 'News that alderman W. Wright, a 

1 Ayliffe, 1. 133—134. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 425 

burgess of the city, had lately made a motion to a 
committee to have the formality of St Scholastica's 
day laid aside. Townsmen go about into London, 
grow insolent as in 1641. Feb. 10, St Scholastica; the 
mayor (J. Barell), and about 20 citizens or more, came 
to St Mary's according to custom ; heard prayers, 
and would have offered 65 pence, but the vice- 
chancellor refused unless all were there. The rest, 
out of contempt, would not come as in 1641, merely 
encouraged for what they do by the late demeanour 
of the parliament. 

'1682, Feb. 10. Friday, the burgers or citizens of 
Oxford appeared in their full number on St Scholas- 
tica's day at St Mary's. Alderman Wright, their 
oracle, told them that if they would not appear, there 
might be some hole picked in their charter, as there 
was now endeavouring to be done in that of the city 
of London; he told them, moreover, that though it 
■was a popish matter, yet policy ought to take place 
In this juncture of time 1 .' 

'In the year 1800, another attempt to evade this 
customary ceremony was made by the then mayor, 
Richard Cox, esq., who neglected to attend at St 
Mary's church. For this contempt the university de- 
manded and recovered the fine of 100 marks of Mr 
Cox. But at the close of 1824, the mayor and coun- 
cil applied to the university for a total abolition of 
the custom 2 .' This was granted under the university 

1 Autobiography of A. Wood. 

2 Dr Bliss' note to Wood's Autobiography, p. 224. Cp. Recollec- 
tions of Oxford, by G. V. Cox. 

42 5 University Society 

seal in convocation, Feb. I, 1825, for which fa- 
vour the city returned their thanks. I find in the 
Oxford Univ. Calendar for 1822 among the cere- 
monies: 'Feb. 10, Sexagesima Sunday, Scholastica. 
Litany read at the altar of St Mary's church, after 
which the Mayor, the two Bailiffs, and sixty of the" 
burghers of the city of Oxford, make an offering of 
a silver penny each, as an atonement for the murder 
of some scholars, which took place in affray in the 
year 1353, 27 Edward III.' An oath, however, was 
exacted annually until about 1854, binding the city 
to hold intact the ancient privileges of the uni- 
versity 1 . 

Will. Soone, who was in 1561 regius professor of 
Civil Law till he turned papist, writes to Geo. Bruin 
from Cologne, eve of Pentecost, 1575, a curious ac- 
count of the manner of our university. 

' The common dress of all is a sacred cap (I call it 
sacred, because worn by priests); a gown reaching 
down to their heels of the same form as that of 
priests. None of them live out of the colleges in the 
townsmen's houses; they are perpetually quarrelling 
and fighting with them; and this is more remarkable 
in the mock fights which they practise in the streets 
in summer with shields and clubs. They go out in 
the night to shew their valour, armed with monstrous 
great clubs furnished with a cross piece of iron to 
keep off the blows, and frequently beat the watch. 
When they walk the streets they take the wall, not 

1 Moore's Historical Handbook to Oxford, p. 40. Shrimpton's, 1871. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 427 

only of the inhabitants, but even of strangers, unless 
persons of rank. Hence the proverb, that a Royston 
horse, and a Cambridge Master of Arts, are a couple 
of creatures that will give way to no body ... In stand- 
ing for degrees, the North country and South country 
men have warm contests with one another; as at Ox- 
ford the Welsh and English, whom the former call 
Saxons 1 .' He concludes, however, by asserting that 
he would prefer Cambridge life to a kingdom. 

Ant. Wood speaks of a Town and Gown riot, which 
lasted a week at Oxford, on the election of Ant. Hall, 
vintner, as mayor in Sept. 1673. 'A scholar of Brase 
Nose his arm broke, another his head ; began by ser- 
vitors, and carried on by them, and commoners, and 
townsmen of the meaner sort.' 

In March 1788 a drayman was killed in a street 
"fight at Cambridge, by Tho. ('Turk') Taylor of 
Trinity 2 . 

In Dec. 1792 the riot act was read, and the towns- 
men convicted for attacking meeting-houses 3 . 

Mention has already been made (pp. 41 — 43, 48) of 
misdemeanours of that character, and similar in- 
stances of misconduct will be noticed in the third 
.part of this Essay. 

The question of the rating of our University is 

.discussed in The Rights and Privileges of both the 

Universities, and of the University of Cambridge in 

1 Bruin, de pracipilus totius tmiversi urbibus, II. i. in Gent. Mag. 
. XLVI. 201. Cooper's Annals, II. 329. 

» Gunning, Reminisc. I. 116. Cooper's Annals, IV. 430. 
3 Ibid. IV. 445. 

428 University Society 

particular, Defended in a Charge to the Grand Jury, 
A t the Quarter Sessions for the Peace, held in and for 
the Town of Cambridge, The Tenth Day of October, 
1768. Also, An Argument in the Case of the Colleges 
of Christ and Emmanuel. By James Marriott, LL.D., 
Cambridge, Printed by J. Archdeacon, &c, &c, Lon- 
don, 1769. For the Benefit of the Hospital at Cam- 
bridge. Price is. pp. 36 [Bodl. Gough Camb. 66.] Re- 
ference is made to transactions in the years 1650, 
1748— 51, 1768. 

The Arguments of Mr Mansfield, Mr Dunning, and 
Mr Pemberton, on the Special Case between the Society 
of Catherine-Hall and tlie Parish of St Botolph, Cam- 
bridge...^ a Gentleman of the Middle Temple, 1774, 
and p. 22 of Hints respecting some of the University 
Officers, its Jurisdiction, its Revenues, &c, Submitted 
to the Consideration of the Members of the Senate of 
the University of Cambridge. By Robert Plumptre, 
D.D., Master 0/" Queens' College. Cambridge, Printed 
by J. Archdeacon, &c, 1782. 

The state of morals and discipline in the university 
seems to have reflected pretty much the condition of 
the country at large : and if we condemn the members 
of the Westminster and Constitution Clubs (pp. 50, 
70), we must not forget that we are thinking of the 
days of the Mohocks, celebrated by Steele and Swift, 
and in the artificial comedy of that era, and of the 
Scoivrers (Gay's Trivia): just as we ought to mea- 
sure the religious and political intolerance of the uni- 
versities, not by our own sentiments, but by the cur*, 
rent notions of those times. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 429 

The author of the Academic [Dr John Green] in 
1750 says (p. 21), that it was asserted that 'modesty, 
sobriety, in a few years, have made a swift Progress 
among all Orders:' and if the Benefactions 'appro- 
priated by their Donors to luxurious Uses' according 
to the spirit of past times, had, in the university, 
somewhat retarded the improved state of feeling 
which was become prevalent in the country, private 
expences there ran rather in healthy exercise than 
in bacchanalian entertainments. It was only a few 
years earlier, in 174 1, that Kit Smart had attached 
to the members of Gonville and Caius College the 
epithet which has become familiar to us through Tre- 
velyan's Horace at Athens: 

The sons of culinary Kays, 

Smoking from the eternal treat, 
Lost in ecstatic transport gaze 

As tho' the Fair were good to eat; 
E'en gloomiest Kingsmen pleas'd awhile 
" Grin horribly a ghastly smile." 

As to drinking, even Dr Johnson (perhaps with 
some feeling of pleasure in emulating the Socrates of 
the Platonic Symposium) remembered that he had 
'drunk three bottles of port without being the worse. 
University College has witnessed this.' 

In 1644 A. Wood and his mother sent sack, claret, 
cake, and sugar, to welcome Dr Bathurst and his 
bride. Before this, Ro. Herrick, of St John's and 
Trinity Hall, had sung of the maiden-blush : 

' So purest diaper doth shine 
Stained by the beams of claret wine.' 

430 University Society 

Hearne, in 1706, speaks of claret which cost is. 6d. 
per bottle 1 . 

In Fielding's Tom Jones, Squire Western asks 
(xviii. 12), 'Wut ha' Burgundy, Champagne, or what?' 
and the landlady at Upton (x. 3) serves Worcester- 
shire perry for mulled wine, champagne, sack, white 
wine, and what not. The 'Man of the Hill' offers 
Jones brandy, which he has kept 30 years. 

In Smollett's Roderick Random, 1748, they call for 
'French wine' (ch. 46). Narcissa's brother at Bath 
drinks 'no other sort of wine than port' (ch. 56). 
Roderick and his friend drink 'small French claret' 
against,' Bruin's' port (ch. 57). 

- In Fielding's Amelia (1751) champagne is drunk at 
dinner (ix. 3). 

In Smollett's Peregrine Pickle (1751) champagite is 
on the sideboard at the masquerade ball in the Hay- 
market, burgundy in the eating-room (ch. 76). 

In his Humphry Clinker (1771), 'Jack Holder is 
now at the Bath driving about in a phaeton and four, 
with French horns. He has treated with turtle and 
claret at all the taverns in Bath and Bristol.' 

'At half an hour past eight in the evening he 
[Quin] was carried home [from his Club at the 
Three Tuns] with six good bottles of claret under 
his belt.' 

Matthew Bramble, in the same novel, writes to Dr 
Lewis contrasting country and town life : ' At Bram- 
bleton I drink the virgin lymph pure and crystalline 

1 Reliqu. Hearn. I. 122. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 431 

as it gushes from the rock, or the sparkling beverage 
home-brewed malt of my own making ; or I indulge 
with cyder which my own orchard affords, or with 
claret of the best growth imported for my own use 
by a correspondent on whose integrity I can depend . . . 
Now mark the contrast at London ... If I would drink 
water I must quaff the mawkish contents of an open 
aqueduct exposed to all manner of defilements, or 
swallow that which comes from the river Thames im- 
pregnated with all the filth of London and Westmin- 
ster. This is the agreeable potation extolled by the 
Londoners as the finest water in the universe. As 
to the intoxicating potion sold for wine, it is a vile 
unpalatable and pernicious sophistication balderdashed 
with cyder, corn-spirit, and the juice of sloes. In an 
action at law laid against a carman for having staved 
a cask of port, it appeared from the evidence of the 
cooper that there were not above five gallons of real 
wine in the whole pipe which held above a hundred, 
and even that had been brewed and adulterated by 
the merchant at Oporto ... I shall conclude this cata- 
logue of London dainties with table-beer guiltless of 
hops and malt, vapid and nauseous.' In the next 
letter from J. Melford to sir Watkin Phillips, Bart. 

of Jesus Coll. Oxon., we read that ' S lives in the 

skirts of the town, and every Sunday his house is 
open to all unfortunate brothers of the quill, whom 
he treats with beef pudding and potatoes, port, punch, 
and Calvert's entire butt-beer.' 

In another letter it is complained that a hospitable 
foreigner, ' when he afterwards, meets with his guest 

432 University Society 

in London, is asked to dinner at the Saracen's Head, 
the Turk's Head, the Boar's Head, or the Bear, eats 
raw beef and butter, drinks execrable port, and is 
allowed to pay his share of the reckoning.' Just after- 
wards J. Melford describes a trick he played at Har- 
rowgate : ' I dexterously exchanged the labels and 
situation of his bottle and mine : and having tasted 
his tincture, found it was excellent claret! The pre- 
tended patient protested that " it was a varra poorful 
infusion of jallap in Bourdeaux wine." What he had 
drunk was genuine wine from Bordeaux, which the 
lawyer had brought from Scotland for his own pri- 
vate use.' In Argyleshire 'they find means to pro- 
cure very good claret at a very small expence.' 

Mackenzie, who had lived almost all his life in 
Scotland, calls claret the fashionable drink in 1771 
{Man of Feeling, ch. 33). 

About the same year the bursar of Peterhouse 
paid Juba Fortune $1. 8s. for four dozen of Sherry. 

1773. For eight dozen, 9/. 12s. 

Calcavella, per gallon, 6s. 8d. 

1772. Fine old Madeira, per dozen, il. 16s. 

A ' share' of a dozen of Madeira, il. 4s. gd. 

Brandy, per gallon, 1 2s. 

Geneva, per gallon, $s. 6d. 
1769. Port, per pipe, 34/. is. 
1771. Red port, at 18s. 

1773. Port, per dozen, ijs. 6d. and iys. ^d. 

1774. Port, per dozen, ijs. 
Lisbon, per dozen, 16s. 6d. 
Ditto, per hogshead, 21 1. 4s. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 433 

1775. Rum, per dozen, \l. \$s. 

Fine Porter, per barrel, il. 16s. 

1780. Tent and Sack, per pint, 2J. 
Lisbon, per hogshead, 24/. 
Bottles were charged 3J. 6^. per dozen. 

In the most amusing New Art of Pluck, by Scrib- 
lerus Redivivus [Dr Caswall], Oxford, ed. 2, 1835, 
book ii. ch. 9, it is said that ' Wine drinking pro- 
duceth Pluck each year in the proportion following: 
Sherry J2, Claret 23, Madeira, 27, Champagne 13, 
Port 90. The reason whereof is, that Port is most 
drunk, Champagne least, and the rest in proportion. 
Of late also hath Beer contributed not a little to pro- 
duce Plucks, for indeed beer is a good thing for mak- 
ing the mind heavy and loaded. Nevertheless, as 
yet beer hath not such consequence in Oxford as in 
Cambridge, being a new fashion in this place.' 

So utterly have tea and coffee supplanted the 
'morning draughts,' the fasting from which threw 
Savil Bradley, fellow of New College and Magdalene, 
'into a sowne' at the Ordination in 1661, as A. Wood 
records. In 1822"' Breakfast-parties are usually com- 
posed of idlers. I have known — the fast broken, in- 
deed, with a vengeance, but — the party not dispersed, 
when the bell has sounded for dinner 1 . "After din- 
ner," cries Eugenius, " I will apply. This morning I 
must devote to back-gammon 2 ." ' 

Lord Macaulay, in his essay on the Constitutional 
History, says, ' The reign of William the Third, as 

1 Hints to Freshmen at the University of Cambridge, ed. 4, p. 14. 

2 Ibid. p. 20. 

L. B. E. 28 

434 University Society 

Mr Hallam happily says, was the Nadir of the na- 
tional prosperity. It was also the Nadir of the na- 
tional character. [Macaulay repeats this expression 
in his essay on the Comic Dramatists of the Restora- 
tion^ It was the time when the rank harvest of 
vices, sown during thirty years of licentiousness and 
confusion, was gathered in ; but it was also the seed- 
time of great virtues.' 

To the last sentence it may be objected that the 
king did not set a very good example, and that 
bishop Gilbert Burnet was of a different opinion 1 . 
Sherlock, and Butler later, gave no more hopeful 

A Letter- to the Heads of the University of Oxford, 
on a Late very Remarkable Affair. 'The Head of 
Argus, &c.' Hondon: Printed And Sold by A. Dodd 
without Temple-Bar ; J. Robinson in Ludgate-street; 
Mrs Amey at Charing- Cross, and at the Pamphlet 
Shops at the Royal Exchange, 174.7, pp. 32 [Bodl. 
Godwin Pamphlets, 1858], signed ' Terrafilius,' relates 
a scandalous instance of wanton heartlessness on the 
part of some Oxonians, praises Dr Cockman of Uni- 
versity College as a model Head, and expresses envy 
at the discipline in those days kept up in the 'Uni- 
versities of Scotland, particularly those of Glasgow 
and Aberdeen! 

In December, 1751, while the Associators were agi- 
tating for the right of appeal [see above, p. 75 ».], 
some of the younger members of our university were 

1 See Palin's History of the Church of England, 105, 113. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 435 

alarming their neighbours by parading the streets 
with lighted torches or links 1 . 

Dr Whewell, in his Principles of English University 
Education, 1837, p. 121, quotes the following from the 
Remains of tfie Rev. Edward Griffin (of New York), II. 
259: 'Much has been said of the indolence of Fel- 
lows ; of their disposition to quarrel and petty in- 
trigue ; and of their fondness for guzzling ale, tippling 
port, and playing whist. Such things were. Nay, 
since such are the natural consequences of a want of 
ambition to be useful or distinguished, a want of oc- 
cupation, and a want of that most practical stimulant 
dire necessity, such things are. The cases, however, 
are unfrequent. The Fellows to whom I had the 
honour to be introduced were men of a different 
stamp. They were gentlemen, in the highest sense 
of that high term, and bore about them no traces of 
their somewhat monastic system. Their conversation 
smelt a little of the shop ; — was sometimes a little too 
mathematical, at least for me ; — but was throughout 
the most thoroughly intellectual I ever enjoyed. 
Their reunions, after a plain but well-cooked dinner 
on the dais of their College-hall, either in the com- 
mon sitting-room, or in the apartments of some in- 
dividual members, left on my mind a delightful im- 
pression. It was such as literary society should be, 
composed only of men of real learning ; of friends 
confiding in the mutual esteem entertained by all, 
undisturbed by ambitious quacks or impudent pre- 

1 Cooper's Annals, IV. 28s. See abcve, p. 75. 


436 University Society 

In May, 1716, Waterland, as vice-chancellor, had 
occasion to give notice that the statutes relating to 
the frequenting of taverns and public houses would 
be enforced against persons in statu pupihari 1 . 

In 1728 it was ordered upon Interpretation of part 
of the Statute De modestia et urbanitate morum, that if 
any scholar shall at any time resort to any Tavern or 
other publick house otherwise than the Statutes do 
allow, [an LL.B., M.B., Mus. B., M.A. ; or a pupil ac- 
companying his tutor, or invited to see a parent or 
friend, who has come into the town as a guest ; but 
only to dinner or supper: or with the exception of the 
last-mentioned case (an undergraduate or B.A.) at 
other times with the leave of the master], he shall for- 
feit is. 8d. If after the statutable time of locking the 
gates [8 p.m.; or from Lady-day to Michaelmass 9], 
3-r. 4d. If at a more unseasonable hour, or disorder'd 
in liquor, he shall, besides the other penalties, be ad- 
monished by the vice-chancellor, which Admonition 
shall be entered in a book kept for that purpose ; and 
after three admonitions be expelled. 'That if any 
number of Scholars, under pretence of being of the 
same year, School, or County, or otherwise, shall be 
found assembling together at any publick house, they 
shall, upon conviction thereof, beside the former pe- 
nalty of 3J. 4d., be suspended from taking any Degree 
'til one whole year after the usual time of taking the 
same*,' &c. 

These, then known as ' SCHOOL-FEASTS celebrated 

1 Cooper's Annals, IV. 142. 

2 Ibid. IV. 204. Dyer's Privileges of Cami. I. 341, 342. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 437 

at the University with any frequency, are bad things. 
They tie a young man down to drink, on stated days, 
more, than is good for him — and sometimes in the 
company of those of his school acquaintance, with 
whom it is least worth whiie to encourage a further 
intimacy 1 .' 

It was from one of these 'school-feasts* that the 
quarrels in 1750 arose {see above, pp. 71 — 75) 2 . 

In 1736 — 7, there was a contest between the Uni- 
versity and certain vintners who had set up unlicensed 
houses for 'playing of Interludes 8 .' 

The Regulations of 1750 have been summarized 
already (p. 67). 

In 1733, at Oxford, the new dean of Christ Church, 
Dr Conybeare, 'makes a great stir in the college, at 
present pretending to great matters, such as locking 
up the gates at 9 o'clock at night, having the keys 
brought up to him, turning out young women from 
being bedmakers, having the kitchen (which he visits) 
cleansed, and I know not what, aiming at a wonder- 
ful character, even to exceed that truly great man 
bishop Fell, to whom he is not in the least to be 
compared ; as neither is he to dean Aldrich, nor dean 
Atterbury, nor even dean SmalridgeV 

Dr Green mentions, in the Academic (1750, pp. 10, 
19, 40), that the existence of the punishments in 
1749, apparently for vicious practices, was appealed 

1 Hints to Freshmen at the University of Cambridge, ed. 4. 1822, 
p. 42. 

2 Cooper's Annals, IV. 227 — 9. 3 Ibid. IV. 279. 
4 Reliqu. Hcam. Bliss, III. 94. 

438 University Society 

to as evidence of the need of stricter discipline at 
Cambridge: 'upwards of twenty Persons, many of 
good Families and Fortunes,' had been expelled or 
rusticated 'for very heinous Violations of our Laws 
and Discipline.' 

Dr Ri. Newton proposed in his scheme for Hart 
Hall [1747, Rules and Statutes, p. 42], that the Tutor 
should frequently visit his Pupils in their Rooms. 
Also (p. "]6), that the College gate should be shut at 
9 o'clock p.m., and finally when the clock has struck 
10, and .the Key taken to the Principal by the Scholar 
in Waiting at the gate. 

At St John's, Camb., 25 May, 1740, it was 'Ordered 
by the master and seniors, that if any scholar in statu 
pupillari shall, when the gates are shut by order of 
the master, break open any door, or by scaling of 
walls, leaping of ditches, or any other way, get out of 
the limits of the college, he shall be ipso facto ex- 
pelled.' Also, 'that no scholars ever presume to 
loiter, or walk backwards and forwards in any of the 
courts or cloysters ; and that when the names shall 
have been called over by order of the master, all de- 
part quietly to their chambers, as they shall answer it 
at their peril 1 .' 

The rationale of College punishments has been ex- 
cellently expounded by Dr Whewell, Principles of 
English University Education, 1837, p. 95, cp. in. 
' Its general character may be briefly stated : it is 
this: — Every college punishment is an expression of 

1 Mayor's Baker's History v/Sl John's, p. 1036. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 439 

tlie disapprobation of the college ; this disapprobation 
ts increased by every successive offence; and, carried 
to a certain point, makes removal from the college 

In Gradus ad Cantabrigiam, 1803, under the word 
' punishment,' reference is made to the tradition, that 
Milton was flogged at Christ college 1 , to the Student, 
I. 80, Fenn's Paston Letters (quoted above, p. 93), 
T. Tusser's ' From Paul's I went to Eton sent,' &c. 

'In the Statutes of Trinity College, An. 1556, the 
scholars of the foundation are ordered to be whipp'd 
even to the twentieth year. " Dr Potter," says Au- 
brey, " while Tutor of Trinity College (Oxford), whipt 
his pupil with his sword by his side when he came to 
take his leave of him to go to the inns of court." 
This was done to make him a smart fellow.' 

To the list of instances of confession of offences in 
college halls given above, pp. 118, 119, may be added 
the notable one which has been supposed to refer to 
the poet when at Trinity College, Cambridge. 

'July 19, 1652. Agreed that Dryden be put out of 
Cofnons, for a fortnight at least, and that he goe not 
out of the colledg during the time aforesaid, except- 
ing to sermons, without express leave from the master 
or vice-master, and that at the end of that time he 
read a confession of his crime in the hall at the dinner 
time, at the three fellowes table 2 .' 

1 Gent. Mag. 1787, p. 947. Cf. Vol. XLIX. pp. 395, 493, 595. 
Fuller's Worthies, I. 506. 

2 Life of Dryden, by Sir Walter Scott, quoting the order from 

44-0 University Society 

At Peterhouse, in 1665, May 6, Mr Quarks was 
admonished. Likewise, 1667, June 20, 'sir Talbot;' 
and in 1669, April 3, Mr Witty was admonished by 
the master, according to the 33rd statute, for being 
intolerabilis erga magistrum. He appealed against 
Dr Jos. Beaumont accordingly. 

June 14, 1771. Tho. Chapman was rusticated for 
three terms. 

Jan. 8, 1776. [Ro.J Hopper, senior, was rusticated 
for disorderly behaviour in the hall, and for disre- 
spectful conduct. He published (Jan. 20) a pamphlet 
entitled, An Account of a late Rustication from Peter- 
house, in the Univ. of Camb.' 8vo. London, 1776. 
He had headed 'a Conspiracy to send Mr Christian 
[a relation of bp. E. Law the master] to Coventry] 
and as ' President of the Pensioners' table,' had cut off 
Christian's ' commons,' and sent it to him ' seperately.' 
I have no reason to suppose that the Petreusians were 
more disorderly than members of other colleges, but 
I have given these instances as those to which I have 
easiest access. Sending a graduate to Coventry is 
put down by the late Prof. Sedgwick, in his Four 
Letters in Reply to R. M. Beverley, p. 8, as equivalent 
to the term discomniuning. The latter is applied also 
to tradesmen, whose shops are put 'out of bounds,' 
under an interdict from the university authorities, for 
disregarding the statutes or ordinationes in their deal- 
ings with the students. 

Discommonsing is prohibiting a scholar from taking 
his commons or allowance in the coll. hall for a period 
of days. This used to be the punishment at Trinity 

in the Eighteenth Century. 441 

for those who neglected to say grace after dinner 
when ' in waiting.' 

The following passages from Nevile's Poor Scholar, 
1662, will illustrate the old custom of flogging at the 

ii. 6. [The Watchmen have captured Aphobos' gown, as he scales 
the college walls.] 

Demosth. The watch take it up ? 'tis not worth talcing up i' the 
highway ; but if we knew the owner, we'd take him down to th' but- 
teries, and give due correction. 

Aphob. [aside]. Under correction, Sir, if you're for the butteries 
with me, He lie as close as Diogenes in Dolio, He creep in at the Bung- 
hole before I'le mount a Barrel. 

And a little later : 

Aphob. I had need then have my wits about me, for had I been 
over to the -Butteries they'd have their rods about me. But Pege, let 
us, for joy that I'm escap'd, go to th' three Tuns, and drink a pint of 
wine and laugh away our cares. 

Sings : 
Weil carouse in Bacchus's fountains, hang your Beer and muddy Ale; 
Tis only Sack infuses courage, when our spirits droop and fail ; 
Tis drinking at the Tuns that keeps us from ascending Buttery Barrels; 
Tis this that safely brings us off, when we're engaged in feuds and 

v. 4. My name too is cut out o' th' Colledge butteries [the 
'boards'] ; and I have now no title to the honour of mounting a Barrel. 

We will not fear an ill-look'd Dean nor mirth-disturbing Proctor, 
We'l now carouze, and sing and bouze before the gravest Doctor. 

The following definitions are taken mainly from 
Gradus ad Cantabrigiam, 1803 : 

'Dean. — Udorum tetricus censor et asper. Mart. 
' The principal business of a Dean is to inflict impo- 
sitions for irregularities, &c. Old Holingshed, in his 

44 2 University Society 

Chronicle^, describing Cambridge, speaks of "certeine 
censors, or deanes, appointed to looke to the beha- 
uiour, and maners of the Studentes there, whom they 
punish uerie severelie, if they make anie default, ac- 
cording to the quantitie and qualitie of their tres- 
passes." When flagellation was enforced at the Uni- 
versities, the Deans were the Ministers of Vengeance. 
Antony Wood tells us, that "Henry Stubbe, a Stu- 
dent of Christ Church, Oxford, afterwards a partizan 
of sir H. Vane, shewing himself too forward, prag- 
matic, and conceited, was publicly whipp'd by the 
Censor in the College-hall." ' 

The Deans of A rts of St John's, Oxon., are men- 
tioned in the benefactions of Tobias Rustat (Terrae 
Filius, xlix.) as well as the moderator in arts, the 
dean of divinity, and dean of civil law. Charles 
Simeon was Dean of Arts at King's coll., Cambridge, 
in 1788 ; 'the following year he was appointed to the 
important office of Dean of Divinity. He was after- 
wards Senior Dean of Arts! {Life by Carus.) 

In the Univ. Calendar for 1862, the title of office of 
' Dean of Divinity' ceases to be recorded, and the two 
'Deans of Arts' are called simply 'Deans.' There 
was a 'Divinity Lecturer' as well. 

[At New College they have even a 'Dean' of 
Football !] 

Dr Whewell's scale of penalties is: — 'for the first 
offence let him forfeit one month's commons ; for the 
second, three months ; ' for the third, let him be ex- « 

1 1587. 1. p. 151, col. B. line 68. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 443 

pelled the College : — and the same kind of formula is 
used in almost every penal appointment. It will easily 
be seen, that in this manner, punishments, which are 
slight as inflictions, are serious as warnings. A small 
fine [e.g. gate-fine], the forfeiture of a college allow- 
ance \discommonsing], or some restraint on the pupil's 
motions [gating], or an exercise of the memory, or of 
the pen [an imposition], which in themselves might be 
thought lightly of, receive efficiency from the conside- 
ration of their possible consequences 1 .' 

By a Decretum Praefectorum of May 8, 1571, any 
B.A. caught bathing in Cambridge was to be set in 
the stocks in his college hall for a whole day, in cippis, 
pedibus constrictis per unum diem integrum in aula 
communi eius collegii in quo commoratur plectatur ; 
and to pay a sconce or fine of 10s. And in 1606, any 
persons who, were not scholars and were found to have 
taken part in the riots on Feb. 20, while the comedy 
was performing in King's coll., were to be punished by 
imprisonment, and sitting in the stocks at the Bull- 
ring in the market-place, so long as to Mr V.-Chan. 
shall seem good. 

In A Collection of Englisk Words Not Generally 
used, &c. By John Ray, Fellow of the Royal Society, 
London, 1674, among the North Country words (p. 
44) occurs 'A Stang: a wooden bar; ab As. staeng, 
sudes, vectis, Teut. stang, pertica, contus, sparus, vec- 
tis. Datur & Camb. Br. Ystang Pertica, sed nostro 
• fonte haustum. This word is still used in some Col- 

1 Principles of English University Education, p. 95. 

444 University Society 

leges in the University of Cambridge ; to Stang Scho- 
lars in Christmas, being to cause them to ride on a 
colt-staff or pole for missing of Chappel.' 'Captain' 
Grose has transcribed this from Ray into his Pro- 
vincial Glossary, ed. 2, 1790, without marks of quota- 
tion or the like: but I know of no reason to think 
that it was not obsolete long before his time. Mr 
Halliwell, in his Archaic and Provincial Dictionary, 
shews that the Stang was a punishment used also in 
the north of England for husbands who beat their 

' To Sconce; "to impose a fine (Academical Phrase)?' 
Grose's Diet, of the Vulgar Tongue. This word is, I 
believe, wholly confined to Oxford. " A young Fel- 
low of Baliol college, having, upon some discontent, 
cut his throat very dangerously, the Master of the 
college sent his servitor to the buttery-book to sconce 
(that is, fine) him five shillings, and, says the doctor, 
tell him that next time he cuts his throat, I'll sconce 
him Ten." (Amherst's Terrae Filius, XXXIX. A 
Supplement to the Oxford Toasts or feasts) 

'But hark — the Bell summons — now must I sneak 
away to Chappel like a parish Boy to sing Psalms — 
no it may ting tang 'till Doomsday for me, I'll not 
do it. 

' Gainlove. Now, Heaven forbid. 

' Apeall. No, no, my Dear, I understand more man- 
ners than to leave my Friends to go to Church — no, 
tho' they Sconce me a Fortnight's Commons, I'll not 
do it.* 

[Jas. Miller's] The Humours of Oxford, I. 1, 1730. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 445 

In some of the smaller colleges still the President 
of both the high and lower tables has the power of 
fining any member who misbehaves at dinner-time or 
offends against etiquette. The penalty is generally 
either a bottle of wine or a claret or beer ' cup,' or 
copus, to be shared by the members of the table.. 

' Convention; a court clerical, consisting of the Mas- 
ter and Fellows, who sit in the Combination Room and 
pass sentence on any young offender.' 

When ye met all together of late 

In the room which we term Combination, 

To fix your petitioner's fate, 

Alas ! why did you choose Rustication ? 

The Rusticated Cantab, from the Morning Herald. 

Cp. p. 69, above. Dec. 16, 1793, Best was rusticated 
from Peterhouse till Oct. 10, for admitting a member 
of another college by the back gate. 

In 1803- to cut gates meant simply to be out after 
the gates were locked, not implying that the offender 
had previously been gated, or condemned to confine 
himself to the college precincts after a certain hour in 
the evening. 

At the same period a punishment was equivalent to 
an imposition. 

'Imposition; "an additional exercise given for a 
punishment. To impose that punishment — multam 
imponere. Imposer cette peine." (Lovell's Universe in 
Epitome, i6?g.) "Every pecuniary mulct whatever 
on young men in statu pupillari should be abolished. 
The proper punishment is employing their minds in 
some useful Imposition" (Enormous Expence in 

446 University Society 

Education at Cambridge, 1788.) " Literary tasks, or 
frequent compulsive attendances on tedious and un- 
improving exercises in a College Hall." (T. Warton. 
See Milton 's Minor Poems, by T. W., p. 432.)' 

In the Laughing Philosopher (1825), pp. 274, 275, 
the abbreviated form Impos also occurs, where the 
proctor sets 300 lines of Homer, and the dean 500 of 
Virgil to be learnt by heart. 

'We have a company of formal old surly Fellows 
who take pleasure in making one act contrary to 
ones Conscience — and tho', for their own parts, they 
never see the Inside of a Chappel throughout the 
Year, yet if one of us miss but two Mornings in a 
Week, they'll set one a plaguy Greek Imposition to 
do — that ne'er a one of them can read when 'tis done. 
And so i'gad I write it in French, for they don't know 
one from t'other.' {Jas. Miller's Humours of Oxford, 
1730, I. 1.) 

At Cambridge in 1803 'to get the First Book of the 
Iliad by heart, would be thought a severe "punish- 
ment'.' ' The imposition by writing was not so effec- 
tual a method. 

This will be understood from the following lines 
from an unpublished letter from Trin. Coll. Oxon in 

But the whole set, pray understand, 
Must walk full dress'd in cap and band: 
For should grave Proctor chance to meet 
A buck in boots along the street, 
He stops his course, and with permission 
Asking his name sets imposition; 
Which to get done if he's a ninny 
He gives his Barber half a guinea. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 447 

This useful go-between will share it 
With servitor in College garret ; 
"Who courts these labours sweet as honey 
Which bring to purse some pocket-money. 

At Cambridge our old friend Maps (pp. 378 — 385) 
was the great resource of the weak in this predica- 
ment. But there was another character, if less re- 
spectable, no less peculiar. The history of Jemmy 
Gordon is thus sketched in the sixth chapter of Gun- 
ning's Reminiscences. 

It was at the election in the summer of 1790 that Jemmy Gordon 
(afterwards a well-known character in the University) made his first ap- 
pearance in the Senate House. His father was Chapel Clerk at 
Trinity, and a man of some property ; he gave his son a good classical 
education, and afterwards articled him to a respectable attorney by the 
name of Haggerstone. At the expiration of his articles, he commenced 
practice in Freeschool Lane, in the house which ought to have been 
occupied by the Master of the Perse School, but which was at that time 
(through the neglect of the Trustees) let to the highest bidder : here he 
led an expensive and profligate life, and placed at the head of his table 
a young woman of considerable beauty, who went by the sobriquet of 
' ' the Duchess of Gordon. " 

Soon after the election commenced, Gordon entered the crowded 
Senate and joined Mr Pitt ; he was handsomely dressed in the Windsor 
Livery, a blue coat with red cuffs and collar ; he congratulated the Pre- 
mier upon the triumph he was about to obtain, and censured in strong 
terms Mr. Tharp, who had lately purchased the Chippenham estate, and 
was talked of as a candidate for the County — "his presumption in 
coming forward!" — and could not understand "what claim his large 
possessions in Jamaica gave him to disturb the peace of the county of 
Cambridge ! " He added that his influence (which he hinted was 
pretty considerable) should be exerted in support of the old members. 
He continued walking backwards and forwards, conversing with Mr 
Pitt, for about half-an-hour ; those who knew him were extremely in- 
dignant at his presumption, but no one liked to interfere. At length 
Beverley undertook to have him turned out, and walked up to him, 
attended by two constables, for that purpose. Jemmy, finding it vaiil 
to resist, made a hasty retreat. Mr Pitt was all astonishment to see 

448 University Society 

his new friend, of whose loyalty and good sense he had formed a very 
favourable opinion, so unceremoniously treated. The crowd below 
the barrier hustled him out of the Senate House. Beverley, elated 
with his victory, followed, and urged the persons assembled outside 
to take him off and place him under the Conduit. Beverley's zeal 
carried him beyond the steps of the Senate House, where he soor 
found that Gordon had more friends than himself. Gordon was im- 
mediately rescued, and if the constables had not interfered, Beverley 
would probably have undergone the punishment he would so willingly 
have inflicted on another. 

Jemmy had at that time a cousin of the name of Goode, who resided 
for a few terms at Trinity Hall ; he had been well educated, and was 
a remarkably good-looking man, but his habits were low and profligate. 
I do not recollect ever to have met him in a party at Trinity Hall, or 
any other College ; he had, however, his friends in the University, and 
to all those parties his cousin Jemmy was always a welcome guest, for 
he sang a good song, told a good story, had Horace at his fingers' ends, 
and was in the habit of quoting him with considerable effect. 

Though Gordon realized but little by his profession, yet, as his 
father made him a handsome allowance, he used to give in his turn 
some very jovial entertainments at his own house ; but his extravagance 
knew no bounds, and he was, after a time, under the necessity of going 
into cheap and obscure lodgings ; for his means would not enable him 
to gratify his extraordinary fondness for wine and liquor. He was then 
at the service of any man who thought proper to send him an invitation 
to entertain his friends, and to get very drunk by way of recompense. 
.Dressed in a huge cocked-hat, and the tarnished uniform of a general 
or an admiral, (for Jemmy was not too proud to accept any article of 
apparel that was occasionally given to him from an old-clothes shop,) 
he was to be heard about the streets, frequently until daylight, roar- 
ing out scraps of songs, or quoting fragments of poetry. A relation 
dying left him a guinea a-week, to be paid weekly, but it was soon 
deeply mortgaged. Spending every shilling he could get in liquor, he 
at length became so shabby and so dirty, that no one would suffer him 
to enter his rooms. As he was not ashamed to beg, he applied to every 
person he met, and raised money in that way ; some giving because 
they believed him to be in distress. ; others because they were afraid of 
him ; for if any person (no matter what his rank or position in Town or 
University might be) had been guilty of any indiscretion, Jemmy would 
be sure to proclaim it aloud whenever he met him. As he was known 
to have a very great objection to fighting, many men whom he insulted, 
preferred breaking his head to giving him half-a-c'rown, but these per- 

in the Eighteenth Century. 449 

sons Jemmy contrived to render ultimately his most profitable cus- 
tomers; so that it might be said of him, as of the Grecian orator, '0 yap 
tivSpwiros oti K€(pa\ijy, dWd irpoaalov K&njrcu. iEschines in Ctesiph. 
p. 447. 

Passing through Trinity College one day, he saw the Bishop of 
Bristol walking backwards and forwards in front of his Lodge. Gordon 
accosted him in his usual strain, "I hope, my Lord, you will give me a 
shilling ! " To this his Lordship replied, "If you can find me a greater 
scoundrel than yourself, I will give you half-a-crown. " Jemmy made 
his bow, and shortly after meeting Beverley, said " Have you seen a 
messenger from the Bishop of Bristol, who is seeking you everywhere, 
as his Lordship wishes to see you on particular business ? " Beverley 
thanked him for his information, and hastened . to Trinity, Jemmy 
following him at no great distance. " I understand you are wishing to 
see me, my Lord," said Beverley, addressing the Bishop ; to which the 
latter replied, " You have been misinformed, Mr Beverley." At that 
moment Jemmy joined them, and taking off his hat most respectfully, 
said, " I think, my Lord, I am entitled to the half-crown ! " The next 
time the Bishop met Jemmy, he took an opportunity of proving to him 
that there was no great difference of opinion between them respecting 
Mr Beverley. [A similar story is told in Amherst's Terrae Filius, 
No. xxxix, 1 72 1.] 

For many years this extraordinary character infested the streets, 
swearing and blaspheming in the most horrible manner ; the magis- 
trates not interfering, from a reluctance to expose themselves to his 
violent and abusive language. At length the nuisance became intole- 
rable, and Jemmy usually passed nine or ten weeks of every quarter 
in the Town Gaol. It was during one of these incarcerations, that 
John Taylor, the University Marshal, consulted me respecting a letter 
he had received from n person formerly a member of the University, 
in which he was asked to go to Maps (a well-known character), and 
request him to procure for him short essays in Latin, on six subjects 
which he sent him, all of a serious and religious nature. As Maps was 
dead, Taylor was at a loss how to proceed, and wished to know who 
was his successor. I told him I believed there was no one in that line 
now ; but added, jocularly, that I thought Jemmy Gordon would supply 
him. Jemmy was then in gaol, and as he had been there for a long 
time, was, of necessity, sober. The same evening Taylor called upon 
me, and showed me an essay on one of the subjects ; he asked my 
opinion of it : (it occupied three sides of a sheet of foolscap :) I told 
him there was no objection to it but its length, and that if Gordon 
would reduce it to one-third of its size, and observe the same rule with 

L. B. E. 29 

450 University Society 

the other five, I thought they would answer his friend's purpose very 
well. They were finished in the course of that night and the folluwing 
day, and Jemmy received half-a-guinea for each, which Taylor learned, 
from some quarter or other, was the price usually given for works of 
that description. But these opportunities of obtaining money during 
imprisonment seldom occurred, and by constant importunity he had 
wearied out those persons who, having known him in his better days, 
were unwilling that he should suffer from want. The instant he was 
released, and had begged a. little money, he repeated that outrageous 
conduct which it was disgraceful to the magistracy to have so long 
tolerated, and which was loudly censured by all persons visiting the 
University. The fact was, that the characters of the magistrates at that 
time were not invulnerable : they possessed, at least, a proportionate 
share of the failings of their fellow-citizens, and were afraid that Jemmy 
(who was no respecter of persons) should proclaim, from the Huntingdon 
turnpike to Addenbrooke's Hospital, their frailties in his loudest tones. 
It was therefore arranged between the magistrates and Jemmy, that 
he should leave Cambridge, never to return. 

He betook himself to London, and was to be seen daily waiting the 
arrival or departure of the Cambridge coaches : in this manner he earned 
a precarious subsistence ; for even in London he became notorious, and 
is described at some length in one of Bulwer's early novels. [Ptlham, 
Chapters 49, 50. ' This person wore a laa'ge cocked-hat, set rather 
jauntily on one side, and a black coat, which seemed an omnium gather- 
um of all abominations that had come in its way for the last ten years, 
and which appeared to advance equal claims (from the manner it was 
made and worn) to the several dignities of art, military and civic, the < 
arma and the toga : from the neck of the wearer hung a blue riband of 
amazing breadth, and of a very surprising assumption of newness and 
splendour, by no means in harmony with the other parts of the tout 
ensemble-; this was the guardian of an eye-glass of block tin, and of 
dimensions correspondent with the size of the ribbon. Stuck under the 
right arm, and shaped fearfully like a sword, peeped out the hilt of 
a very large and sturdy-looking stick, " in war a weapon, in peace a 
support." ' Hone, in the Every-day Book I. col. 1295, says that Gordon 
left an autobiography which was in the hands of Mr W. Mason, picture- 
dealer of Cambridge (1826).] The London police, however, had no 
sympathy with Jemmy ; when he offended against the laws he was 
taken to prison, where he had nothing to look to but the prison al- 
lowance. Jemmy sighed for liberty and his native air, and at last found 
his way back to Cambridge, where he lived in a. state of the greatest 
destitution. For many months he slept in the grove belonging to Jesus 

tn the Eighteenth Century. 451 

College, where he conveyed a bundle of straw which was but seldom 
changed. When winter set in, he was allowed to sleep in the straw- 
chamber belonging to the Hoop Hotel; still, on receiving a few 
shillings, he squandered them in the usual manner ; offended and dis- 
gusted every one he met with ; and when he became sober, often found 
himself in prison. In ascending his usual resting-place one night, when 
he was very drunk, he slipped off the ladder and broke his thigh ; he 
called loudly for assistance ; the ostler and postboys, not believing he 
had received any injury, took him up and threw him into an adjoining 
outhouse for the night : when in the morning he was found to be in- 
capable of moving, he was taken on a shutter to the hospital ; but was 
in so filthy a condition that he was refused admittance ; he was then 
taken to the workhouse at Barnwell, where he died, after several weeks 
of suffering. 

Mr E. Johnson, of Trinity-street, has a portrait of 
Gordon, 'Published Nov. 1817, by W. Mason, near 
the Hospital, Cambridge.' 

' James Gordon of Cambridge, 

Who to save from Rustication 
Crams the Dunce with Declamation? 

is there represented in pantaloons, Wellington boots, 
the large tin eye-glass and ribbon mentioned in 
Pelham, with cocked-hat and feather on the back of 
his head, visiting cards peeping out of his waistcoat- 
pocket, left hand in bosom, and right hand holding a 
switch beneath his coat-tail. This was reduced in 
scale for the columns of the Every-day Book I. 693. 

On p. 121 of the 2nd ed. of Gradus ad Canta- 
brigiam, 1824, is another head more rudely cut, the. 
cocked-hat being set on properly, described on the 
title-page as ' a striking likeness of that celebrated 
character Jemmy Gordon.' It is certainly not pre- 
possessing. It bears the same couplet. I have a 

29 — 2 

452 University Society 

pair of small pictures of inferior art, but with the 
physiognomy. In the one he appears in his glory 
with hat on head and ring on finger, in the 
famous buckskin breeches mentioned in Pelham, sit- 
ting by a round table which bears a bottle and two 
liqueur glasses, an ink-glass and the paper on which 
he is writing from the book which he holds at left 
arm's length to the admiration of a brainless fellow- 
commoner who sits astride over the back of a chair. 
On the wall of the room, which has a staring stripe- 
patterned paper, hang cap and gown, fowling-piece, 
powder-horn, dog-whip and tandem-whip, spurs and 
a sporting picture. The companion shews him alone 
in adversity within a vaulted cell, but dressed' as 
usual. He has amused himself by writing on the 
stone wall, 

' The King by clapping of a sword on 
May make a ' Knight of Jemmy Gordon, 
Who to save from Rustication, 
Crams the Dunce with Declamation.' 

The former distich of this quatrain is preserved 
also in the Every-day Book I. 693, with slight verbal 
difference: it is said to have been an impromptu 
spoken by Jemmy in the face of a new-made knight 
whom he met in the streets of Cambridge. The fol- 
lowing memorabilia are preserved by Hone in the 
same place ; ' At a late assize at Cambridge, a man 
named Pilgrim was convicted of horse-stealing, and 
sentenced to transportation. Gordon, seeing the pro- 
secutor in the street, loudly vociferated to him, "You, 
sir, have done what the pope of Rome cannot do ; 

in the Eighteenth Cenhiry. 453 

you have put a stop to Pilgrims Progress!' ' ' Gordon 
was met one day by a person of rather indifferent 
character, who pitied Jemmy's forlorn condition (he 
being without shoes and stockings), and said "Gordon, 
if you will call at my house, I will give you a pair 
of shoes." Jemmy, assuming a contemptuous air, 
replied, "No, sir! excuse me, I would not stand in 
your shoes for all the world !".... No man's life is 
more calculated 

To adorn a moral, and to point a tale. 


A curious list follows (columns 699, 700), of above 
a hundred quaint or incongruous names of Cam- 
bridge tradesmen in 1825, e.g. ' A Bishop — a tailor, 
A Leech— a fruiterer, A Roe — an engraver, A Grief 
— a glazier, A Bacon — a tobacconist' Gordon's 
mantle (but not his cocked-hat or vices) fell upon a 
well-known character called Agamemnon. 

As I have mentioned portraits of Cambridge 
worthies in the possession of Mr Johnson (pp. 136, 
138, 153, 384, Porter, Vaughan, Hobson, Gordon), 
though I have not always stated that he was the pos- 
sessor, I may speak here of engravings of two other 
'characters:' the first is a portrait of D. Randall, 
fruit-seller, of Cambridge ; who appears with a good- 
natured full face; he is girt with an apron, and on 
each arm carries two baskets of fruit (T. Orde f. 
1768). Two others depict the same worthy, D. Ran- 
dall with Mother Hammond. The one of these pic- 
tures (T. Orde ft. 1768) shews her of very little 
stature, in a gipsey hat, and Randall in more tidy 

454 University Society 

clothes and hat than in the above-mentioned portrait, 
where he is not in lady's society; apron apparently 
girt up, one basket of china on his right arm. In 
the other (T. Orde invt. et fecit 1768), the portraits 
are less flattering; the pair look older and out at 
elbows ; each carries two baskets with fruit, but one 
of Randall's appears to hold old boots, gaiters, and 
lavender. He walks lame with a stick. 

Mr Cooper {Annals IV. 417) records the death of 
'the widow Hammond, aged 102/ at Spital House 
End, Dec. 19, 1785. 

Before entering upon so important a subject as the 
dress of the last century, I will put before the reader 
a few notes relating in part to that matter in earlier 
generations. The two first are inventories of scholars' 
goods, one from either university in the 16th century. 

'Decretum Saccarii de Bonis Leonardi Metcalfe, 
anno. 1541 (a scholar of St John's Coll. Camb., exe- 
cuted for the murder of a townsman, Will. Lamkyn) : 

li. s. d. 
' First, a great thinne Chest, with a hanging Locke and Key, at o i 8 
Item, a long Gowne, with a "Whood faced with Russels 1 .too 
Item, a Jacket of tawny Chamblet, old . . . . 034 

Item, an old Dublett of tawny Russels . . . .012 

Item, a Jacket of black Sage 2 . . ... . 018 

Item, a Doublet of Canvas . . . . . . .010 

Item, a Pair of Hoose 018 

Item, a Cloke . . . . . . . . .028 

Item, a Sheet, old 008 

Item, half an old Testure of darnix 3 . . . . .004 

1 'Russel a kind of satin.' Halliwell's Diet. Archaic and Provincial. 

2 qy. Serge. Possibly a misprint in Dyer for Saye. 

3 Damex. A coarse sort of damask used for carpets, curtains, &c. 
originally manufactured at Tournay, called in Flemish Dornick. Spelt 

in the Eighteenth Century. 455 

li. s. d. 

Item, an old Hat 004 

Item, a Chaire and a Meat Knyfe 005 

Item, an old Lute ........ 010 

Item, a Callepine of the worst 018 

Item, Vocabularius Juris et Gesta Romanorum . . 004 

Item, Introductions Fabri 003 

Item, Horatius sine Commento 004 

Item, Tartaretus super Summulas Petri Hispani . . .002 

Item, The Shepheard's Kalender 002 

Item, Moria Erasmi 006 

Item, Compendium 4 Librorum Institutionum . . . 003 

Item, in the Bailiff's hand — A pair of Sheets . . . o 1 o 

Item, a Coverlet. . . . . . . . . o o 10 

Item, a very old Blankett . . . . . . .002 

Item, lent to the same Lamkyn . . . . . 200 

Summa . .418 
By me John Edmondes, 

Vice-chan. of the University of Cambridge 1 .' 

' A trewe inventorye of all y e goods of Christo- 
pher Tilyard of y e vniversitie of Oxon. bachelor of 
arts, late deceased. [1598.] 

li. s. d. 

'Imprimis Natalis comitis 026 

Item, Tullis orations .... ..026 

Donet vpon ye Ethickes o o 10 

Jules Apologie [Jewell] o o 10 

Vallerius Maximus 008 

Parkins vpon ye Lordes prayer [Perkins] . . .008 
Saunderson's lodgike [appeared in 1618 !] . . . 006 

A testament in lattin .006 

Tullie de oratore 004 

Oved's metamorphoses 004 

Osorius agaynst Haddon 006 

darnep in Cunningham's Revels Ace. p. 215. It was composed of 
different kinds of material, sometimes of worsted, silk, wool, or thread. 
Perhaps damak (a thick hedge-glove, co. Suffolk) is connected with 
this term. Darnick, linsey-wolsey, North. (Halliwell). ' Domex in- 
ferior damask of Tournai.' Peacock's Monuments of Superstition. 
1 Dyer's Privileges, 1. 109, 1 10. 

456 University. Society 

li. s. d. 
Aristotle's Ethicks o o jo 

1 Pallengenius 006' 

Aristotles's lodgicke o o 10 

Cammerarious vpon tusculus qs"ti . . . . 008 
An answer of ye bishop of Winchester . . . .004 

Silva sinonimoril 004 

Apthonius and Clares gramer 006 

Hiperius' phisickes and gouldin chayne . . . 008 

Horrace uinutiosu. epistols 006 

Other ould bookes valued at . , • ■ 026 

1 1 mappes and paper 018 

5 singinge bookes 010 

An ould cheste .014 

2 dobletes i payre of hose, & frise Jerkin . . . o i_o o 
An ould cloth gowne and a rugge gowne . . .0100 

3 shirtes and a hatt • 068 

4 bandes 014 

Showes and stockinges ould 026 

A bachelor's hoode and cappe 050 

In monye vij 5 o 

Somme . xi/z. 2s. ^d 1 .' 

We may add to these) for the purpose of com- 
parison, a few of the items from the college accounts 
of the earl of Essex when at Trin. coll. Cambridge, 
in 1577, given in Cooper's Annals, II. pp. 352 — 356. 

'The parcells which my Lord of Essex bought at 
his entrance in his chamber at Cambridge. 

' Inprimis, twenty yards of new greene brode sayes*. . lvjj. 
Item, the frame of the South Window in the first Chamber vjj. ^d. 
Item, for new glass in the same . . . • . . iiij.f. 
Item, for 40 foote of quarters 3 under the hangings . . ij-r. 
Item, payd to Mr Bird at my entrance for parcells which 

appear in his proper bill and acquittance . . xxjs. 

1 A. Wood's Life, Bliss, 64, n. 

2 'Say. A delicate serge or woollen cloth. "Saye clothe, serge,'' 
Palsgrave.' Halliwell. 

3 ' Quarters, panels.' See Halliwell. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 457 

Item, two casements with hingells in the south window . \\s. vid. 

Item, new hangings in the study of painted cloth . xvjj. Vujd. 

Item, for paintinge both Chamber and study overhead . vs. 

Item, shelves in the study xiji/. 

Item, a conveyance to the bedchamber out of the study . i)s. v\d. 
Item, a place makinge for the trindle bed 1 to drawe through 

the waule xyj.f. 

Item, for bordinge a place for fewele and makinge a light 

into it v)s. 

Item, a table in the study iijj. i,d. 

Item, for the furniture in the litle study .... xv'ujd. 

Item, little irons to hould open the casements with . viijrf. 

Item, my part of the dore betwixt Mr Forcett and me . iijj. v)d. 
Item, a crest at the chimnay ..... qd. 

Item, for a footestoole at the window .... i,d. 

Item, for two shelves mo in the frame of the study . xijV. 

Item, a locke and three keys to the outward chamber dore iij-r. $d. 

Item, a table in the bedchamber ..... iij. vjd. 

Summa totalis, jr/». xd.' 

His tutor sent besides, June 11, 1577, a list of 
farther necessaries without which ' he shall not onley 
be thrid bare but ragged.' 

' Tlier wants A faire gowne for my Lords holidaies, 2 Dublets. 
Three paire of Hose. Two paire of nether socks. A velvet Cap. A 
Hatte. A basen and Ewer. Potts or Goblets. Spones. Plats. A 
Salte. Candlestiks. Potts to be given to the Colledge. Hangings.' — 
As well as outfit for his servant 'Mungomery' of whom 'ther is con- 
sideration to be had...sith he is to be mayntayned as a gentleman and 
the place doth require the same.' 

Among the earl's expenses from Midsummer 1577 

' Item, for my lord v. pair of shoes, vs. 

Item, for my Lord at the saltinge 2 , according to the custome, vijj. 

Item, for arrowes for my Lord, ijs. vid. 

1 Trindle-bed, or trundle-bed, the same as truckle-bed. See above, 
p. 89, and notes. 

2 The salting: see above pp. 204 — 206. Cp. the old Eton custom of 
observing Montem. See notes. 

458 University Society 

Item, for iij. frames of wainscot for mapps for my Lord his use, iiijj. vjd. 

Item, for rushes and dressinge of the chambers, iiijj. 

Item, for horse-hire for those that attended on my Lord at severale 

tymes, xixs. 
Item, for my Lord his commens 1 for the quarter, liiijj. 
Item, for his Lordship's cisinge 1 , xxxw. 
Item, for his Lordship's breakefaste for the quarter xxiijj. 
Item, for meate on fastinge nights and tymes extraordinarie, xxvj. 
Item, for the Laundres for his Lordship's" washinge, vjr. \iijd. 
Item, for my Lord to the chief reader 2 , ijj. 
Item, for Ramus' Logique, with a commentarie, xxd. 
Item, for Ramus on Tullie's Orations, iiijV. 
Item, for Sturmius De Elocutione, iiiis. 
Item, for Questiones Besae theologicae, xx/. 
Item, for Grimalius De optimo Senatore, jjj-. ui)d. 
Item, for Isocrates in Greeke, iiijj. 
Item, for a standinge deske for my Lord his studie, v]s. 
Item, for the barber for his Lordship's trimming, ijj-. 
Item, for a broad ridinge hatte, viijj. 
Item, for Taffetta 3 and makinge of canions 4 for his Lordship's hose, 

v'js. viijoT. 
Item, for the carriadge of his Lordship's tronke with his apparell from 

London to Cambridge, ijj. iiijd. 
Item, for ij dosen of trenchers, xd. 

Item, for a board of wood and the cuttinge of the same, vs. xd. 
Item, for a loade of coales, xviijj. 
Item, for inke and quilles, v\d.' 

The reverend Mackenzie E. C. Walcote, in his 
William of Wykeham and his Colleges (pp. 166 — 169), 
gives the accounts of a school-boy in the beginning of 
the seventeenth century. 

1 Commons, Sizings: see Index. 

2 Chief reader, the Praelector or Head Lecturer. 

3 'Taffeta, a sort of thin silk.' Halliwell. 

4 ' Canions. Rolls at the bottom of the breeches just below the 
knee. They were sometimes indented like a screw ; the common ones 
were called straight canions. See Planche, p. 266; Strutt II. 148; 
Webster III. 165 ; Middleton III. 573. " Subligar, a paire of breeches 
without cannwns" Welde's Jamia Linguarum, 1615.' Halliwell. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 459 

In 1342 — 3 'great complaint was made against the 
clergy and the students in the Universities, on ac- 
count of their extravagance in dress, and the gay and 
unclerical appearance of their garments : disdaining 
the tonsure, the distinctive mark of their order, they 
wore their hair either hanging down on their shoul- 
ders in an effeminate manner, or curled and powdered : 
they had long beards, and their apparel more resem- 
bled that of soldiers than of priests ; they were at- 
tired in cloaks with furred edges, long hanging sleeves 
not covering their elbows, shoes chequered with red 
and green, and tippets of an unusual length ; their 
fingers were decorated with rings, and at their wrists 
they wore large and costly girdles, enamelled with 
figures and gilt : to these girdles hung knives and 
swords 1 .' Archbishop Stratford and eleven of his suf- 
fragans decided to prohibit offenders from taking 
any ecclesiastical degree or honour till they should 

The following passage from the Elizabethan sta- 
tutes of 1570 {cap. 46) relates to the non-academical 
dress of Cambridge students : 

' We forbid also any scholar, of whatever condition 
he be, to wear a plumed cap (gakro utatur), except 
he be unwell, either within any college or without it, 
on pain of incurring the same fine (6s. 8d.) as often as 
he shall herein have offended. 

'We wish also that no one, dwelling in the Uni- 
versity on pretence of study, shall presume to wear 

1 Cooper's Annals, I. 94, 95. 

460 University Society 

more than a yard arid a half of cloth on the outside 
of his hose, or shall walk forth in reticulated, slashed, 
silk-sewn, in any way padded or stuffed hose, on pain 
of incurring a fine of 6s. 8d. as often as he shall have 
offended herein. 

' We wish besides, that no one who is supported at 
the expence of any college, or who has been admitted 
to any ecclesiastical benefice, shall wear a camisia, 
a plaited ruff about his neck, or plaited ruffles at his 
wrists, on pain of incurring the fine aforesaid. It 
shall be allowable, nevertheless, to wear a moderate 
plaited ruff about the neck, provided no silk be inter- 
woven therein : provided, nevertheless, that the above 
regulations about dress shall not bind in any way the 
sons of lords, or the heirs of knights.' 

Mar. 25, 1571, it was decreed that no excuse of 
wearing hats should be allowed, either within the 
colleges, or abroad in the university, ' unless he that 
did wear any hatt within any college were non-com- 
mons ; and without the college within the university, 
did wear a kercher with his haft; else to pay the 
mulct 1 .' This was, I suppose, an interpretation of 
cap. 46 of the statutes of 1570: — Prohibemus etiam, 
ne quis scholarium cuiuscunq. condicionis sit, galero 
utatur, aut in collegio aliquo, aut extra collegium, nisi 
aegrotauerit, sub eadem poena quotiens deliquerit. 

The following extract, is from a MS. letter of the 
same date in the library of Corpus Christi C. C. 

•As touching the statute of apparell, none in all the 

1 Dyer's Privileges, 1. 306. 

in the Eighteenth Cenhtry. 461 

university do more offend against that statute than the 
two proctors who should give best ensample, and these 
other two regents, Nicolls and Browne, who doe not 
only go verye disorderlie in Cambridge, waring for 
the most part ther hatts and continually verye unsemly 
ruffles at their handes, and -greate Galligaskens and 
Barreld hooese stuffed with horse Tayles, with skabi- 
lonians 1 and knitt netherstockes to fine for schollers : 
but also not disguysedlie theie goe abroade waringe 
such Apparell even at this time in London (although 
like hipocrites they come at this time outwardlie 
covered with the scholler's weed before your honours).' 
Art. X. exhibited against Mr Beacon, Pureseye, 
Nicholls, Browne and others. 

The ' disguised apparel' of Lakes, fellow of King's, 
who troubled provost Goad in 1577, has already been 
mentioned, p. 352. Dr Goad himself, when a fellow 
in 1566, had joined in an address' to certify that King's 
was free from the general quarrel de re tiestiaria. 

Nov. 5, 1585, Lord Burleigh, then chancellor of 
Cambridge, made orders for the apparel of Scholars. 

They might walk in ' cloake and hatt to and fro the feildes. * Also 
' within his colledge, hall, ostell or habitation ' it was lawful for any 
student to wear a gowne or gaberdine 3 of playne Turkye fasshion with 
a round falling cap without garde, welte, lace, cutt, or silke, except one 
cutt in the sleeves thereof, to putt out his armes onelye : so that as well 
the saied gowne or gaberdyne, as also the lyning and facing be of sad 

1 ' Seavilones, drawers ; pantaloons, Strjitt. ' Halliwell. 

5 Strype's Annals, 483, 484. 

3 ' Gaberdine. A coarse loose frock or mantle. ' ' Mantyll a gaber- 
dyne," Palsgrave. Still in use in Kent' Halliwell. Cp. Shakespeare's 
Tempest, II. 2. 

462 University Society 

■colour and playne stuffe, and such as is not prohibited to the wearer, by 
her majesties said proclamation and lawes. 

' Also that everie graduate wearing the above gowne and gaberdyne 
within the Universitie or Towne, out of his chamber or lodging, doe 
weare withall in the day tyme a square cap and none other : no hatt to 
be worn, except for infirmities sake with a kerchiffe about his head, or 
in going to and fro the Feeldes, or in the streete or open ayre when 
it shall happen to rayne hayle or snowe ; And then at all other tymes 
within the Universitie and without, the hatt which shal be worne to be 
blacke, and the band or lace of the hat to be of the same colour, playne 
and not excessive in bignes, without feather brooche or such like un- 
comelye for Studentes...And that as well the hatt as the band to be 

suche as the wearer may by lawuse and weare Also that no Graduat 

remaining within any Colledge, Hall or Ostell, pr clayming to enjoye 
the priviledg of a Scholler as aforesaid, doe weare within the Universitie 
nor without the same, if he have any living or sustentation of any 
Colledge or halle, any stuffe in upon or about his doublett, coates, 
Jerkyn, jackett, cassock or hose, of velvett or silke, or of any such stuffe 
as is forbidden by her majesties said proclamation and lawes. Nor 
any other stuffe not so forbidden that shal be embrodered, powdred 1 , 
pynked 2 , or welted, savinge at the handes, verge, showlder, or coller : 
or gathered, playted, garded, hacked, raced a , laced or cutt, saving the 
cutt of the welt 4 and button holes, nor of any other redde, grene, and 
such other like colour. The offendour to be ordered, reformed and 
punished, from tyme to tyme, both for stuffe, fasshion and colour, by 
the Vicechauncelour, with such reasonable pecuniarie mulct as to hym 

shal be thought convenient Finally, if hereafter any new forme of 

excesse in apparell, either other colour then blacke or such like sad colour, 
except that the doublett being close worne and not seene may be of 
other colour saving that it may be lawfull to Bachelers of law phisicke 
and musick, Masters of arts and other highe degree, to have two playne 
stitches or one small lace of silke of the colour of the garment about the 
edges thereof, and at the gorgett 6 , and in the length of the doublett 
sleeves. Also having living or mayntenance of any colledge or Hall 
doe weare within the universitie or without, nor other graduate pen- 
sioner doe weare within the Universitie, in uppon or about his hose, 

1 Powdered, sprinkled (with fur, ermine, &c.). 

s Pinked, ornamented with open work or eyelet-holes, 

i Raced, pricked. 

4 Welt, a border, or hem. 

s Gorget, the breast or neck piece. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 463 

anysilke or other stuffe of like charge, saving onely stitching the clockes 
and setting on the upper stockes 1 . And that the upper stockes of the 
hose be of none other stuffe, but either of broad cloth, kersye, or mock- 
ado we 2 not above the measure of kersye. Nor to weare anye slop' 
but the playne small slop, such as is not to be lett downe beneathe the 
knee, not paned 4 and without gardes, cutt, pynke, welt, lace, stitche, 
or such like, and of none other colour but blacke, or of like sad colour, 
except Masters of Arts, Bachelers and Doctors of lawe, phisicke and 
musicke who may have in the length of their upper stockes or slop, two 
playne stitches or one small lace, so it be of like sad colour with the 
hose, and that the garters be of the colour of the hose, and playne with- 
out needlework, lace or twist : And that no deacon minister, graduate 
or not graduate, doe weare in his slop, stock or hose, any velvett, silke 
or tuft mockadowe, or other such like stuffe. 

' Allso, that no Scholar or Student of what degree or calling soever 
he be, doe weare within the universitie or without anye shirt wrought 
with any kinde of sylke or other stuffe, in upon or about the same shirt, 
band or ruffe, but onelye a playne hemme of the small clothe, and one 
or two stitches at the most, and with white thred onelye, without cutt, 
purle, stringe, jagge, carving, lace, twiste, pynke, or any suche like 5 , 
but playne as is aforesaid. The standing band of the shirt not to be 

1 ' Upper stocks, Breeches. ' Halli well. As opposed to nether socks 
(or nether-stocks, K. Henry IV. Part I. Act II. Sc. 4), stockings. 

2 ' Mockado. A kind of woollen stuff, made in imitation of velvet, 
and sometimes called mock-velvet. "My dream of being naked and 
my skyn all over-wrought with work like some kinde of tuft mockado, 
with crosses blew and red." Dr Dee's Diary, p. 6.' Halliwell. 

3 Slop, wide breeches : the word seems also to have been used for a 
smock frock or robe de nuit, and for a summer boot or buskin much worn 
in the 15th century. 

4 Pane, an iirlfi\i\ix.a., patch or stripe of coloured cloth inserted in a 
garment of another hue. See Donne's Poems, p. 121, quoted by Halli- 
well s.v.Pane (2). 

6 Petruchio. Thy gown? why, ay. — Come, tailor, let us see't. 
O mercy, God ! what masking stuff is here ? 
What's this ? a sleeve ? 'tis like a demi-cannon : 
What ! up and down, carved like an apple-tart 1 
Here's snip and nip, and cut, and slish, and slash, 
Like to a censer in a barber's shop.' 

Taming of the Shrew, IV. 3. 

464 University Society 

above four ynches, and the ruffe in depth at the coller and handes not 
above one ynche and a quarter above the neckband or wrestband, and 
in thicknes or length not above four yardes at the coller, nor above two 
yardes at either hand. The falling band of the shirt not to be turned 
downe on the outsyde in any parte of it, above two ynches and a halfe, 
except the corners, which may have one ynche more. And this band 
to be without tassells, lace, stringe, twist, button, knott, or such like. 

'Also that no graduate having living or stipend of any Colledge or 
Hall, doe weare any stuffe for the outside of his cloake, but woolen 
clothe, of blacke or the like sad colour, to be made with a standing 
coller of truncke fashion 1 , or a round standing coller, or a round falling 
cap with sleeves, or a playne round casting cloke over the same without 
sleeves not lower than the midcalfe of the legge : and not to be faced 
with any silke but onelye in the coller : (all Provostes and Masters of 
Colledges and Halls and Principales of Ostells, the Oratours and Proc- 
tours of the Universitie in this poynt only excepted, for the Iyninge 
of their cloakes onelye), and not to be gathered, paned, garded, or 
welted, saving with a small welt at the shoulders, coller and handes, not 
embrodered or layd with lace, nor wrought with silke, saving the button 
holes, and one or two single stitches, or one small lace about the verge, 
coller and sleeve bandes thereof, nor cutt but at the welt of the shoulder, 
coller, handes, and button holes, and in the sleeves to putt out the armes. 
And that no such graduate doe weare abroade without the Universitie, 
for his upper apparrell, any other garment then one of the saied 
fashioned cloakes, or one of the above named fasshioned gownes or 

' Also, that no Scholler doe wear out of his chamber and studdye, 
any pantaples 2 or pynsons' 3 , but in the tyme of his sicknes. And further 
it is ordered that everie Scholler being no graduate, doe not only re- 

1 ' Tai. "With a trunk sleeve.'' 

Gru. I confess two sleeves. 

Tai. "The sleeves curiously cut." 

Pet. Ay, there's the villany.' Ibid. 

2 'Pantables, slippers. " To' stand upon one's pantables, '' to stand 
upon one's honour. Baret, 1580, spells it pantapple. 

Is now, forsooth, so proud, what else ! 
And stands so on her pantables. 
Cotton's Works, 1734, p. '85, &c.' Halliwell. Pantoffel {German). 

3 ' Pinsons. (1) A pair of pincers. ..(2) Thin-soled shoes. " Calceo- 
lus, pinsone," Nominate MS. Compare MS. Arundel 249, f. 88. "Pyn- 
son sho, caffignon," Palsgrave. The copy of Palsgrave belonging to 

in the Eighteenth Century. 465 

frayne to weare such apparrell as is before in these orders forbidden hym 
to wear under the paynes hereafter following and sett downe, but also 
every such Scholler who hath living and stipend of any Colledge or 
Hall, doe also absteyne to weare in his apparrell, anye stuffe, colour or 
fasshion, that shall not be playne and schollerlike, and which shall be 
disallowed by the Provost or Master, or in his absence by hym that 
shall supplye his place, by the substraction of the weekelye commons 
and allowance of the offendours to the use of the Colledge, untill the 
fault be amended. And that none other such scholler being pensioner, 
doe weare abroade either in any Colledge, Hall or Ostell, or without, 
any apparel! but comelye and agreeing to his calling and degree, not 
offending her said Majesties proclamacion, laws, injunctions and adver- 
tisements, especiallie in the upper apparrell, avoyding as much as may 
be the diversitie of fasshion and coloure : namelye, not to weare skarlett 
colour, crymsyne, yellowe or such like light colour, in stuffe, fasshion, 
or otherwise, as shal be devised and used, other then is here above 

appoynted, comelye for everye degree all Masters of Colledges and 

all Doctors of Divinity in the said Universitie, shall when they either 
ride or goe out of the Universitie, weare a blacke cloake with sleeves : 
nevertheles it shal be lawfull in theire jorney, to weare over the same a 
castinge cloake without sleeves 1 .' 

In 1587, complaints were made by parents to the 
Vice-chancellor of Cambridge through Lord Burleigh, 
concerning the idleness, avarice and luxury of tutors 
and fellows : also their sons' tailor's bills. Fellows 
' wearinge of Sattin Dublettes, silke and velvett over- 
stocks and facynge of gownes with velvett and sattin 
to the grounde ; and in great fine ruffes, contrarye to 
lawe and order. 2 ' 

Two years later, archbishop Whitgift found fault 
with Oxford on the same score ; and especially with 

the Cambridge public library has "or socke" written by a contempo- 
rary hand. " Soccatus, that weareth stertups or pinsons," Elyot, ed. 
1559. See Ord. and Reg. p. 124.' Halliwell. 

1 Cooper's Annals, II. 411 — 414. 

s Ibid. 448. 

L. B. E. 30 

466 University Society' 

' Scholars and Graduates neglecting to use their habits 
according to their degrees, and attiring themselves 
like courtiers in silks contrary to their statutes and 
all good order. 1 ' 

In 1602, a detailed statement was sent to Dr Whit- 
gift, archbishop of Canterbury, of Disorders tending 
to the decay e of learning and other dissolute behaviour : 
among other things, it was complained that the aca- 
demical habit was disused, and the 'Scholars now 
goe in their Silkes and Velvets, liken to Courtiers then 
Schollers. 2 ' 

The Seventy-fourth of the Constitutions and Canons 
Ecclesiastical, 1603, Of Decency in Apparel enjoined 
to Ministers, after censuring the ' newfangleness of 
apparel in some factious persons/ proceeds to con- 
stitute and appoint as follows : 

' That the Archbishops and Bishops shall not intermit to use the 
accustomed apparel of their degrees. Likewise all Deans, Masters of 
Colleges, Archdeacons, and Prebendaries in Cathedral and Collegiate 
C lurches (being Priests or Deacons)., Doctors in Divinity, Law, and 
Physic, Bachelors in Divinity, Masters of Arts, and Bachelors of Law, 
having any Ecclesiastical Living, shall usually wear Gowns with standing 
Collars, and sleeves strait at the hands, or wide Sleeves, as is used in the 
Universities, with Hoods or Tippets of silk or sarcenet, and square 
Caps. And that all other Ministers admitted or to be admitted into 
that function shall also usually wear the like apparel as is aforesaid, 
except Tippets only. We do further in like manner ordain, That all 
the said Ecclesiastical Persons above mentioned shall usually wear in 
their journeys Cloaks with Sleeves, commonly called Priest's Cloaks, 
without guards, welts, long buttons, or cuts. And no Ecclesiastical 
Persons shall wear any Coif or wrought Night-cap, but only plain 
Night-caps of black silk, satin, or velvet. In all which particulars con- 

1 Strype's Whitgift, 319. 

6 Peacock On the Statutes, p. 61, u. Cooper's Annals, II, 616. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 467 

ceming the apparel here prescribed, our meaning is not to attribute any 
holiness or special worthiness to the said garments, but for decency, 
gravity, and order, as is before specified. In private houses, and in 
their studies, the said Persons Ecclesiastical may use any comely and 
scholar-like apparel, provided that it be not cut or pinkt ; and that in 
public they go not in their Doublet and Hose, without Coats or Cas- 
socks ; and that they wear not any light-coloured stockings. Likewise 
poor beneficed Men and Curates (not being able to provide themselves 
long Gowns) may go in short gowns of the fashion aforesaid.' 

Sir Hugh Evans, in the Merry Wives of Windsor, 
III. I, when waiting for the duel near Frogmore, as 
soon as master Shallow and Page come in sight, says 
to Simple, 'Pray you give me my gown; or else keep 
it in your arms.' Page, just afterwards, thus flouts 
him; 'And youthful still, in your doublet and hose, 
this raw rheumatic day?' The editions of 1602 and 
16 19 have not this gibe of master George Page; and 
in the former case they read, ' Then it is verie neces- 
sary / put vp my sword ; pray give me my cowne 
too, marke you.' 

There is a paper, endorsed by archbishop Laud, 
Certain Disorders in Cambridge to be considered of in 
my visitation, sent to him in 1636, probably by Dr 
Cosin, master of Peterhouse, or by his chaplain, Dr 
Sterne, master of Jesus college. ' Their other gar- 
ments are light and gay, Some with bootes and Spurs, 
others with Stockings of diverse Colours reversed one 
upon another, and round rusti Caps theye weare (If 
they weare any at all) that they may be the sooner 
despised, though the fashion here of old time was al- 
together Pileus quadratics, as appears by reteining 
that custome and order still in King's Colledge, in 


468 University Society 

Trin. and at Caius whose Governours heretofore were 
more observant of old Orders than it seems others 
were. But in all places among Graduates, and Priests 
also, as well as the younger Students, we have fair 
Roses upon the Shoe, long frizled haire upon y e head, 
broad spred Bands upon the Shoulders, and long 
large Merchants Ruffs about y e neck, with fayre femi- 
nine Cuffs at y e wrist. Nay, and although Camisiae 
circa collum rugatae be expressly forbidden by y e 
statutes of the University, yet we use them without 
controule, Some of our D rs heads and all to the laud- 
able example of others 1 .' 

In 1674 the D. of Monmouth, chancellor of the uni- 
versity, wrote from Newmarket, at the command of 
king Charles II., to reprehend the growing practice of 
reading sermons ; and of the clergy wearing ' their hair 
and perukes of an unusual and unbecoming length.' 
Nine months later the heads sent satisfactory answers 
to the Quaeres received by them on that occasion 2 . 

At Oxford in 1694 ' Dr Aldrich retook his place of 
vice-chancellor, which is the 3 d year : in his speech he 
spoke against hatts turned up pn one side, and after 
the speech, he dissolved the convocation^ but Dr Jane 
went to him, and put him in mind of nominating the 
vice-chancellors [' Quaere if not Pro Vice-Chancellors. 
Sed sic MS.' Warton and Hearne~\, and swearing them, 
which was done. Omirum*!' 

1 MS. Baker, VI. 152, ap. Cooper's Annals, m, 280. Peacock On 
the Statutes, pp. 62, 63, u. 

1 Dyer's Privileges, I. 364, 367. 
* Life of A. Wood, Bliss, p. 307. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 469 

In the reign of queen Anne, says Hone 1 , 'French 
fashions were imported much to the satisfaction of 
the youthful and gay, though they were greatly dis- 
approved by the aged and sedate. 

' Gentlemen contracted the size of their wigs, and 
for undress tied up some of the most flowing of their 
curls. In this state they were called Ramillie wigs, 
and afterwards tie-wigs ; but were never worn in full 
dress. The cravat had long ends, which fell on the 
breast ; it was generally of point lace ; but sometimes 
only bordered or fringed. The coat had no collar, 
was long, open at the bottom of the sleeves, and with- 
out cuffs, and edged with gold or silver from the top 
to the bottom, with clasps and buttons the whole 
length, and at the opening of the sleeve. Young gen- 
tlemen often had the sleeves only half way down the 
arm, and the short sleeve very full and deeply ruffled. 
An ornamented belt kept, the coat tight at the bottom 
of the waist. The vest and lower part of the dress 
had little clasps, and was seldom seen. The roll-up 
stocking came into vogue at this period, and the san- 
dal was much used by the young men; these were 
finely wrought. Elderly gentlemen had the shoe fas- 
tened with small buckles upon the instep ; and raised, 
but not high, heels. Ladies and gentlemen had their 
gloves richly embroidered. Queen Anne would often 
notice the dress of the domestics of either sex.' 

' There was not much variation in dress in the reign . 
of George I., who was advanced in years, and did not 

1 Table Book, columns 475, 476. 

47° University Society 

see much of either his subjects or foreigners. There 
was no Queen in England, and the ladies who accom- 
panied his majesty were not of the character to set 
modes 1 .' 

Compare Hogarth's picture of a fop in the french 
mode, with his huge muff (Taste in High Life, 1742) 
and wide skirts. 

The 10th number of the Guardian contains a letter 
dated Oxford, March 18, 17 12 — 13, and signed Simon 
Sleek, which mentions 'the sleeves turned up with 
Green Velvet, which now flourish throughout the Uni- 
versity.' The writer hints also that there was room 
'to introduce several pretty Oddnesses in the taking 
and tucking up of Gowns, to regulate the Dimensions 
of Wigs, to vary the Tufts upon Caps, and to enlarge 
or narrow the Hems of Bands.' He professes to have 
' prepared a Treatise against the Cravat and Bardash.' 
The editor introduces the letter by observing: — 'As 
to the men, I am very glad to hear, being myself a 
Fellow of Lincoln College, that there is at last in one 
of our Universities risen a happy Genius for little - 
things. It is extremely to be lamented, that hitherto 
we come from the College as unable to put on our 
own Clothes as we do from Nurse.' 

Amherst, in the 33rd No. of his Terrae Filius (May 
8, 172 1 ), says that 'Raw, unthinking young men, 
having been kept short of money at school, care not 
how extravagant they are, whilst they can support 
their extravagance upon trust [that foolish practice, 

1 Table Book, column 710. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 471 

so common at this time in the university, of running 
upon tick, as it is called], especially when they have 
numberless examples before their eyes, of Persons in 
as mean circumstances as themselves, who cut a taring 
figure in silk-gowns, and bosh it about town in lace 
ruffles, and flaxen tye-wigs' 

It is said of Dr Will. Richardson, master of Em- 
manuel, 1736 — 1775, a good-humoured tory, that he 
was so strict a disciplinarian ' as to punish the wearing 
of a neckcloth (which at that time was deemed un- 
academical) instead of a stock, with the same strict- 
ness as a deviation from moral rectitude 1 .' 

The 1st of the Orders and Regulations of 1750 
(which have been mentioned, pp. 65, 68), provide that 
' Every person in statu pupillari shall wear clothes of 
a grave colour in the judgment of the officers of the 
university, without lace fringe or embroidery; without 
capes or cuffs of a different colour from their coats.' 

In 175 1 a sizar is described 2 as wearing 'his own 
lank greasy hair:' and at the same period the univer- 
sity Sloven (the counterpart to the Smart) is thus 
sketched 3 . ' He never wore garters, greas'd his cloaths 
on purpose, tore his gown to make it ragged, broke 
the board of his cap, and very often had but one lap- 
pet to his band. He seldom allow'd his hair to be 
comb'd, or his shoes to be japann'd. He would put 
his shirt on at bed time, because he was asham'd to 
be caught in a clean one; and on Sundays he was 

1 Nichols, Lit. Anecd. II. 619. n. 

2 The Student, II. 189. 

3 Ibid. 11. 106. 

47 2 University Society 

sure to be in a dishabille, because every body else 
was drest. Tho' it was not then the fashion (as it is 
now) to be blind, TOM constantly wore spectacles, 
star'd at every girl he met, and did a thousand strange 
things to appear particular ; in all which he was pro- 
tected by his very singular modesty, or (in other words) 
his invincible front of ever-durable brass. He was 
hail fellow well met with all the townsmen in general, 
would swig ale in a penny-pot-house with the lowest 
of the mob, and commit the most extravagant actions 
under the notion of humour. If he got drunk, broke 
windows, laugh'd at the mayor, ridicul'd the aldermen, 
humbug'd the proctors, 'twould be often pass'd over ; 
'twas his humour, and Tom was a well meaning, good 
natur'd fellow.' This is almost like a picture of Ed- 
mund Neale (Mun Smith), the Handsome Sloven of 
Ch. Ch., who was called also Captain Rag, and died 
in 1 710. (See Johnson's Lives of the Poets?) 

Three pages later we have a touch which may be 
compared with p. 134, — 'his light frock and short bob 
were exchang'd for a grey coat and grizzle; the polite 
count was sunk in the grave divine.' See, on the 
other hand, T. Warton's Ode to a Grizzle Wig, by a 
Gentleman who had just left off his Bob. 

' Can thus large wigs our Reverence engage ? 
Have Barbers thus the Pow'r to blind our Eyes? 
Is Science thus conferr'd on every Sage, 
By Bayliss, Blenkinsop, and lofty Wise*-? 
But thou farewell, my Bob!... 
Safe in thy Privilege, near Isis' Brook, 
Whole Afternoons at Wolvercote I quaff't ; 

1 Eminent Peruke-Makers in Oxford. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 473 

At Eve my careless Round in High-street took, 
And call'd at Jolly's for the carnal Draught. 

No more the Wherry feels' my stroke so true; 

At Skittles, in a Grizzle, can I play? 

Woodstock, farewell ! and Wallingford, adieu ! 

Where many a Scheme reliev'd the lingering Day.' &C 1 ,- 

Sir John Trotley, an old-fashioned country gentle- 
man in Garrick's Bon Ton, 1775, complains of the 
abandoning the long cravats with ends twisted through 
the button-hole, while all grades of society tied up 
their own hair, instead of wearing bobs or tye-wigs. 

It was about that period that Porson satirised his 
schoolfellow, Charles Simeon, at Eton, as a coxcomb 
in dress ; as he afterwards called him ' a coxcomb in 

Gradus, the awkward Brasenose scholar in Mrs 
Cowley's Who's the Dupe (1779), act i. sc. 3, when he 
first comes from Oxford, wears ' a grizzle wig curled 
as stiffly as Sir Cloudesley Shovel's in the Abbey — a 
dingy brown coat with vellum button-holes — and cam- 
bric enough in his ruffles to make his [grandson's] 

The following extracts are from the private ac- 
counts (1768 — I77S) of Francis Dawes, bursar of 
Peterhouse, and esquire bedell. (See Gunning's Re- 
miniscences, ch. V.) 

To altering the sleeves of yr Coat . . a i o 
To letting your Weastcoat out at the sides .010 
To putting a new holland body lining in Ditto 030 

£0 5 o 
1 Oxford Sausage, 1764. 

474 University Society 

The 5th, of Novr. 1774, Recvd. of Mrs Bosworth for Mr Dawes the 
full contents of this Bill. By me Thos. Hayes Thompson, for the use 
of my Father Thos. Thomson. , 

1 End Superfine J Ell Newfashd. Corderoy 15 yds. 3*. 6d. £2 12 6 

(Worrall and Key, Manchester.) 

Making a pair of fusting Breeches . . . . 036 
pockitts linings Buttons and trimings . . . .060 

2 yds. f of Superfine (?) nunham Gray cloth . . 251 

4 yds. of Superfine Shalloon 088 

Buttons trimings and making a Mourning Coat . . 0136 
Seating a pair of Black Breeches o t o 

(Jno. Duckett.) 

To altering the Cape of yr. Surtout Coat and furnishing 

a broad scarlet Velvet Coller . . . . 066 
To letting oute at the Sides yr. Rateen weastcoat . .006 
(Thos. Thompson.) 

4^ yds. Barragon Jean 103 

5 yds. Rattinet vs. 8d. . . . . . . . o 13 4 

i\ yds. Corded Velverett o 15 9 

I3-! yds. Superfine Scarlet Cloth . . 3 14 3 

5 yds. Rattinet 3-r. 8d. . . . 0184 

2 dozn. Scarlet Dth hd. Ct. Buttons . .030 

2 doz. Breast do. . . . . . 016 

(Another bill from the same haberdasher Jas. Hatsell contains 
several items for ' Your Friend,' among them \\ doz. difath head Coat 
Buttons, is. 6d. The back of one of these bills is elaborately decorated 
with three Personages answering to the description of the six as de- 
scribed in the long stage-direction to Q. Kafherine's dream : below 
the Public is advertised that ' James Hatsell Mans Mercer and Draper, 
At the Three Angels, opposite the New Church, Strand Sells Superfine 
Cloths, Dutch Ratteens, Duffles, Frizes, Beaver Coatings, Kerseymeres, 
Forrest Cloths, German Serges, Wilton Stuffs, Sagathies, Nanquins, 
Silasia and Brown Cambricks — Manchester Velvets — Silk Grongrams, 
Double Allapeens, Silk and Hair Camblets, Barragons, Brussells, 
Camblets, Princes Stuffs, Worsted Damasks, Worsted and Silk Knit 
Pieces; Velvets, Corded Silks, Sattins, Shagg Velvets, Sergedesoys, 

in the Eighteenth Century. 475 

Shalloons, Allapeens, and all Sorts of new Fashionable Goods, made 
for Gentlemens Wear. Livery Cloths, Thicksets, Plain Fustians, Flan- 
nels, Cloth, Serges, Hair Shaggs, Dimity, Everlastings, &c.') 

1772. Jany. 2d. To a pair of white Gloves for Sr. Jno. 

Cotton's Ball 016 

19. To Snuff 004 

Augst. 2d. To Honey Water . . . .010 
(Eliza Elbonn.) 

Mr Dawes Bill for washing. 

from Midsummer to Mickilmus one Quarter 1 1 o 

mending of Stockings . .026 

Rec d . y 6 Contents in full of all Demarnds by me James Elbonn. 

1 pr. of worsted gloves 014 

12 yd. Vere poplin u, i o 12 6 

1 pr. Coloured silk [stockings] . . . . 0140 
(Mess 18 . English, at their Nottingham Warehouse, the corner of 
Catherine Street, Strand.) 

1771. 1 Fine Hatt 110 

Girdle & Buckle 010 

(Rich*. Cordeux, No. 1 89 near Chancery Lane, Fleet Street.) 

1768. 2 Pr. Brown Thr a . Hose at 4^.9^. 1 Pr. D°. w'. at 

is. & a pr. Do. 4J o 18 6 

Marking 003 

a Hat clean'd, Silk Lining and Hooks and Eyes .026 
a Hat clean'd & Loop'd & Silk binding . . 020 

1769. a Gold Cord Band w th Gold Fringe Tassels . .050 

1770. a Bever Hat & Girdle Band . . . . 3 15 3 
a Hat clean'd & a wire 010 

1771. a Hunting hat o 10 6 

a hat clean'd & gimp Loope 010 

(Geo. Brooks.) 

A Boot toed 004 

A pare of Shoes soled and heelpecd . . .026 
(Ed. Wilson.) 

■ 476 University Society 

1 774. a pr. Boots 120 

1 pr. shoes o 13 o 

a pr. shoes mend . . . . . . 020 

a pr. splaterdashes men'd 010 

(Ri. Fisher.) 

1775. To pr. Call". Pumps french heeles . . . 050 

(for a pupil who was rusticated, to Sam. Saul.) 

A Plain and Friendly Address to the Undergradu- 
ates of the Univ. of Camb. in 1786, complains (p. 15) 
of the waste of money on fashionable buckles, coats, 
or waistcoats, through the 'artful civility of the ac- 
commodating shopkeeper.' 

The Remarks on the Enormous Expence in the Edu- 
cation of Young men in the Univ. of Camb. in 1788, 
proposes (p. 29) ' That the Dress of the Undergradu- 
ates be taken into most serious Consideration : Being 
in its present State, Indecent, Expensive, and Effe- 

In 1799 ' the Vice-Chancellor, Mansel, in his inau- 
gural speech in the Senate-House, inveighed against 
the togatum ocreatumque genus ; the dress of the time 
was so different from that of the present day. Shorts 
of any colour, and white stockings, were the only 
regular academical dress, gaiters were forbidden. It 
was usual for the undergraduates, or at least the more 
particular ones, to dress daily for the dinner in hall in 
white waistcoats and white silk stockings, and there 
were persons who washed them for us, as things too 
special for a common laundress. There were two or 
three undergraduates who wore powder. My name- 
sake, Richard- Prime of Trinity [afterwards M.P. for 

in the Eighteenth Century. 477. 

West Sussex], was one of them. The rest of us wore 
our hair curled. It was thought very rustic and un- 
fashionable not to have it so. Wigs were still worn 
by the Dons and Heads, with two or three exceptions. 
Cory, the master of Emmanuel, was, I have heard, the 
first to leave his off, complaining of headache. Dr 
Barnes of Peterhouse preserved his to the last.' 

Prof. Geo. Pryme then proceeds to relate the anec- 
dote of a practical joke played by Dan Sykes and 
others on the seniors of Trinity (see above, pp. 132, 
133). He then continues; 'I have heard my uncle 
say that as a boy he wore a wig, and that it was com- 
mon for boys to do so. [As it was also in the time of 
his great-great-uncle, Abraham de la Pryme, the an- 
tiquary, in 1692 ; Surtees Soc. 54, p. 25]. Footmen 
wore their hair tied up behind in a thick loop called 
a club. Gentlemen had theirs in a thin one, and it 
was named a pigtail. Dr Hubbersty, of Queens' Col- 
lege [B.A. 1 781; M.D. 1796], was the last person I 
saw in one. In every well-ordered house there was 
a powdering room. Pitt's tax sent powder out of 
fashion. People paid it for a year or two, and then 
gave up wearing it. Pitt is not so much to be blamed 
for imposing this tax, for he was at his wits' end to 
supply means for the French war. Every common 
soldier was obliged to wear it, and, I believe, one 
cause of its disuse was the scarcity of '96 or '99, when 
the government forbad it, as flour was greatly em- 
ployed for that purpose, and was then too dear to be 
wasted 1 .' 

1 Pryme's Autobiog. Recollections, pp. 43—45. 

478 University Society 

' With regard to dress, I remember shortly after my 
going to reside in London [1804] the introduction of 
tight pantaloons, over which were worn a pair of 
black boots called Hessians. They came up in a 
point to within a few inches of the knee, and from 
this depended a tassel. But the most fashionable 
morning dress was pale-yellow leather breeches with 
top-boots, in which the men of distinction promenaded 
in Bond Street [see Dightotis caricatures of this date] 
from two till four, o'clock. It was to be supposed 
that they had been riding, or were going to ride. 
[March 18, 1796. "No business in the House of 
Commons ; but Popham, an old M.P., represented to 
me that I was disorderly in wearing my spurs in the 
House, as none but County Members were entitled 
to that privilege." Lord Colchester's Diary, I. 45.] 
Charles James Fox was frequently there, but dressed 
in the old-fashioned costume which we see in his 
portraits: His waistcoat had immense pockets with 
a flap over them. I saw him at an election in Covent 
Garden, when one of the crowd called out, " Holloa ! 
you with the salt-box pockets," in allusion to Fox's 
large waistcoat. Such pockets and flaps were called 
by this name. Coltman, who stood next me, and I, 
thought it a clever hit. 

* Beau Brummell was pointed out to me. He was 
then the reigning dandy. I remember my tailor 
saying, "Mr Brummell wears it so 1 ." See Hone's 
Table Book, I. 666. 

1 Pryme's Autobiog. Recollections, pp. 74, 75. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 479 

John Hookham Frere writes to his brother Bartle, 
July 11, 1802. 'Ted's intended spouse is Miss Green 
— we are all very well satisfied with what we hear of 
her — he has been in town too, and for some time 
wore his pantaloons over his half boots [a whig inno- 
vation] in spite of remonstrance and example 1 .' 

The gentlemen in Mr Gliddon's Cigar Divan, 
King Street, Covent Garden [Hone's Table Book, 
col. 673], in 1826, wear full trowsers reaching to 
the heel. 

Wretch Wright, in Alma Mater, I. 9, 10, says that 
in 18 1 5 he was sent for by Dr Mansel and threatened 
with being put out of sizings and commons, for ap- 
pearing at hall time in trowsers instead of breeches 
and gaiters. 

When Dr Goslin, of Gonville and Caius, was Vice- 
Chancellor in 1619, 'he made it a heavy fine for any 
under-graduate to appear in boots. A student under- 
took for a small bet to visit him in the prohibited ar- 
ticles, and actually did so, entreating the Vice-Chan- 
cellor's advice for a numbness in his legs, which he 
pleaded was hereditary ; the Vice-Chancellor dismissed 
him, lamenting he could not do him any service ; and 
the under-graduate won his wager 2 .' 

A passage has been quoted from Ayliffe on p. 301 
of this compilation, whence we learn that the Doctors 
and Masters of the Act were obliged to wear 'Boots 
and Slop Shoes' during the Comitia. It was necessary 

1 The Works of]. H. Frere, ed. I. 1872. I. 48. 

2 Facetia: Cantabrigienses, 1836, ed. 3. p. 133. 

480 University Society 

to pass a grace every year to allow them to leave 
them off at the close of the Act 1 . 

Mr G. V. Cox 2 records that when he was first in 
office as esquire bedel ' there was a dispensation annu- 
ally passed after the Act Tuesday, for any farther use 
of the ocreae and other paraphernalia. Supplicatio de 
ocreis et crepidis et soccatis exuendis. 

On the other hand, in 1633, it was 'ordered "that 
no person that wears a gown wear boots ; if a gradu- 
ate, he was to forfeit 2s. 6d. for the first offence," ' &c, 
for the custom of wearing boots and spurs had come 
up, and Masters of Arts preposterously assumed ' the 
part of the Doctor's formalities, which adviseth them 
to ryde ad praedicandum Evangelium, but in these 
days imply nothing else but animum deserendi stu- 
dium 3 .' 

In a sketch 4 in the Laughing Philosopher (1825), 
p. 273, the Cambridge varmint ('fast') man is de- 
scribed as to be seen by day 'in a jarvey tile 5 , or a 
low-crowned-broad-brim, a pair of white swell tops, 
varmint inexpressibles, a regular flash waistcoat, and 
his coat of a nameless cut ; his " cloth " of the most 

1 Ayliffe's Antient and Present State of the University of Oxford, 
II. pp. 133, 146. Stat. Acad. Oxon. VII. II. 4. 

2 Collections and Recollections, p. 414. 

3 Oxford and Cambridge Nuts to Crack, p. 199. (1834.) 

4 (Reprinted from an appendix to ed. 2 of Gradus ad Cantabrigiam, 

6 A roof or hat such as was fashionable with Jarvies or coachmen. 
There was a favourite song beginning — 

'Ben was a hackney-coach-man rare 
(Jarvey, jarvey! "Here I am your Honour"),' &.C. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 481 

uncommon pattern, tied after his own way, and a 
short crookt-stick or bit o' plant in his hand ; and thus 
he goes out riding.' 

According to the Oxford Statutes (collected in 
1633), xiv. § 1, all heads of colleges, fellows, scholars, 
and persons in holy orders, are to wear the clerical 
canonical dress; all others (excepting sons of Barons 
in the House of Lords, or with Scotch or Irish titles) 
are to wear black or at least dark clothes {coloris nigri 
aut subfusci) without pride or extravagance. Insuper 
ab absurdo Mo et fastuoso publice in ocreis ambulandi 
more abstinere compellantur. Etiam in capillitio modus 
esto; nee cincinnos, aut comam nimis promissam alant: 
on pain, if graduates, of a fine ; if undergraduates and 
not too old, of corporal punishment. 

xiv.-§ 2, prohibits the making or buying of novel 
and strange-fashioned dresses. 

In the section of the Oxford Statutes IX. iv. § 2. 
De Materia Dispensabili, in qua Congregationi dispen- 
sare permissum est, the 17th subsection stands as fol- 
lows: Ut Doctores Ocreas, et Magistri Crepidas et 
Socculos, quibus ex antiquo ritu uti tenentur, exuant. 

This afterwards became subsection 14, but it was 
not altered when the section was revised in 1801 and 

The following is the section of the old Oxford 
Statute (Laudian Pandect 1633), Titulus xiv. De 
Vestitu et Habitu Scholastico. 

§ 3. Habitus Academici, singulis Gradilus et Facultatibus com- 

Statutum est, quod non Graduati, quotquot alicujus Collegii Soci'i, 

L. B. E. 3 1 

482 University Society 

Probationary, Scholares, Capellani, Clerici, Choristae, denique quotquot 
de Fundatione Collegii cujusvis fuerint, Studentes insuper Aedis Christi, 
quoties in publicum in Universitate prodeunt, Togis laxe manicatis et 
Pileis quadratis induti incedent. 

Quotquot vero Commensales, Communarii, Batellarii, Servientes ; 
quotquot denique de Fundatione Collegii alicujus haud fuerint : quoties 
in publicum in Universitate prodeunt, Togis talaribus et Pileis rotundis 
induti incedent. 

Graduati omnes, Togas Gradui et Facultati competentes, etiam Epo- 
midas, et Pileos quadratos, aut rotundos (Juristae scilicet et Medici) 
gestabunt ; praecipue in Contionibus Ordinariis, Praelectionibus, et 
Disputationibus publicis. 

In Contionibus vero solennibus, et singulis diebus Dominicis intra 
Terminum ante meridiem in Templo B. V. Mariae; etiam in Aede 
Christi; et in XL™ 3 , et in Dominica Paschatis post meridiem, ad S. 
Petri in Oriente ; Capis et Caputiis, sive e Serico sive e Minuto Vario, 
obversis, Contionibus intersint. 

Contionatores itidem Habitu Gradui suo competente induti (pro 
ratione temporis, prout ceciderit intra vel extra Terminum) ad Eccle- 
siam accedant, et eodem induti Contiones suas habeant, sub poena 
6s. 8d. 

Lectores etiam et Professores publici, in Lectionibus suis ordinariis, 
Togis Gradui vel Facultati suae competentibus, Epomide et Pileo in- 
duti, ad Scholas accedant, et eodem Habitu induti legant, ac iterum a 
Scholis recedant. In solennibus autem Lectionibus in Vesperiis, Pileis, 
Capis et Caputiis, Gradui et Facultati suae competentibus, induti ad 
Scholas accedant, legant, ac iterum recedant. 

Quoties vero ad Congregationes, Convocationes, Preces publicas, et 
Contiones ad Clerum, accedant, omnes, praeter Togas, etiam Capas, 
vel clausas vel apertas, et Caputia Gradui congrua adhibeant. 

Doctores singulis Diebus Dominicis intra Terminum, ante meridiem, 
in Ecclesia B. Virginis Mariae ; et in Quadragesima, et in Dominica 
Paschatis post meridiem, in Ecclesia S. Petri in Oriente, Capa et 
Caputio coccineo induti Contionibus intersint. 

Si quis vero in praemissis delinquere deprehensus merit, si non 
Graduatus merit, pro arbitrio Vice-Cancellarii castigetur (corporaliter, 
si per aetatem congruat ;) si Graduatus, Pro prima vice qua deliquerit, 
lad. Pro secunda 3*. 48. Pro tertia $s. Pro quarta 6s. 8d. et sic toties 
quoties. Si quis vero ad Congregationem vel Convocationem accesse- 
rit, Habitu competente destitutus, praeter mulctam praedictam nullam 
omnino suffragandi potestatem habeat. Quas mulctas ad usum Univer- 

in the Eighteenth Century, 483 

sitatis exigendi non solum Vice-Cancellarius, sed et Procuratores po- 
testatem habeant. Procuratores etiam ad poenas consimiles, si in exi- 
gendo negligentes fuerint, teneantur. 

Ne vero, propter diu intermissum Habitus Gradui competeritis 
usum, jgnorantiam causaripossit quis; aut, prae novandi libidine, ab 
antiquis Schematis desciscere, novosque Habitus introducere moliatur ; 
Statutum est, quod Praefecti Collegiorum et Aularum in conventu suo 
hebdomadali, diligenti inquisitione habita de Toga, Capa (seu clausa, 
seu aperta) Caputio, Epomide, Pileo, cuique Gradui et Facultati (prae- 
sertim Medicis et Juristis) competentibus determinabunt. Ac, prout 
inter ipsos convenerit, singulorum instar aliquod (e vili quacunque 
materia) concinnandum, et, titulo affixo, in Praelum sive Abacum huic 
usui destinatum reponendum, curabunt ; inde exemplar uniuscunque 
Habitus petere ut liceat, siquando circa haec controversia oriatur. 

Si quis autem in forma Habitus praestituti aliquid novare conetur, 
puniatur pro arbitrio Vice-Cancellarii, ac insuper Sartoribus vestiariis 
interdicatur, ne a. forma seu Schemate recepto Habitus, cuivis Gradui 
competentis, vel latum unguem recedant, sub poena pro arbitrio Vice- 
Cancellarii infligenda. 

For this section the following was substituted by a 
decree of July 13, 1770. 

§ 3. De habitu Academico 'singulis Gradibus et Facultatibus com- 

Statutum est, quod omnes Doctores cujuscunque Facultatis, Bacca- 
laurei etiam in Sacra Theologia, Medicina, et Jure Civili, Magistri et 
Baccalaurei in Artibus, Baccalaurei itidem in Musica, togas Gradui et 
Facultati competentes, hodie usitatas, juxta exemplar in aere inciden- 
dum, et in abaco Domus Convocationis reponendum, gerant. 

Ambo Procuratores, eorumque Deputati, et Collectores Quadra- 
gesimales, habitu hodie usitato, juxta exemplar, induti incedant. 

Baronum filii in superiore Parliamenti Domo suffragii jus habendum 
necnon Baronum ex gente Scotica et Hiberaica, toga talari deaurata, 
sive toga nigra laxe manicata serica cum epomide, et pileo quadrato 
cum apice deaurato, induti incedant. Baronetti autem toga talari nigra, 
deaurata, sive toga laxe manicata serica cum epomide, et pileo quadrato 
cum apice deaurato. 

Superioris ordinis Commensales togam talarem sericam, sive ex 
quovis panno nigro confectam, cum ornamentis secundum exemplar, et 


484 University Society 

pileum quadratum holosericum, Anglice velvet, cum apice ; Commen- 
sales vero sive Communarii togam talarem, ex quovis panno nigro, non 
serico, confectam, cum ornamentis secundum exemplar, et pileum 
quadratum panno obductum cum apice, gerant. 

Quod non graduati, quotquot alicujus Collegii Socii, Probationarii, 
Scholares, Capellani, Clerici, et Choristae, si modo in matriculam 
Universitatis sint relati, denique quotquot de fundatione Collegis cujus- 
vis fuerint, Studentes insuper Aedis Christi, quoties' in publicum in 
Universitate prodeunt, togis laxe manicatis, ita ut manicae longitudo 
dimidiam partem longitudinis togae non excedat, et pileis quadratis cum 
apice, induti incedant. 

Batellarii vero, et Servientes, togam talarem hodie usitatam juxta 
exemplar gerant, et pileum quadratum sine apice. 

Studentes in Jure Civili, nondum graduati, qui sedecim Terminos a 
tempore matriculationis compleverint, (vel etiam antea, modo de funda- 
tione alicujus Collegii fuerint, cujus Statuta id fieri requisiverint) togam 
talarem semimanicatam, juxta exemplar, gerant, et pileum quadratum 
cum apice. 

Quod Artium Baccalaurei in omni actu Scholastico caputium fimbria 
pellita praetextum gerant; in tempore vero Quadragesimali Determi- 
nantes turn in Scholis, turn in Choro Beatae Mariae Virginis, quoties 
ad celebrandas preces convenerint, pellem etiam lanatam, secundum 
exemplar, adhibeant. 

Graduati omnes, togas Gradui et Facultati competentes, et pileos 
quadratos cum apice, aut rotundos (Juristae scilicet et Medici) gfista- 
bunt ; praecipue in contionibus ordinariis, praelectionibus, et disputa- 
tionibus publicis. 

In contionibus vero solemnibus, et singulis diebus Dominicis intra 
Terminum ante meridiem in Templq B. V. Mariae, etiam in Aede 
Christi ; et in Quadragesima, et in Dominica Paschatis post meridiem 
ad S. Petri in Oriente, caputiis, sive e serico, sive e minuto-vario, 
obversis, contionibus intersint. 

Contionatores itidem habitu Gradui suo competente induti (pro ra- 
tione temporis, prout ceciderit intra vel extra Terminum) ad Ecclesiam 
accedant, et eodem induti contiones suas habeant, sub poena 6s. 8d. 

Lectores etiam et Professores publici, in lectionibus suis ordinariis, 
togis Gradui vel Facultati suae competentibus, et pileo induti, ad 
Scholas accedant, et eodem habitu induti legant, ac iterum a Scholis 
recedant. In solennibus autem lectionibus in Vesperiis, pileis, et capu- 
tiis, Gradui et Facultati suae competentibus, induti ad Scholas accedant, 
legant, ac iterum recedant. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 485 

Quoties vera ad Congregationes, Convocationes, preces publicas et 
contiones ad Clerum accedant, omnes praeter togas, caputia Gradui 
congrua ; Doctores etiam capas, vel clausas vel apertas adhibeant. 

Doctores singulis diebus Dominicis intra Terminum, ante meridiem, 
in Ecclesia B. Virginis Mariae ; et in Quadragesima, et in Dominica 
Paschatis post meridiem in Ecclesia S. Petri in Oriente, capa et caputio 
coccineo induti contionibus intersint. 

Insuper statutum est, quod omnes Academic! cujuscunque ordinis 
aut gradus fuerint, collari, vulgb vocato Band, juxta exemplar, turn in 
privato turn in publico se induant. 

Si quis vero in praemissis delinquere deprehensus fuerit, si non 
Graduatus fuerit, pro arbitrio Vice-Cancellarii vel Procuratorum, penso 
aliquo literario puniatur. Si Graduatus, pro prima vice qua deliquerit, 
lod. pro secunda, 3^. 4a?. pro tertia, <,s. pro quarta, 6s. Sd. et sic toties 
quoties. Si quis vero ad Congregationem vel Convocationem accesserit, 
habitu competente destitutus, praeter mulctam praedictam, nullam om- 
nino suffragandi potestatem ea vice habeat. Quas mulctas ad usum 
Universitatis exigendi Vice-Cancellarius vel Procuratores potestatem 

Ne vero quis prae novandi libidine ab exemplaribus in hoc statuto 
desoriptis desciscere, novosque habitus introducere moliatur, statutum 
est, quod Vice-Cancellarius et Procuratores singulorum habituum exem- 
plar aliquod aere incidendum, et in abacum huic usui destinatum, repo- 
nendum curabunt. 

In 1 8 16 it was found necessary to enforce the 
statute for academical dress by a ' punishment' or 
imposition ('penso aliquo literario') for three offences: 
farther transgression being visited with inhibition from 
degrees, and stigma in the Proctors' Black Book. 
' To pass now to the topic of dress distinctively aca- 
demical : the following extract is taken from Wood's 
History of Oxford, quoted in Oxoniana, I. 19 — 21. (J. 
Walker, 1808.) 

'The Scholars are supposed in their dress to have 
imitated the Benedictine Monks, who were the chief 
restorers of Literature. Their gowns, at first, reached 

486 University Society 

not much lower than their knees. The shoulders 
were but a little, or not at all gathered ; neither were 
the sleeves much wider than an ordinary coat, but 
were afterwards much enlarged. When degrees be- 
came more frequent in the reigns of Richard I. and 
John, other fashions were invented for the sake of 
distinction, not only with respect to degrees but 
faculties. The wide sleeves are still worn by Bache- 
lors, and by those undergraduates who are on the foun- 
dation at different colleges. The gowns were at first 
black, afterwards of different colours. In the ChanT 
cellorship of Archbishop Laud, all were confined to 
black, except the Sons of Noblemen, who were allowed 
to wear any colour. The gown used at present by 
Masters of Arts is not ancient, and never known to 
have been worn before the time of John Calvin, who, 
as it is said, was the first who wore it. The ancient 
gown had the slit longways and the facing lined with 

'With respect to caps, the square form with the 
upper part pointed is supposed to have been the most 
ancient; but on the introduction of the faculties of 
Divinity, Law, and Medicine, the doctors in them 
wore round caps. The two latter still retain them. 
Some years before the Reformation, the Theologists 
wore square caps, without any stiffening in them, 
which caused each corner to flag. They were such as 
the Judges now use. It was the custom for the 
Clergy to. preach in caps, and for their auditors, if 
scholars, to sit in them; which continued till the 
troubles in the time of Charles I. On the Restoration 

in the Eighteenth Century. 487 

of Charles II. the auditors sat bare, lest if covered, 
they should encourage the laity to put on their hats, 
as they did during the Rebellion. 

'The most ancient form of the Hood was that which 
was sowed or tied to the upper part of the coat or 
gown, and brought over the head for a covering, in 
the same manner as a cowl: but when caps were 
introduced, the hoods became only an ornament for 
the shoulders and back ; they were then enlarged and 
lined with skins. 

'The Boots were introduced by the Benedictines. 
The ancient form or fashion of them was but small, 
and came up to the middle of the leg, with little or no 
tops to them. They were worn by Masters of Arts 
at their inception; which custom continued till the 
introduction of the Degree of Doctor, when they were 
used by them, and the Masters wore Pantables or 

1414. At Cambridge, in 'a congregation of re- 
gents and non-regents, held on the 24th of May, a 
statute was made prohibiting (under penalty of sus- 
pension, disability, and excommunication) every ba- 
chelor in any faculty, to use in the schools, proces- 
sions, or acts, a cloak, or fur, or facings of silk, satin, 
or* other material of similar price or value, in his 
tabard, hood, or other scholastic habit, except lamb's 
wool or budge fur, on his hood. This statute does 
not extend to masters gremial, the sons of peers, 
beneficiaries having promotion to the value of 30 
marks per annum of prebends or canonries, or other- 
wise of 40 marks ; nor to persons upon whom the pri- 

488 University Society 

vilege was expressly conferred by the major part of 
the regents and non-regents. Bachelors in all facul- 
ties were also prohibited from using a bonnet, cap, 
coif, or other like ornament for the head at 'their lec- 
tures or scholastic acts. This statute appears to have 
been much complained of by the scholars in Canon 
and Civil Law. On the 17th of September, the King 
[Henry V.] by writ commanded Stephen le Scrope, 
Chancellor of the University, to appear upon this 
business, before the Archbishop of Canterbury and 
his brethren, in the convocation of the province at 
St Paul's, London, on the 1st of November, together 
with four persons named by the masters regent, and 
four named by the scholars in Canon and Civil Law. 
In the mean time the King had sent to Oxford to 
ascertain the practice of that University, which he 
found to be conformable to the statute in dispute, the 
observance of which he, on the 4th of December, en- 
joined, under the penalty of 1000 li}' 

A few months later we read of the law students 
refusing to attend the ordinaries (lectures with full 

In 1429 and 1467 the privileges of the universities 
were respected in acts prohibiting the giving liveries 
{liberaturae) or signs 8 . Livery money, or an allowance 
for statutable dress, still continues to be an item in 
the stipend of members of college foundations. 

In an act of parliament of 153J ' "for Reformacyon 
of Excesse in Apparayle," there is a clause permitting 

1 Cooper's Annals, 1. 156, 157. See Dyer's Privileges, I. 53. 
s Ibid. I. 182, 215. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 489 

" Doctours, or Bachelours in Divinitie, Doctors of the 
one Lawe or the other, and also Doctours of other 
Sciences, which have taken that degree, or be ad- 
mitted in any Universitie, to weare sarcenett in the 
lynyng of their gownes, blacke saten, or blacke cham- 
lett in their doublettes and sleveles Cotes, and bjacke 
velvett or blacke sarcenett or blacke saten in their 
Tippitts and Ryding hoodes or Girdels, and also 
Clothe of the Colours of scarlett, murey or violett, 
and Furres called gray blacke boge 1 foynes 2 shankes 8 
or menever 4 in their gownes and sleveles Cotes," and 
prohibiting the clergy under these degrees to "weare 
any manner of Furres other than blacke cony boge 
grey cony shankes calaber 5 gray fiche 6 foxe lambe 
otter and bever;" the clergy under those degrees (ex- 
cept Masters of Arts, or Bachelors of the one law or . 
the other of the Universities, and such as could dis- 
pend 20/. per annum) were also prohibited from wear- 
ing- sarcenet or silk in their tippets, and a proviso 
was inserted that the act should not be prejudicial 
" to any Graduates, Beadles, or Ministers to the Gra- 
duates in Universities and Scoles for wearing of their 

1 Budge; Lambskin with the wool dressed outwards. (Halliwell. ) 

2 Foins, fur made of polecatts' skins. {Piers Plowman.') 

3 Shanks, fur from the legs of animals. "Schanke of bouge, _/&»»-- 
rure de euissettes." Palsgrave, &c. (Halliwell.) 

4 Menever (probably the minutum uarium of the Oxford statutes), a 
kind of ermine, mixed with the fur of a species of weasel called vair: see 
the ballad of Alice Brand. Vair, the heraldic fur tincture, is represented 
by small belts or shields in horizontal lines. 

5 Calaber, a kind of fur. See Brit. Bibl. II. 401 : Strutt, II. 102. 
Cov. Myst. p. 242. (Halliwell.') 

e Filch, a polecat, (co. Somerset.) 

490 University Society 

habittes or hoodes with furre lynynges or otherwise, 
after such forme as heretofore they have been accus- 
tomed to doo 1 ." ' 

In the complaint of disorders at Cambridge, sent 
to Whitgift in 1602 [supra, p. 466), it is said that 'It 
is required by the statute, that the scholars should 
have and wear gownes, cappes, and hoods, according 
to their degrees, and to this statute every graduate 
is sworn: but this statute is generally neglected.' 
Peacock, on the Statutes, p. 61, n. 

In answer to the nth Quaere sent to the V. Chanc. 
and Heads of Camb. in 1675, they replied that ' The 
Doctors in the several Faculties do generally resort 
to Congregations in the Regent house, and to ser- 
mons Ad Clerum, and supplications in St Mary's in 
the habits and ornaments appointed by Statute; and 
so do the University Officers, as Proctors, Taxors, 
and Scrutators ; and those of the head, and some few 
others in theirs: but the Non-Regents and Regents 
are much failing herein ; especially the Regents in 
their Habits at Congregation, and in their caps and 
hoods at English sermons, and abroad in the town.' 
Dyer's Privileges, I. 367, 370. 

David Loggan's prints of Habitus Academici in his 
Oxonia Illustrata (1675), and Cantabrigia Illustrata 
(1690), we shall have occasion to mention by and by. 

The much-contested ' Orders and Regulations which 
passed the Senate on the nth day of May, and the 
26th day of June, 1750,' commence as follows: — 

1 Cooper's Annals, 1. 355. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 491 

' I. Every person in statu pupillari shall wear 
clothes of a grave colour in the judgment of the offi- 
cers of the university, without, lace, fringe, or em- 
broidery; without cuffs or capes of a different colour 
from their coats. 

' Fellowcommoners who take degrees, and such as 
enter into fellows' commons after they have taken 
any degree, shall wear the proper habit of such 

' Bachelors of arts ~ shall provide themselves with 
gowns made of prunello, or princes stuff. 

'The privilege of noblemen, or others, of wearing 
hats in the university, does not extend to wearing of 
them laced. The penalty for every offence against 
each of these particulars, is, and shall be, 6s. and 8d. 

' II. Every fellowcommoner shall immediately 
provide himself with his proper gown, cap, and band, 
in which he shall constantly appear, under the penalty 
of 6s. 8d. for every offence.' 

In Remarks on the Enormous Expence in the educa- 
tion of young men in the Univ. of Cambridge, with a 
Plan, &c, 1788, it is proposed (p. 28), that any under- 
graduate found without his academical dress after 
sunset, or in hall, should, for the first offence, be rusti- 
cated for a period of six months, for the second for 
one year, and if he again offended, he should be 

In 1837 Dr Whewell, then a fellow and tutor of 
Trinity, wrote thus {On the Principles of English Uni- 
versity Education, p. 89) : ' It may be, too, that with 
an improvement in many respects, there is an in- 

492 University Society 

creased laxity in the observance of rules on other 
points ; for example, the constant use of the academic 
dress. But in most such cases, the fault is in those 
of superior position, who ought to enforce the obser- 
vance of rules, and who are not sufficiently vigilant 
and earnest in this part of their duty. Nos, nos con- 
sules desumus. If, for instance, all persons in the 
Universities, who have pupils under their care, were 
persuaded that the academic dress is a valuable re- 
membrance of the duties and obligations of the stu- 
dent's position, and were to enjoin its use on all oc- 
casions, and to rebuke its absence, there can be little 
doubt that omission in this respect might soon be 
rendered as rare as it ever was.' 

But to come down to particulars : the HOOD [capu- 
tium 1 ) of our University combines with the hood 
proper (as worn alone at Oxford) another garment, 
the tippet or exaggerated collar of the overgarment or 
gown falling square over the shoulders behind and 
fastened in a peak on the chest. From this peak 
springs the hood proper, being with us, as in its origi- 
nal form, merely an upper fold of the tippet, or ample 
collar, so shaped as to be conveniently drawn over the 
head as occasion should offer. Such has been the con- 
servatism of Cambridge tailors, that a bachelor of arts 
hood, if drawn up close to the neck behind, neatly 
folded, and fastened where the fur begins in front, the 
slovenly modern string being abolished, will correspond 
minutely with the hood worn in the fourteenth century 

1 Caputium, id quod Capitium, capitis tegumentum quod Capae as- 
sutum erat. Du Cange. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 493 

by all classes, civil and military, and by monks and 
friars in all later times {Cucullus, cowl.) This is shewn, 
for instance, in the picture of 'the popish Spaniards . . 
carying Nic. Burton... after a most spitefull sort to the 
burning,' in the black-letter editions of Foxe's Acts 
and Monuments, and also in the ' liuely picture ' which 
forms the tail-piece : also in the modern sculpture of 
Hugh de Balsham teaching the Cambridge Scholars, 
in the fellows' garden of Peterhouse, and in several 
14th century pictures relating to the quintain, Strutt's 
Sports and Pastimes, figg. 31, 34, 35, 36, 38. At the 
same time it must be confessed that the fashion of 
wearing the hood slung loose from the collar in the 
ordinary way is at least as old as the effigies of the 
four chantry monks who kneel in the stone doorway 
of the 15 th century screen of the Founders' chantry 
in the S.W. transept of Lincoln cathedral. The 
curious busts, one of which on the south represents a 
clerk flinging on his hood, were introduced into the 
arcade work in the choir aisles of that cathedral about 
the same time as the figures in the 'angel choir' and 
were largely restored in the present century. From 
the apex of the hood still hangs the liripipe ', which 
was probably used as a purse or pocket, like the pen- 

1 Liripoop, n. s. \liripion, liripipion, Fr. "Chaperon des docteurs de 
Sorbonne, longue robe de docteur, suivant Rabelais." Roquefort. 
Leri-ephippium, a contraction of cleri-ephippium, the tippet or hood of a 
clergyman, Littleton.] The hood of a graduate. Cotgrave and Sher- 
wood. ' In this letter the good primate doth not trouble his clergy with 
recommending a single virtue, or reproving a single vice ; but he charges 
them, with great solemnity, not to wear short liripoops of silk, nor 
gowns open before, nor swords, nor daggers, nor embroidered girdles.' 
Henry, Hist, of Gr. Britain, vol. 6 [regn. H. VII.). Todd's additions 

494 University Society 

dent sleeves of the master of arts and Trinity fellow- 
commoner's gowns. Du Cange (s. v. caputium) quotes 
from the Carthusian statutes of 1368 (11. i. § 2), Capu- 
tia cucullorum sint quadrata, nee duorum palmorum 
mensuram in latum excedant, vel in longum. Caputia 
vero caparum sint aliquantulum longiora. 

The 'Caputium or Cloak' (says Fosbroke, Encycl. 
Antiqu. 847 a), 'a hooded-cloak . .originated with the 
inferior classes, and succeeded the short mantle in the 
thirteenth century, also in the higher ranks. It 
covered the shoulders, and extended below the breast. 
The hood was thrown behind, or covered the head at 
option.' Laymen wore a hat over the hood in the 
14th century {ibid. p. 856 a). In the 12th century to 
throw back the hood (which was then worn by both 
sexes) was a sign of mourning {ibid. Z%2) . 

Of the use of the hood in ceremonies at degrees in 
the middle of the 16th century, see the extracts from 
bedel Stokys' book, supra pp. 208, 209, 214, 245. The 
words of the Cambridge Elizabethan statute {cap. 46) 
of 1570, which relate to hoods are, Statuimus, utnemo 
ad aliquem in Universitate gradum euectus, nisi toga 
talari, caputioque ordini congruente, aut ad minimum 
insigni circa collum sacerdotali indutus collegio exeat: 
contra delinquentes sex solidi et octo denarii mulcta sit. 
Et si quispiam disputationi publicae in sua facultate, 
publicis in ecclesia beatae Mariae precibus, contioni ad 
Clerum, sepulturis, congregationibus, sine toga, habitu, 
et caputio gradui suo conuenientibus, iuxta antiquum 

to Johnson's Dictionary. Du Cange explains the word to mean longa 
fascia, vel cauda caputii. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 495 

Academiae morem, interfuerit, eandem mulctam in- 
cur rat Socii discipuli et pensionarii singulis domini- 

cis et festis diebus in chorum honesto cum apparatu et 
superpelliceis tecti ueniant; graduati autem cum caputiis 
gradui suo conuenientibus sub poena duodecim denari- 
orum, &c. 

Nov. 25, 1578. It was decreed 'by Mr. Jo. Young 
Dr of Divinity, and V. Chan, of the University of 
Cambridge, with the assent and consent of all the 
Masters and Presidents of all the Colleges, in the 
common Schools assembled ; that no man, unless he 
were a Dr, should wear a Hood lined with silk upon 
his Gown as Doctors usually do, upon the forfeiture 
of 6s. 8d. toties quoties; and if any shall refuse to 
pay the said fine or mulct, then he to be inforced 
by Mr V. Chancellor's Authority to shew why he 
should not be punished for wilfull perjury V 

According to the Orders of Apparell made for 
Cambridge by lord Burleigh in 1585, 'no Graduate 
remayninge within any Colledge, Hostell or Hall, or 
clayminge to enjoye the priviledge of a Scholler, doe 
weare any stuffe in the outward part of his gowne, 
but woollen cloth of blacke, puke, London Browne, 
or other sad color: And the gowne to be made with 
a standing coller, as the use hath bene, and not fall- 
ing : And the hood that is worn with the same gowne, 
to be of the same or like cloth or color that the 
gowne is of. And that none as is aforesaid, doe weare 
for the upper apparell of his bodye, in the daye tyme 
out of his colledg, hostell, hall, or habitation, and pre- 

1 Dyer's Privileges, I. 308. 

496 University Society 

cinctes of the same, in any common streete of the 
towne, that is to saye, in the high streete from the 
greate bridge, as it leadeth right to Christes Colledge, 
in the streete called the High Ward streete, from 
St. John's Colledge as it leadeth right to Pembrook 
Hall and Peter House, in anye of the Markett places, 
in the streete called the Peticurie, or in the Court or 
Quadrant of any other Colledge then that where he 
remayneth, or within the comon Schooles, or at any 
disputation, or any common lecture, or at any Ser- 
mon or common prayers, or being called and coming 
to the Vicechancellor or Proctors, or any other then 
the said gowne and hood or tippett, as to his degree 
apperteyneth, except the habitt and hood be then re- 
quired to be worne: And the gowne sleeves in all 
these tymes and places to be worne over and uppon 
his armes (except he walke in his cloake and hatt to 
and fro the feildes). 

'The facing of gownes for Bachelors of musick, 
phisick and law, and for Masters of Art and upward, 
at the onely half a yard downe ward by the brest, and 
a quarter of a yard at the handes of a streight sleeve, 
and no where else, unless the wearer be a doctour, 
Provost or Master of a Colledge or Hall, or Principal 
of an hostell, or Oratour of the Universitie, or Proctor 
or Taxter of the same, or be or have one of the 
Quenes Majesties Readers, and the ladye Margarettes 
Reader, or have bene Proctour or Oratour of the Uni- 
versitie, may be of playne Taffita, untuffed of sattyn, 
silk, grograigne, sarcenett or such like, not forbidden 
to the wearer by proclamation and lawes of the 

in the Eighteenth Century. 497 

realme. But no silke to be worne to the hood, except 
the wearer be a doctour, or be or have bene Provost 
&c. &c. 

' Also that all Regentes hoods for Masters of Arte 
be of one sorte, faced, lyned, and edged, with myniver, 
and with no silke (the Oratours of the University 
onely excepted) V 

When queen Elizabeth visited Cambridge in 1564 
' great inquisition was made, both at this time (Mon- 
day, Aug. 7.) and yesterdays sermon ad clerum, and 
some fault found as well by the Prince as by other of 
the nobility, why some Masters Regents went in white 
silk, and others in mynever ? Also some Masters 
were noted by the Queens Majestie to be but Masters ; 
because their habits and hoods were torn and too 
much soiled. Sed haec hactenus*! 

In the English Constitutions and Canons Ecclesias- 
tical of 1603, the regulations (Nos. 17, 25) on this 
matter coincide with the Cambridge statute. Eves, 
however, are specified in addition to Sundays and 
holydays, when all students shall wear surplices, and 
graduates hoods: Heads of collegiate churches to 
wear them at all services. 

For the use of the hood in ceremonies for degrees, 
see the extracts from bedel - Buck's book above, pp. 

Among Loggan's University Habits (16.70 — 1685), 
the most remarkable hoods are those of the doctors 
in each faculty, which pass across the chest in a broad, 

1 Cooper's Annals, II. 410, 41L. 

2 Ibid. II. 195. 

L. B. E, 3 2 

498 University Society 

almost horizontal line. With the exception of that 
of the M.A., the Oxford hoods are almost as full as 
ours: the B.A.'s in each are 'flourished.' And the 
Cambridge LL.D. or M.D. in Congregation or Sup- 
plication and Contiones ad Clerum has a fur-edged 
tippet to his hood reaching nearly to his heels. The 
Oxonian proctor wears a hood of miniver or striped 
fur. Our non-regent's hood was little better than a 
square black tippet hanging to the middle of the 
back. The taxor wears his hood ' squared,' the Proc- 
tor his ordinary white regent's hood. 

The B.A. hood used to be made of lambskin, as 
are those now worn in Jesus College, Cambridge 
{made, I believe, after a pattern of Pugin's, which cor- 
responds with one depicted in Speede's map of 1610, 
and revived there by Mr Gilbert Scott the younger, 
as I have heard). James Howell, in a letter written 
from Venice to Dr Fr. Mansell in 162 1, where he re- 
marks, that his hair has quite changed colour since 
he has changed his diet, compares the time when he 
carried a Calf- Leather Satch'il to School in Hereford, 
with that when he 'wore a Lambskin Hood in Ox- 
ford' at Jesus college. Epist. Ho-elianae, 1. xxxi. 

The B.A. hood at Cambridge is usually worn 'flou- 
rished', i.e., with an inch or two of the fur lining 
turned over outward at the back. 

The hood squared is now worn by the proctors, 
and in past years was also a badge of taxors and 
scrutators. It is so folded that the neck, instead of 
being under the string, is yoked by the part which 
joins tippet and hood, and which would ordinarily 

. in the Eighteenth Century. 499 

hang over the back veiled by the folds of the hood. 
The result produced is a large loose square collar or 
tippet, none of the white lining being visible. 

Before the days when the 'Council' took the place 
of the Caput at Cambridge, masters of arts wore 
white linings to their hoods only as long as they 
were ' regents.' As soon as they should be removed 
to the 'black-hood, or non-regent house,' they wore 
plain black hoods; by which arrangement the white 
lining had a shorter time to get soiled than at 

According to the Oxford Statute, XVI. § 4, De 
Contionibus quibusdam extraordinariis ad Ecclesiam 
B. Mariae, those who were about to 'determine' as 
bachelors were to attend the Latin sermon on Ash- 
Wednesday in caputia obverso Rhenone 1 , seu pelle 

With regard to the academical CAP (pileus quad- 
ratics) : a distinction has been drawn between the 
quadratum or B.A.'s square cap and the birrettum or 
Doctor's cap in the mediaeval universities. (J. Helfen- 
stein, Contemp. Revietv, IV. 237 — 264, Feb. 1867.) 
And it has been stated that the former, the square 
trencher-cap is identical with the head-dress of the 

1 Rhino, reno, pellicium, vestis ex pellibus conficta, quae humeros 
et latera tegebat... usque ad umbilicum. Iso magister in glossis; 'Voca- 
mus etiam mastragas Renones quae rustice Crotina vocatur,' Vide 
Crusina. Joannes de Garlandia in Synonynds. 

"Vestes quae fiunt de solis pellibus hae sunt: 
Pellicium, Rheno, quibus Andromeda sociatur. "■ 

Du Cqnge, glossar. 


500 University Society 

ancient Chinese kings 1 . The varieties in caps have 
been considerable. 

Dean Colet (Magd. coll. Oxon.) is painted in a 
mediaeval birretta without 'combs'. He died in 15 19. 
Cardinal Wolsey (Holbein) wears a round cardi- 
nal's cap, the top falling in quadrants from its central 

Archbishop Will. Warham of Canterbury (Holbein) 
died in 1532. He wears a loose skull-cap, the hinder 
part falling behind the ears, like the skull-piece of 
our modern academical cap. 

Cardinal Beatoun of St Andrews and Paris (por- 
trait at Holyrood, engraved in Lodge's Portraits of 
Illustrious Personages'), who died in 1546, wears a 
zucchetto, band and cassock. 

In the wood-cuts to Foxe's Actes and Monuments 
('Book of Martyrs'):— 

The preacher at Paul's cross, before whom John 
Bainham is doing penance (anno 1532), wears no 
birretta. He has on an albe with a stole embroidered 
with several crosses. 

In 1549 an Injunction was sent to Cambridge — 
Sociorum et discipulorum uestitus et cultus corporis 
honestus sit et decorus : pilei autem scholastici et 

In the picture of the execution of Ro. King and 
the others who destroyed the Rood at Dovercourt in 
1532, the ecclesiastic in the foreground wears a bir- 
retta with diagonal seams on the top : otherwise 

1 Clarence Hopper, ap. N. and Q. S. 1., Vol. vi. p. 579 a. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 501 

hardly distinguishable from our college cap. He has 
also a gown with an upright collar, and a doctor's 
scarf, which hangs at the back about four inches be- 
low the seam of his gown-collar. 

Bonner (Pemb. coll. Oxon.) and the four other doc- 
tors in the picture, where he is represented as burning 
Thomas Tomkin's hand (1555), wear scarves not 
drawn close to the nape of the neck. Their caps, 
which they wear in the room, seem to have had a 
square top originally ; but it has been pinched with 
the finger and thumb in four places, so as to take the 
shape (roughly) of a star with four points, that over 
the nose projecting more than that at the back of the 
head, where the cap is of course pulled lower, so as 
to look something like the back of our cap. 

In the common frontispiece to the two volumes 
the protestant on the dexter side wears, in the pulpit 
inside the church, a furred gown, and a close skull- 
cap. The papist on the sinister side wears a loose- 
sleeved surplice, a stole embroidered with crosses, 
and a low ill-shaped birretta, rather less regularly 
pinched than those just described. 

' Certaine Bishops talking with Master Bradford in 
prison' wear (albes or) rochets, one with an embroi- 
dered collar, and over it a chimere or gown, with a 
broad D.D.'s scarf flowing loosely over the shoulders. 
It reaches about six inches below the knee: caps, as 
above, the skull-piece being better defined. 

In the astonishing caricature entitled 'the right 
picture and counterfeit of Boner, and his crueltie, in 
scourging of God's saints, in his Orchard at Fulham,' 

502 University Society 

the dress of the attendant Doctors of divinity is like 
that already described, except that for gowns, they 
seem to have full-sleeved long cassocks. 

John Bradford wears an M.A. gown and a round 
cap, with a skull-piece such as ours. 

The doctor looking on at the racking of Cutbert 
Simson wears also a round cap with cross seams at 
the top, and a skull-piece. 

The portrait of Luther by Lucas Cranach 1543 (in 
the possession of Carl Haag, esq., and exhibited in 
the Old Masters' Exhibition of 1872 — 3), displays a 
round cap with a skull-piece. 

Among Lodge's Portraits : — 

Nic. Ridley (ob. 1555) wears long pointed collars 
and a gown. 

Tho. Cranmer {pb. 1556) has a cap rather square 
than round. 

In this period the caps of laymen seem to have 
projected farther than those of the clergy. That of 
John Russell, earl of Bedford, in Lodge's 2nd vol. is 
well worth noticing. 

Matt. Parker (ob. 1575) has a cap* like that of Cran- 
mer, but it projects farther (like some in Foxe). 

Cardinal Allen (of Oriel, S. Mary hall, and Lou- 
vain, ob. 1594) has a mediaeval birretta, and a collar 
less pointed than Ridley's. 

Geo. Abbott (of Balliol, and Univ. coll. Oxon., ob. 
1633) has a cap rather round than square, with a 
large button at the top, and a well-defined skull- 
Will. Laud (ob. 1645) returns to the squarer top, 

in the Eighteenth Century. 503 

but more projecting, a skull-piece, but no button ap- 

John Tillotson (ob. 1694) wears his own hair, band- 
like collars, his cap which lies on the table is only a 
little less stiff than our own, with a button or tuft : 
the back of the skull-piece crumpled on the table. 

Gilbert Burnet (by Kneller) in his court dress, 
wears a low-crowned wideawake, less ample than 
bishop lord keeper John Williams. 

Fr. Atterbury (ob. 1732) is painted by Kneller in 
bands and a wig. 

In the frontispiece to EIKfiN AAHQINH The 
Pourtraiture of Truths most sacred Majesty truly suf- 
fering, though not solely. Wherein the false colours 
are washed off, wherewith the Painter-steiner hath be- 
daubed Truth, the late King and the Parliament in his 
counterfeit Piece entituled elicdbv [3acn\ucri, &c, &c, 
1649, where ' 

'The Author... hath conceiv'd it meet 
The Doctour should doe pennance in this sheet. 

He introduces us to him in spite of his clutching at 
the curtain, so far as to disclose a gown, through the 
sleeve of which the fore-arm appears as through that 
of an M.A. He has plain white cuffs, and a narrow 
turn-over collar without band. The skull-piece of 
the cap is just indicated, the penthouse of it is rect- 
angular at the base, but rises to a pyramid of perhaps 
three inches altitude. 

In the frontispiece of EIKON H III2TH or The 
faiihfull Pourtraicture of a Loyall Subject, in Vindi- 
cation of eIkwv /3aaiXiKi], Sec, Sec, 1649, where the 

504 - University Society 

tables are turned, the author of Eikdn hi pisti, who is 
being crowned with a foolscap and coxcomb for his. 
pains, while he has his left hand on the King's crown, 
holds in his right a doctor's cap, whether triangular 
or four-corner' d, it is not easy to say. 

It has no skull-piece ; — which suggests the conjecture 
that the skull-piece of the last named picture also 
may be worn beneath the cap not covering the fore- 
head but separate, as we have already mentioned the 
hood being worn under a hat, and like the cap seen 
in portraits of Jer. Taylor, bishop Launcelot Andrewes 
[pb. 1626), and others. 

If this be so, the modern cap may be called a com- 
bination of the papist and the protestant head-dress 
mentioned already, as pourtrayed on the frontispiece 
of Foxe. Or more properly speaking, it will be a 
union of the zuccJietto or skull-cap with the birretta} 
or small stiff slightly overhanging cap, sewn together 
for convenience in removing, at the proper moments, 
in sermons, &c. The custom of handing the birretta 
to the server before mounting to place the Chalice on 
the Altar has still a curious parallel in the practice at 
Westminster Abbey of handing the college cap to the 
virger at the reading of the lessons on Sundays. 

The regulation in our 46th statute of 1570 pre- 
scribes that fellows and resident graduates should 
wear superiore pileo scholastico et quadrato, and that 
none of any sort or condition should wear a hat {ga- 
lero), except in case of ill-health. We might infer 

1 Birrus and Birrettus, a pointed cap, hood, or bonnet (see Fosbrote). 

in the Eighteenth Century. 505 

from this that undergraduates in old times wore no 
covering on their heads (as at Winchester school, and 
Christ's hospital). 

Dr Ashton, of Jesus, in his collectanea on cap. 42, 
defined (about the year 1703) the word pileatorum as 
equivalent to Doctoritm. 

In 1585 lord Burleigh ordered for Cambridge, 'that 
everie graduate wearing the above gowne and gaber- 
dyne [which might be worn within the precincts of his 
college, and in bye-streets: see a few pages below;] 
within the Universitie or Towne, out of his chamber 
or lodging, doe weare withall in the day tyme a 
square cap and none other; no hatt to be worne ex- 
cept for infirmities sake, with a kerchiff about his 
head, or in going to and fro the Feeldes, or in the 
streete or open ayre, when it shall happen to rayne, 
hayle, or snowe; And then at all other tymes within 
the Universitie and without, the hatt whiche shall be 
worne to be blacke, and the band or lace of the hatt 
to be of the same colour, playne and not excessive in 
bignes, without feather, brooche, or such like uncome- 
lye, for Studentes. And that, as well the hatt as the 
band, to be suche as the wearer may by law use and 
weare 1 .' And again, 'it is provided that all Masters 
of Colledges and Doctors of Divinity of the saied 
Universitie. of Cambridge, shall weare openly within 
the saied Universitie, a truncke gowne and a hood, or 
a truncke gowne and a tippett, according to their de- 
grees : and that they shall therewith weare a scholler's 
cap being square : And when he or they shal be out 
1 Cooper's Annals, u. 41 r. 

506 University Society 

of the Universitie in Citie by the space of three dayes, 
and at such tymes as they shall preache elsewhere, 
they shall weare a truncke gowne, tippett, and square 
cap, according to the Quenes Majesties and Injunc- 
tion and advertisementes, under the payne of forfect- 
ing xx'. to be devided in three partes and imployed 
as is aforesaid 1 .' In process of time, at any rate, un- 
dergraduates came to wear round caps. 

The statement of 'common disorders' at Cambridge 
sent to Laud, probably by Dr Cosin, of Peterhouse, 
in 1636, complains that 'the Clericall Habit appointed 
for students here is generally neglected, unles it be in 
King's College only, where they reteine y e antient 
manner, both for color and fashion, with y e use of 
square Caps from the first entrance. At Trinitie, and 
otherwhiles at Caius, they keep their order for their 
wide-Sleeve Gowns, and for their Caps too when they 
list to put any on... and round rusti Caps they weare 
(If they weare any at all), that they may be the 
sooner despised, though the fashion here of old time 
was altogether pileus quadratus, as appears by retein- 
ing that custome still in King's Colledge, in Trin., 
and at Caius, whose Governours heretofore were [Ro- 
ger Goade, Fogg Newton, W. Smith; — J. Richardson 
Leonard Mawe, S. Brooke, T. Combe; — and T. Legge, 
W. Branthwaite, J. Gostlin, T. Batchcroft] more ob- 
servant of old Orders than it seems others were 2 .' 

The Oxford University Statutes were revised and 

1 Cooper's Annals, II. 414. 

2 MS. Baker vi. 152. Cp. Peacock on the Statutes: also Cooper's 
Annals, 111. 280. 

in the Eighteenth Cenhiry. 507 

digested in 1633 under Laud, then bishop of London, 
the chief persons employed being Dr Pink, warden of 
New college, Dr James, fellow of that society, and 
Keeper of Bodley's library, Dr Zouch, who had also 
been fellow of New college, and was principal of Al- 
ban Hall, Brian Twyne, of Corpus Christi, who tran- 
scribed the Statutes, and was afterwards appointed 
keeper of the archives, and Peter Turner, of Merton, 
Savilian professor. The following extracts are taken 
from the Oxford Statutes. 

vn. ii. § 4. Habitus Vesperiales et Comitiales Inceptorum in Artibus. 

Cum ex frequentia Inceptorum Habitu sollenni indutoram cohones- 
tatur Academia, singuli Inceptores in Artibus, in Vesperiis, Facultatis 
suae', Togis laxe manicatis, Capis ac Capitiis ex Serico, et Crepidis et . 
Soccutis induti, nudis Capitibus interesse, sub poena %s. \d. ibique quoad 
exercitia peracta fuerint permanere, teneantur. Etiam in die Comiti- 
orum, eodem modo sub poena eadem intersint ; praeterquam quod pro 
Caputiis Sericis, Caputiis ex minuto-vario (Anglice Miniver) induti 

§ 5. Habitus Inceptorum in aliis Facultatibus. 

Inceptores in Musica, in Vesperiis et Comitiis, Togis manicatis, cum 
Capis albis Damascenis undulatis, Pileisque rotundis holosericis utantur. 

Inceptores in Medicina et Jurisprudentia Capas coccineas cum 
Caputiis itidem coccineis, serico cujusvis intermedii coloris subsutis, et 
Pileos ex holoserico 1 rotundos gestent. 

Inceptores in Theologia Capas itidem coccineas cum Caputiis simi- 
libus, serico tamen nigri coloris subsutis, et Pileos Quadratos habeant. 

Singuli Inceptores, donee sclenniter creati fuerint, capitibus aperti 
in publico sedeant, et incedant, sub poena 13s. ^d. 

By Stat. VIII. § 6, it was ordered that respondents 
and opponents in the Ordinary Disputations should 
appear in the dress of their faculty and degree; 'id 

1 Holosericum, velvet. 

508 University Society 

est, Pileo, Capis et Caputiis induti.' And, according 
to IX. vi. § i, after the oaths have been administered 
to the persons to be presented as inceptors, &c. in 
Congregation, the proctor is to admonish them to 
procure proper habits within five days, to be worn at 
Acts and in university processions. The eighth 'title' 
of the statutes was abrogated May 7, 1819, when the 
Ordinary Disputations were abolished as obsolete and 

In Loggan's plate of Habitus Academici in Univer- 
sitate Oxoniensi (1672), the servitor, battellar, under- 
graduate commoner, and the commensalis superioris 
ordinis (gentleman-commoner) wear limp round caps, 
the crown falling down close on the brim, and being 
of the same diameter, of a radius about two inches 
greater than that of the head. Doctors in Music, 
Medicine, and Law, noblemen, sons of peers, &c. 
Superior and inferior Bedells (Esquire and Yeomen 
Bedells), and the Virger of the University, wear simi- 
lar caps but of velvet, higher in the crown, and more 
deeply pleted. Wigs seem then to have been worn 
chiefly by persons of rank or position. 

An undergraduate on the foundation wore a square 
cap without tassel or tuft ; a student of Civil Law 
who had completed four years (like the Cambridge 
harry-sopK), a Mus. B., B.A., B.A. about to determine 
in Quadragesima, L.B., M.A., M.B., Proctor, B.D., 
D.D., and the Vice-chancellor, wore stiff square caps 
with tufts, the edges of the cap, or at least the cover- 
ing, being slightly turned downwards over the top. 

The Cambridge habits drawn about ten years later 

in the Eighteenth Century, 509 

shew square caps (with tufts, but otherwise similar to 
those now worn, unless it be that the skull-piece was 
rather longer and squarer at the back), worn by scho- 
lars of King's, Trinity, and some other colleges, B.A., 
L.B., M.B., M.A., Taxor, Proctor, D.D., and Vice- 
Chancellor. There is no representation of a B.D. 

Undergraduates wore ill-shaped narrow wide-awakes; 
Fellow-commoners the ordinary broad-brimmed low- 
crowned billy-cock hat of the period subsequent to 
the Restoration, not much unlike what was then worn 
also by bull-dogs, taxor's and vice-chancellor's ser- 
vants : the Noblemen and the Yeoman Bedell {Be- 
dellus inferior) wear like hats, only cocked in front. 
The D.C.L., Mus. D., M.D., Commissary and Esquire 
Bedells [Bedelli Armigeri) wore round caps as at 
Oxford. The M.A. in a mourning gown at Cam- 
bridge wears the square mourning-cap with diagonal 
bands and rosette, and bows at the back: at Oxford 
he wears the ordinary square tufted cap. 

Here is the description of caps in Academia: or, 
the Humours of the University of Oxford in Bur- 
lesque Verse. By Mrs Alicia D'Anvers. London, 
Printed and sold by Randal Taylor near Stationers 
Hall, 1691 [4to pp. 68; Bodl. c. 2, 14; MS. Line] 
P- 34- 

Some Trenchers on their Heads have got 
As black as yonder Porridge Pot ; 
And some have things, exactly such 
As my Old Gammers mumbles' Pouch, 
Which fits upon his Head as neat 
As 'twere sew'd to't by e'ry Pleat. 

5io University Society 

Compare this with the description of the servitor's 
cap in 1709 given above, p. 102. 

In 1737 Hogarth published his engraving of the 
Publick Lecture on datur uacuum, for which Mr Fisher 
of Jesus, Oxon., the registrar of that university, sat 
as the lecturer. Among the audience who are de- 
picted as specimens of stolidity and empty-headed- 
ness, the older men wear little square-caps with tufts, 
and the undergraduates round caps. 

The foreground of a Prospect of Cambridge, drawn 
and engraved by Sam. and Nat. Buck, 1743, of which 
there is one copy in Peterhouse library, and another 
in the reading-room of the Cambridge Town Free 
Library, shews groups of men and ladies sauntering 
in the unenclosed meadows skirting the S. Neot's 
road ; those that are in academical costume wear 
square caps with tassells; those in three-corner'd hats 
wear no gowns. 

It is mentioned in the Gentleman's Magazine of 
1754, that undergraduates at Oxford then wore square 
caps, those at Cambridge ' frightful things.' 

Professor Pryme recollected that when he first went 
to Cambridge in 1799, his uncle Dinsdale, who had 
not been there since 1782, and who had resided in 
1762, 'was scandalised at seeing the M.A.'s wearing 
round hats. Cocked hats had formerly been univer- 
sal among those of them who did not wear a cap. 
He remarked, too, that, in his time, the streets were 
not paved, and that the run of water had been in the 
middle of them 1 ', as in the town of Berne. 

1 Autobiog. Recoil, of G. Pryme, p. 37. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 511 

Until 1769 the undergraduates at Cambridge con- 
tinued to wear * round caps or bonnets of black cloth, 
lined with black silk or canvass, with a brim of black 
velvet for the pensioner, and of prunella or silk for 
the sizars.' Farish, in his Toleration of Marriage in 
the Universities, recommended to the attention of the 
Heads of Houses, p. 44, [see above, p. 356] records 
incidentally the method by which this 'change of 
dress, which the Heads of Houses obligingly conde- 
scended to patronize,' was brought about. ' Notice 
was sent to every College, for the friends of that 
minute change to meet together, and'a letter was pre- 
pared to the Chancellor of the University, requesting 
that he would obtain the consent of Government. It 
was urged that the Heads of Houses were not un- 
willing that the change should take place, and that 
they wished to attend his Grace's " approaching in- 
stallation in a dress more decent and becoming." 
The Duke of Grafton mentioned the matter to the 
council-board, and intimated to the University that 
the new habit might be adopted. In this quiet way 
was a change made in a trifling matter, which if it 
had happened in the days of Whitgift and Cartwright, 
would have set the whole University in an uproar.' 

This seems to have been a popular precedent, for 
it had already been quoted by ' Camillus' in an im- 
pudent Letter to Dr Powell, which he published in 
the London Chronicle of Jan. 25, 1772, complaining 
that the Petition of undergraduates for the removal 
of Subscription had not been favourably received. 
There it is mentioned that the petition was offered 

512 University Society 

for an alteration of their statutable dress by Under- 
graduates ' in the month of June, 1769V 

Cooper {Annals IV. 356) refers also to Hartshorne, 
Book Rarities of Univ. of Cambridge, 447 n., and 
quotes from the Cambridge Chronicle of I July, 1769, 
the contemporary jeu d' esprit: — 

' Mutantque rotunda 

Ye leam'd of every age and climate yield, 

And to illustrious Cambridge quit the field. 

What sage Professors never yet could teach, 

Nor Archimedes nor our Newton reach ; 

What ancients, and what moderns, vainly sought, 

Cambridge, with ease, hath both attain'd and taught : 

This truth even envy must herself allow, 

For all her Scholars Square the Circle now.' 

The leaders were Jas. Mead of Emmanuel, Alex. 
Cleeve of C. C. C, and Nedham Dymoke of St John's. 
(MS. Cole xli. 397, 398, ap. Prof. Mayor's Baker's 
St John's, p. 1047, C P- IO S7)- 

We have had instances of the vice-chancellor, fa- 
thers, and proctors, wearing caps garnished with gold 
lace at commencement in the sixteenth century. {See 
above, pp. 249, 250.) 

We are now living to see the cap distinctive of 
their faculty left off by the doctors of law and medi- 
cine, as they have been already by the esquire bedells. 

The graduate's GOWN {toga) is prescribed by the 
46th statute of 1570 as talaris, reaching to the ancles: 
a regulation which seems to have been regarded for 
at least a century, to judge from Loggan's pictures. 

1 Nichols, Lit. Anecd. I. 57,4. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 513 

For lord Burleigh's regulations with respect to 
gowns in 1585, see above, pp. 461, 496, 505. 

There are several representations of black and of 
scarlet gowns in the picture of the vice-chancellor's 
court and university officers presented by Matt. Stokys 
in 1590, and now preserved in the university regis- 
trary's office. 

The same paper which told Laud in 1636 'that at 
Trinitie and otherwhiles at Caius,' his order for wide- 
Sleeved gowns was kept, informed him also that 
'others, all that are undergraduates, wear y e new 
fashioned gowns of any colour whatever, blue or 
green, or red or mixt, without any Uniformity but 
in hanging sleeves 1 .' 

' In 1659 there was a great outcry against the 
universities and learning, and after the removal of 
Richard Cromwell, it seems to have been intended to 
remodel the universities after the Dutch fashion, and 
to reduce the Colleges to three in each University, 
namely, one for each of the faculties of divinity, law, 
and physic, each to have a professor, and all students 
to go in cloaks 2 .' Mat. Poole, of Emmanuel, published 
his scheme for an university in 1658 s , with the appro- 
bation of Baxter, Bathurst, Reinolds, Calamy, Clarke, 
Robert lord Titchburne, Whichcot, Cudworth, &c. 

It seems that at one period puritans were no less 
jealous of the gown than of the surplice, for it is said 

1 MS. Baker, VI. 152, ap. Cooper's Annals, III. 280. 

2 Cooper's v4««a&, III. 47, referring to Wood-Gutch^fij/.Oxon. II. 695. 

3 '1648' being an error of the press in the title-page of the revised 
edition. See Mayor's Appendix to the Life of M. Robinson (1856), 
p. 158- 

L. B..E. 33 

514 University Society 

of them in a volume not unlike [Eachard's] Speculum 
Crape-gownorum, 'their ordinary Cant is, Beloved, we 
read in the Word, that the Apostles went up together, 
one did not go before the other; there was no Precedency 
amongst them, Beloved; and therefore it's clear, that 
there was no Prelacy in those days: And again we 
read, that honest Paul, (they never call him St. Paul, 
because he never swore the Solemn League and Co- 
venant) left his Cloak at Troas : Why, Sirs, you see 
plainly from this Text, that Paul had not a Gown but 
a Cloak, for says the Text, he left his Cloak, it does 
not say that he left his Gown, never a Gown had that 
precious Man to leave, Beloved, and therefore you may 
be sure he was no Prelate; for, they false Lowns, have 
no Cloaks but Gowns! (The Scotch Presbyterian Elo- 
quence; or, the Foolishness of their Teaching discovered, 
&c, 2nd ed. with additions, London, 4to. 1693, pp. 
60, 61, and i6mo. 1786, p. 80.) 

June 3, 1681. 'Whereas severall under-Graduates, 
and Batchelers of Arts, have of late neglected to wear 
such gowns, as by Order and Custom are proper for 
their rank and standing in the Universitie, whereby 
the comon distinction of Degrees is taken away, uppon 
which have followed manye and great in-conveniences : 
It was this day in Consistorie resolv'd, order'd, and 
decreed, by the V. Chan., with the consent of the 
Heads of Colleges, whose names are underwritten, 
that none residing in the University, under the De- 
gree of Master of Arts, shall hereafter, upon any pre- 
tence whatsoever, be allowed to appear publickly, 
either in or out of Colleges, in mourning gowns, or 

in the Eighteenth Century. 515 

gowns made after that fashion, or any other, but what 
by order and custom of the Universitie belongs to 
their Degree and standing : And that if any shall pre- 
sume after the feast day of St: Barnabas, next fol- 
lowing the date of this Decree, to act contrary to the 
tenor of it, he shall be proceeded against, and punished 
with all the severitie, that such disobedience and con- 
tumacie will deserve. 

Dr Gower, V. Chan. 
Sr Tho. Page. Dr Blythe". 

Dr Beaumont. Dr Peachell. 

Dr Spencer. Dr Saywell. 

Dr Eachard. Dr Brady. 

Dr James. Mr BalderstonV 

To one of these heads, Dr John Eachard 2 , of Ka- 
therine-hall, was ascribed a pamphlet printed in 1682, 
the title of which points to some clerical fashion of 
the tory clergy of the day. ' Speculum Crape-Gown- 
orum, or a Looking-Glass for the Young Academicks, 
new Foyl'd, with Reflections on Some of the late High- 
flown Sermons. To which is added, An Essay to- 
wards a Sermon rf the Newest Fashion. By a Guide 
to the Inferiour Clergie. — Ridentem dicere Verum Quis 
Vetat? — Loudon [sic], Printed for E. Rydal, 1682,' 
4to. pp. 34, in the library of Queens' coll., Camb., ' P. 
35. (15).' The bulk of this pamphlet is little else but 

1 Dyer's Privileges, I. 336, 337, where there is a misprint 'morning 
gowns. ' 

" Dr R. Watt, however, in Biog. Brit., ascribes the pamphlet (which 
he calls 'Speculum... or an OA Looking-glass new foyl'd,' &c.) to 
Milton's nephew, John Phillip. 


5.1-6 University Society 

a reproduction of the anecdotes and satirical hits in 
Eachard's ' Grounds and Occasion for the Contempt of 
the Clergy and of Religion considered? which he printed 
in 1670. A specimen of One of the parallel passages 
common to the two will be found in the notes at the 
end of the present compilation. 

It had been customary, a few years earlier, for per- 
sons who had taken no degree to wear a mourning- 
gown (or else a fellow-commoner's gown) on the occa- 
sion of their admission ad practicandum in Medicina 
uel Chirurgia. Bedel Buck's Book ap. Senate-house 
Ceremonies, Wall-Gunning, 1828, p. 199 n. 

The mourning-gown worn at both universities by 
Masters of Arts (and at Cambridge with the mourning 
cap) is represented by Loggan (1670 — 85) as having 
long full pudding-sleeves pleted round the wrist. 

The following passages in Eachard's pamphlet re- 
late to the clerical fashion of Crape gowns : — 

Speculum Crape-Gownorum. Part j., 1682. P. 1. — 'The*Na- 
tion is so overstocked with Crape Gowns, that 'tis impossible but that in 
such a number there must be failings among them, subject to great 
Remark and Observation : An ill Omen of sick Divinity when it comes 
to be mantled in the shrouds appropriated for the dead. Now these 
men in Crape, as they are generally young, so they are generally very 
highly conceited.' Pp. 22— 23.— 'However they will get into Orders, 
come what will of it, though perhaps they understand neither their 
message nor their business. For some are hugely in love with the 
new Title of a Priest, or Minister; others fancy that a long Crape 
Gown, and Cassock is a handsome garment, though it be in the 
Winter, and never paid for. But if they get but a Scarf about their necks, 
by virtue of a Chaplainship in some Noble Family, then how big they 
look in an English Bookseller's Shop ! for the Latin ones they seldom 
haunt, as being out of their sphear. From thence they cluster to the 
Coffee-House, there to order the Government, and rail against the 

in the Eighteenth Century. 517 

Dissenters, men of far more understanding than themselves, and shew 
an equal composition of discretion, learning, and charity, of each two 
drams; their discretion in medling with those things that nothing 
[p. 22] concern them, their learning in the management of their Argu- 
ments, and their charity in the continual invectives against they know 
not who themselves, and of whom they know no more by due proof, 
but that they are their fellow Christians. ' Twas a happy invention for 
the Crape Gown Men this setting up of Coffee-Houses ; For to drink 
in Taverns was scandalous, to be seen in an Alehouse more unbeseem- 
ing,; but to sit idling away their time in a Coffee-House, like the 
Disciples of Italy and Mahomet, till it be time to go to farthing Lantra- 
ton 1 with a young Gentlewoman, that's employment without the verge 
of reprehension : Especially if they can be heard to rail loud enough, 
like the Popes white Boys 2 , against Heresie, Schism, and Fanaticism. 
But what's become of Rome, and the so much exclaim'd against Babylon ? 
Those are Airy motions now, Fanaticism and Dissenterism is the mode 
now, and as they are modish in their Habits, they think it more con- 
venient to be modish in their Sermons. Besides the Papists are a sort 
of cunning Fellows, they argue shrewdly, they dispute Philosophically 
and Metaphysically. And there be many knotty points in controversie 
between them and the Church of England, which cost King James, 
Archbishop Laud, and several others, much pains and labour in those 
days to refute, and of late have put Bp. Gunning, Bp. Barlow, and Dr 
Stillingfleet to look to their Hits : And therefore our Crape Gown men 
think it more convenient to let them alone, than to betray their folly 
and their ignorance. But for the Fanaticks, they are more easily dealt 
with : 'Tis but going into a Pulpit and calling a man Faftatick, and he's 
presently confuted with a jerk ; 'tis but calling a Dissenter Schismatick; 
'tis but calling Religion Division, and there's an end of the business. 
The Observator's learn'd half Sheets come easily at a penny a piece; 
but Grotius's Works will cost Four [p. 23] Pounds odd mony, and that 

1 Lanterloo is a. game at cards mentioned says Strutt (Sports and 
Pastimes, p. 335) in the Complete Gamester (1734). In the inventory 
of a Lady's property, the Tatler, n°. 245 (Nov. 2. 1710), Steele men- 
tions ' an old nine-pence bent both ways by Lilly the almanack maker 
for luck at langterloo." Lanturlu (fr.) nonsense. Perhaps the word 
before us is the name of a game formed from Ventretien, conversation. 

3 ' Could he have done as the damsel that we read of in Acts 16. 
did, to wit, fill his master's purse with his badness, he' had certainly 
been his white-boy.' Bunyan's Life and Death of Mr Badman. 1680. 
(ed. Offor, ch. iv. Works in. 615. b.) 

5 18 University Society 

will go far in a new Crape Gown, and a narrow brim'd Hat, with a 
Perriwig to boot. And therefore who would not chuse a lazie Coffee- 
drinking Life with the pleasure of good Company, and suffer themselves 
to be deluded back to the vomit of Popery, though to their own destruc- 
tion, than undergo the labour of a studious Life, and improving them- 
selves in the soundness of that Doctrine which they outwardly profess. ' 

' Speculum Crape-Gownorum, The Second Part. Or a Continu- 
ation of Observations and Reflections Upon the Late Sermons Of some 
that would be thought GoliaKs for the Church of England. By the 
same Author. London: Printed for R. Baldwin, 1682,' pp. 1 — 40. In 
a Dialogue between Priestlove and Meryweather. P. 3.- — ' In so saying, 
you dishonour the whole Society of the Crape-Gown Order of D.D's 
and B.D's, and the more inferior sort of Rectors and Vicars, who have 
now undertaken to be the State Physitians themselves. And do you 
think that Applications of Bow Church Sermons, Guild-hall Sermons, 
Assize Sermons, and Anniversary Sermons are not much more whole- 
some for the present distempers of the State than the Euphorbicum and 
Cantharides of the Observator and Heraclitus? [p. 4] Priestl. Both 
Applications may be good in their kinds. 

Mery. Oh Sir, but the Levites pretend their Licences from Heaven, 
which th' other can never lay claim to : So that the other are meer 
Intruders ; and whether the Levites do not practice beyond their Skill 
and Commission is much to be question'd.' 

Priestlove complains (p. 11) how in the meeting-houses 'while the 
Minister is in the Pulpit, there you shall see a company of People, 
Young and Old, Rich and Poor,. ..their Hats pull'dover their Eyebrows, 
with their Pens, and their Books, and their Blotting-Papers all so 
busily employed, as if they were so many men copying of News- 
Letters, and this in such a strange Ethiopic Character, that no-body can 
tell what they Write; They may be setting down their last Weeks Gains 
and Expences for ought I know. Nay, I saw one so wedded to his 
Hat, that after the Minister was in his last Prayer, he would not stir it 
from his Head, til he had concluded what he had to Write, wiped his 
Pen, screw'd his Inkhorn, fix'd his Blotting-Paper, clasp'd his Book, 
and put it in his Pocket: and by that time the Minister had almost 

Meryweather, the dissenter, while admitting the impropriety of the 
posture in question retaliates (p. 12) upon the Churchman by telling 
'ye of another Indecency which I take to surpass yours, from which, I 
can except no Parish-Church within the Lines of Communication ; and 
which I look upon to be the mischief of Pews, not us'd in other Reform- 
ed Churches; and that is the hideous noise and clatter in the time of 

in the Eighteenth Century. 519 

Divine Service. For it behoves Mr Sexton, or Mrs Sextoness, to have a 
vigilant eye that day, knowing that Christmas will come: And the 
greater the reputation of the Minister that Preaches that day, the worse 
it fares with mortal Ear and disturb'd Devotion. At one end of the 
Church come in Two or Three Women, and then perhaps in the midst 
of the Absolution, slap-slap-slap ; by and by come in Three or four men 
together, and then 'tis, Our Father which art in Heaven, slap-slap-slap : 
and if the lock be a little refractory, then three or four slaps more into 
the bargain. By and by comes a whole shole of Slugabeds, and then 
tis, We beseech ye to hear us good Lord; slap here, and slap there, slap 
there, and slap here; slap a that side, and slap a this side ; slap-slap-slap. 
Anon come in two or three gay Peticoats, then upstarts Mrs Ginglekey 
from her Hasock, opens this Pew, that Pew, and then 'tis Lord encline 
our hearts, &c. Slap here, and slap there : And there is no end of 
Slapping all the whole Prayer-time; as if the Pew dores had been 
ordain'd to supply the place of Organ Responsories ; a. confusion that 
would not be endur'd at a common Musick-meeting. 

Priest. This is so customary, that no-body minds it ; and besides it 
may be very advantageous to keep people from falling asleep. 

Mery. Then keep your Dores open while Prayers are done, and 
slap 'em in Sermon-time. 

Priest. But how will you help it? 

Mery. Nay, look you to that: I am sure 'tis a very great Inde- 
corum. Go to the Observator and Heraclitus, they are wise men, per- 
haps they'l advise you to Oil your Locks every Saturday night, and line 
your Pew-dore with Cony-skin-Fur [p. 13]. But I'le tell you of a 
greater inconvenience than this, and that is the Translation of Hopkins 
and Sternhold. I may call it a Common Nuisance to the Service of the 
Church ; a Translation (to use Mr Abraham Cowley's expression) that 
hath revil'd David worse than Shimei.' 

This is certainly much in the vein of Eachard's Contempt of the Clergy. 
In the latter part of the pamphlet is a critique by Meryweather on cer- 
tain quotations from the then Authorized Version of the 'singing psalms,' 
and from some assize sermons, panegyrics, &c. 

Priestlove rejoins (p. 14) 'All this is nothing, the people will sing; 
and should you bring in new ones, they will say we are bringing in 

Mery. This, indeed, is the common Crape-Gown excuse: Much 
like what was alleadg'd in the Council of Trent, that no alteration in 
Divine-worship was to be made, tho' for the better, for fear of intimating 
a fallibility before. But I hope our young Crape-Gowners are better 
taught at Sam's Coffee-house than so; or else they keep their Sanhe- 

520 University Society 

drims there to little purpose. But there is another reason, these Gentle- 
men are so addicted to Haranguing, that they have no time to spend in 
mending Psalms; as if the gingling of an Alamode Sermon were the 

only Musick that pierced Heaven another thing is this too, your 

Crape-Gown men sit musing i' th' Vestry over the Churchwarden's 
Half-pint (p. 15) till the beginning of the last Stave of all; and so never 
hearing the Old, what should they concern themselves with a New- 
Translation ? ' 

Another abuse mentioned is the ' Church-Huzzaing, or Hum-hum- 
ming in the Church as a mark of approbation from the congregation at 
'a Sembrief rest' after a brilliant point in the sermon, 'in so much that 
you would even admire the Bells don't ring backward of themselves.' 

I have not room to quote further : but these pamphlets deserve to 
be reprinted with J. Eachard's works. 

In answer to the latter part of the Speculum appeared 

' Concavum Cappo-Cloacoeum; or, A View in Little of the Great 
Wit and Honesty contain'd under a Brace of Caps, and wrap'd up in the 
Querpo- Cloak of a Phanatick. In some Reflections on the Second 
Part of a late Pamphlet, intituled, Speculum Crape-Gownorum, being A 
Dialogue between True-man and Cappo-cloak-man. By z.n Honest Gent. 
and a true Lover of all such. London : Printed for Benj. Tooke, at the 
Ship in St Paul's Churchyard, 1682,' pp. 1 — 70. 

This pamphlet contains inter alia an account (p. 34) of the slovenly 
and irreverent manner among 'the Saints' of sitting round with their 
elbows on the Lord's Table. ' The Minister after he hath drank gives 
it to the next, and he to the next, and so it goes round the Table, and 
when it is drank off, he that is to drink fills it again.' 

There are several references to the 'Phanatical Habit' of the time, 
the long close (or querpo) cloak fastened in front with small buttons, and 
the skull-cap such as is seen in S. Clark's English Martyrologie ; the 
Lives of English Divines (1652 ; ed. 3, 1677, which is ridiculed by 
Eachard, Contempt of the Clergy, 1670, p. 87, and the parallel passage of 
Speculum Crape-Gownorum, I. 20, where [1682] the ridicule is softened 

Thus True-man says, 'Consider them, say you; I will put on twice 
as many Caps as the famous Night-cap-Brother T. Goodwin ever wore, 
but I will surely consider them.' 

' True-man. Well met, Neighbour, What in Quapo? I cannot 

but admire how well those Caps and the pretty Apes-cloak becomes you, 

upon my Reputation, I cannot but look on you, you'r so spruce to day. 

Cappo-cloak-man. Why? what ail you to stare so ? did you never 

see one in such a Dress before ? 

in the Eighteenth Century. 521 

True-man. No truly, not very often : For that Dress was out of 
fashion (I thank God) before I was capable of taking notice of it. 

Cappo-cloak-man. I should thank God that it was as much in fashion 
as ever it was. For I cannot but honour the precious remains of those 
glorious times, when the Saints enjoyed their Priviledges to the height ; 
(i. e.) When they bound their Kings in chains, and their Nobles in 
Fetters of Iron, even according to the very Letter : when we kept Sab- 
'J/aths to the Lord, but no Holy -Days : and. when our holy Fasts and 
Prayers were always answered with the next days Feast upon the good 
things of the Wicked, which the Lord was pleased to send us, by those 
precious wayes and methods of his own chusing, (as one of our Brethren 
did then well call them) viz. those which the Profane call Sequestration, 
Confiscation, Plundering, and Decimation. 

True-man. Well, I cannot but think that a Gown and Cassock, 
and a Canonical-Girdle, is a much more grave, solemn, decent, and 
honourable Habit for a Clergy-man. 

Cappo-cloak-man. I cannot help your thoughts, but to tell you the 
truth (which is not our common method) I have not heartily loved 
Gowns, &c. since Dr. J. 0. [John Owen] then Vice-chancellor of Oxford, 
did so zealously and learnedly declaim against them, as rags of Popery. 
Oh, that precious man, whose very name is enough to sanctifie the Pro- 
phane Title of Dean ! Had you but seen with what earnestness he paid 
off the Whore of Babylon, how he laid himself forth with all his might 
upon her, and stript her from all her rags, you could not but have been 
willing, not only to have put off your Gown, but your Breeches too, 
rather than have complied with those Sons of that Whore, the Papists, 
in any Garment that they wear. Oh, I can never forget that most 
precious Speech as long as I have a day to live ! 

True-?nan. Hold, Neighbour, hold. Don't be too much trans- 
ported with the remembrance of that glorious Dispensation. How can 
any man but be abundantly satisfied with such an eloquent Oration, 
that the Gown, &*c. is the mark of the Beast ? But you seem not only 
to have a dislike to the Goivn in general, but to the Crape-Gown in 
particular. Now several of those Gentlemen you have a fling at in 
your Book (I believe) never wore a Crape-Gown in all their Lives ; and 
I never read that Crape-Gowns were the particular fashion amongst 
Papists ; and therefore you would do very well, either to get the Learned 
Doctor to make another Speech, (which if you can get him to be Dean 
of Christ- Church again, I doubt not but he will readily do) particularly 
against Crape-Gowns ; or else to give us in short your particular Reasons 
against them. 

Cap-cloak-man. Why — now I think on't — It hath always been-the 

522 University Society 

privilege of our Party, to do things for which we can give no reason. 
Ask me for Reason ? Don't you know that we have nothing to do with 
Reason, nor ever had, nor ever will have ? therefore reason me no more 
reason, for if you do, I'll be gone. 

True-man. Not so hasty, Neighbour, stay a little, I pray you. 
I beg your Pardon, that I was not so well acquainted with the privi- 
ledges of you Army-Saints, and your Chaplains; and do assure you, that 
it was not in any derogation to your dear Priviledges, but for my own 
satisfaction, that I gave you this trouble. 

Cap-cloak-man. Well, well, if it be for your own Instruction, do 
you see, I shall give you some satisfaction in this weighty matter. 

Why — first, your Crape-Gown is too light, and that (you know) 
though it may do well enough for a Sister, yet is not to be endured in a 
substantial-grave-brother. For (mark ye me) Lightness and Gravity do 
no more agree than Light and Darkness. 

Then, Secondly, your Crape-Gown maybe seen thorough ; and of all 
things in the world, we Saints hate the Wicked should see thorough us : 
for as it is well hinted, Crape-Gown, part i. p. 16. since neither the 
Piety of David, nor the Prudence of Solomon, could keep them from 
falling so fouly as they did with Women, how do we know but it may 
be any of our Cases, and that we may not come off so sound as they 
did ? Now then, what a great Folly, yea, I say, what a Madness is it 
for us to wear such a Garment through which our Imperfections may be 
utterly laid open to the Female Saints, and so our Persons be rejected as 
well as our precious Doctrines ? yea, I say, our precious Persons be re- 
jected ! would not this be a very great madness — yea — and no small folly? 

Thirdly, The main cause why our Sober party do not love Crape- 
Gowns, may be this, that to wear them would be an intrenchment upon 
our Christian Liberty ; for you know the Fashion came up in obedience 
to the late Act for the Improvement of Woollen-Manufactures, there 
being no other Woollen-stuff so cool and fit for Summer as Crape 1 .' 

1 In the fly-leaf of a copy of W. Warner's Albion's England, 1612, 
is a fragment of the draft of some dedicatory verses or the like: 

'his name 
Now yours cant. die as long as Balshams stone 
Shall stand on ground or Peters Chaire be knowne. 

my wit 
Is meane and yet my meanes is lesse than it. 
Great Sir. If't be yr. will I shall be glad 
To weare his Mourning- vest ; If not, be sad.' 
In the first instance gowne stood for vest. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 523 

The gowns in Loggan do not differ much from 
those now worn at the universities, except in length, 
being truly and statutably talares. Those of the Com- 
missary, of graduates in. law and medicine, and of the 
esquire Bedells, have apparels (paruras) of fur on 
the sleeves and hem, the noblemen's and fellow-com- 
moners' of lace. 

About 1720 the tory clergy only wore the M.A. 
gown away from the university; others wore pudding- 
sleeves. See p. 36. 

The first of the Orders and Regulations of 1750 
provided that ' Fellow-commoners who take degrees, 
and such as enter into fellows' commons after they 
have taken any degree, shall wear the proper habit 
of such degree. 

'Bachelors of arts shall provide themselves with 
gowns made of prunello, or princes stuff. 

'II. Every fellow- commoner shall immediately 
provide himself with his proper gown,' &c. 

It appears from the Portrait of the Founder in the 
Fitzwilliam Museum [North Gallery, No. 17), painted 
by Wright of Derby, that lord Fitzwilliam, when a 
fellow-commoner of Trinity-hall in 1764, wore over 
his blue coat, with gold buttons, a pink gown with 
pink strings, trimmed and the sleeves laden with gold 
lace. When the regulations were made 'they were 
not aware,' as the author of Strictures on Discipline in 
1792 observes (p. 28), 'that... a coxcomb may flutter 
in a black coat as well as a red one.' 

The following note is borrowed from Notes and 
Queries, 2nd S., vin. 75. 

524 University Society 

' The slit in the sleeve of the Cambridge B. A. gown 
was by sufferance, and for the convenience of dining.... 
No B. A. would, in days of yore (had the Proctor been 
of his college), have appeared without gown looped 
at the elbow either in hall or at chapel. The person 
to whom I have alluded was the originator of a move 
which permitted all undergraduates to wear the 
.square cap as at present. Up to that date (probably 
about 1770 [1769, see above, p. 511]), some of the col- 
leges used "the Monmouth cap" [in shape such as 
the round cap of LL.D or M.D.] till the undergradu- 
ate took his B.A. degree. This explains the allusion 
in the Gradus ad Cantabrigiam, 

"My head with ample square cap crown, 
And deck with hood my shoulders. " ' 

(From a Paraphrase of Horace, Carm. III. 30, by Kit 
Smart, about 1745, quoted in the article B. A.). 

A sleeveless gown, called a curtain and other op- 
probrious names, was worn by the undergraduates of 
St John's, Pembroke, Christ's, Gonville and Caius, 
Corpus Christi (Bene't), S. Mary Magdalene, Emma- 
nuel, and Sidney Sussex, until the year 1834, or 1835 1 . 

If the Cambridge undergraduates' caps in old times 
were ' frightful things,' the Oxford commoners' gowns 
still merit some such appellation, though they have 
scarce better title to that of 'gowns' than the Paris 
gown, which may be seen depending from the shoul- 
ders of many a Belgian cure". 

An undergraduate wrote thus in 1790 from Trinity 
college, Oxon. : 

1 See the Note on this passage. 

in the Eighteenth Cenhtry. 525 

Behind our gowns (black bombazeen) 
Are seen two leading strings, I ween, 
To teach young Students in their course, 
They still have need of Learning's Nurse 
To stay their steps. 

Mr G. V. Cox has recorded in his Recollections, 
p. 413, an attempt made at Oxford in 1857, when a 
statute was moved, unsuccessfully, to alter the com- 
moners' gowns. He says that ' such a fuss about 
dress has not probably occurred since the olden days, 
when the new-made masters of Arts, while keeping 
(as it was called) their Regency at the Act, were 
fined if they did not present themselves in a sort of 
half-boots, ocreae! 

Among the laity, old fashions in male apparel have 
been preserved by livery-servants, who were wearing 
their masters' cast-off suits of a fashion last past at 
the time when the style of servants' dress was fixed, 
Among the clergy, the bishops have done the same, 
as being unwilling to sanction a departure from de- 
corum. Though with them the priest's coat or CAS- 
SOCK has shrunk into a gremial or apron, it has never 
been entirely disused by the English clergy 1 . At the 
universities and with masters of public schools, as 
well as with the scholars of Christ's hospital, it has 
continually been worn; and among the parish clergy 
it was only disused for a few "years. The occasions of 
its use at Cambridge may be seen in Senate-house 
Ceremonies (Wall-Gunning, 1828), pp. 175, 177, 179, 
182. Dr Eachard writes of the poor clergy in 1670 

1 See Canon 74 of 1 603, as above p. 467. 

526 University Society 

as considering it part of their ordinary dress. The 
'curates/ in Fielding's novels about 1750, constantly 
wear it; and of late years it is becoming again more 
usually worn. The portraits of Dr Syntax [by W. 
Coombe, 1741, ti823] with which we are familiar, 
shew that in his time, 1810, it was not always worn 
by clergymen travelling. 

In the reign of George III. we find some signs 
of reviving attention to the particulars of clerical 
dress. The writer of one pamphlet, An Admonition 
to the Younger Clergy, &c. London : Printed for 
John Rivington, at the Bible and Crown in St. Paul's 
Church-Yard, 1764, enforces (pp. 15 — 17) the duty 
of circumspection in the matter. Another is more 
explicit in A Letter of Free A dvice to A Young Clergy- 
man: Ipswich, Printed by E. Craighton and W. 
Jackson,' &c. 1765 : on pp. 15, 16; 'See that your 
Church, Books, and Vestments be kept clean, and in 
order : A dirty Church, a filthy Surplice, and a 
tattered Hood, are the great marks of Indifference 
and Disrespect to that Being, whom we meet to wor- 
ship, — Do no Office in the Church upon any Occa- 
sion without a Band, nor on Sundays, without a 
Gown and Cassock, if your Distance, and the Weather 
will permit ; nor think it a trifling Correctness to 
keep a Beaver-Hat and Rose to wear with your 
Habit. In all Ages of the World, and in more than 
one Profession, certain Vestments have been con- 
stantly used in Office, an awful Ensign of the Dignity 
and Importance of it. 

' In your Undress, let me advise you to keep to 

in the Eighteenth Cenhiry. 527 

that Colour, which Custom and good Men have ap- 
pointed, as most suitable to your Station, and not run 
into motley Mixtures. A dangling Crape Hat-band 
from a Gold-laced Hat makes not a more ridiculous 
Appearance, than white Waistcoat and white Stock- 
ings on a Clergyman: and after all, for want of 
Ruffles you will not be taken for a Man of a higher, 
if of so high a Rank as you really are, of yourself. 
So that you may lose and certainly can gain nothing 
by affecting the Lay-man. — Wear always a full 
Wigg, as well out as in your Habit ; and not one that 
scarce covers your ears : the latter looks, at best, as 
if it had been in a Fray, and came off with no incon- 
siderable Loss. And if this suggests such ludicrous 
Ideas, how ridiculous must the Owner himself appear! 
Neither wear your own Hair, till Age has made it 
venerable; or if you do, let Cleanliness alone be your 
Hair-dresser : For the modern Frisures are but pre- 
ternatural Excrescencies, for want of a due Circula- 
tion of the Understanding ; and can at best but make 
us Petit-Maitres; a Character composed of the Affecta- 
tion of both Sexes so blended together, that we see 
not the distinctive Qualities of either. — Neither come 
into that Jewish Fashion of wearing a skirting of 
Beard round the Face ; in them it may be proper 
enough, but with us, Openess of Countenance is the 
Characteristic of an ingenuous Mind.' 

'An Essay towards Pointing Out In a Short and 
Plain Method the Eloquence and Action Proper for 
the Pulpit ; Under tvhich Subject is considered The 
Miseries and Hardships of the Inferiour Clergy of 

528 University Society 

England in General, and London in particular, Toge- 
ther with a Variety of Remarks and Anecdotes inci- 
dent to the Subject : And upon such of our City-Divines 
as have made Themselves Popular (or truly Admired) 
by their Abilities in Pulpit-Oratory. By Philagoretes, 
&c. &c. London: Printed for J. Fletcher... Mr. Merrill 
in Cambridge ; and Mr Fletcher in Oxford. 1765.' 

The writer censures ' the Boyish and A bsurd DRESS 
of the Younger Clergy, as to Curled Hair, or 
Scratch Wigs, White Stockings and Leather 
Breeches, with a long Train of Et Ceteras 1 ,' — 
having previously written more at length on the topic, 
(pp. 39—42). 

' What Notion or Opinion can a Congregation possibly have of a 
Clergyman, who is quite careless in the Week-Time, even in his 
Dress, (as to curled Hair, and Cloaths and Stockings of an 
improper colour, ) how very much unlike one he affects to appear ! and 
on a Sunday, instead of a grave and decent Grizzle Wig handsomely 
combed out, comes in a short Shock, (or sometimes shocking) Head of 
Hair consisting of one round Curl only, and that so plaistered and 
powdered out, (not a single Hair of which must be touched by the filthy 
Hands of good Mr. Philipps or" the Surplice) that he looks more as if he 
was going to a Ball than to the sacred Place of God's Worship, to 
teach the great, aweful, and important Duties of Religion, whereby his 
Congregation may be enabled to become better Men, and better Chris- 
tians. The Author is really very sorry to be, or even to be thought, 
ludicrous on this serious and solemn Subject. But — Ridiculum acri 
Fortius &° melius, &c. — 

The Clergy of the Established Church would do well to 
observe the Dissenting Ministers as to this Point, how little 
culpable, even the younger Part of them are, comparatively with the 
younger Part of ours ; and no doubt, the Reason is, of it's being given 
to them in such strict Charge by their Elders or Pastors at the 
Time of their Ordination. — That an Impropriety and Indecency of Dress 

' 1 P- 93- 

in the Eighteenth Century. 529 

abounds too much amongst the former, especially the younger Part, is 
too plain by daily Experience, in Country as well as Town ; but much 
more in the last. — How strict and careful the Canons of our Church 
are in this Point is well known, tho' not so well practiced : But if the 
short Cassock and Rose are looked upon as too stiff and formal for this 
polite and delicate Age ; is there no Medium between them for our 
younger Clergy, especially, and their present Dress? Whose Province 
it is more particularly to take Cognizance of and correct this Error (for 
an Error most certainly it is, as indeed every Thing is so, even such 
seemingly minute Circumstances, which tend to discredit Religion 
and the Clergy) does not become the Author to say: But this he is 
very sure of, that if the Bishops would be pleased to take this Matter 
into Consideration at their Visitations, and to exhort earnestly the 
Archdeacons to do so too at theirs, and to appoint Rural Deans 
throughout their respective Diocesses to inspect the Lives of the Clergy, 
as well in Regard to their Dress, as their Moral Behaviour, we should 
soon see a very sensible Difference ; no less to their own Honour and 
Satisfaction, than to the Credit and Ornament of Religion and the 
CLERGY in general. The Story of the late Dean Prideaux upon this 
Point is perhaps not so well known as it should be, and therefore the 
Author begs leave to lay it before the Reader : The Dean's great 
Learning is sufficiently known : As to his Natural Temper and Dispo- 
sition, he was honest, blunt and warm, " As he was upon an Archi- 
DIACONAL Visitation in his Diocese, he had had a previous Hint or two 
given him by the superior CLERGY in Age as well as Preferment, of 
this Impropriety and Indecency of Dress, which had crept in among 
some of them, and accordingly they being pointed out to him, the 
worthy Disciplinarian was determined, if possible, to crush it at once. 
He called for a Glass of Wine at Table, and drank to one of them 
as he sat at the Bottom opposite to him, saying, " Mr. Church- 
warden your Health ! " upon which a Doctor that sat next to him, 
pretended as tho' the Dean knew nothing of what had passed be- 
fore, said "Mr. Dean I beg pardon for interrupting you going to 
drink, for that Gentleman is not a Church-warden, but a Clergy- 
man." — "A Clergyman! impossible, Doctor! I should have hoped 
that no one would have presumed to come before me in ' a Dress 
so unsuitable to the Sacred Character."— "The Dean took no 
further Notice at present ; but before he went away, made an hand- 
some Apology to the Gentleman, for his seeming Warmth j which 
had so good and happy Effect upon him, and the Rest, that they 
forthwith put the Dean's Admonitions and Advice into Practice." 
Thus, as Solomon finely and justly observes, "Words fitly spoken 

L. b. e. 34 

53<3 University Society 

(and seasonably opply'd) are like Apples of Gold in Pictures of Sil- 
ver." — The Author now returns to his main Subject again, by asking 
a few more Questions. Are the Turns which are given away at St. 
Paul's, the Temple Church, the Foundling-Hospital, and 
Mercers Chapels, calculated to promote true Pulpit Oratory?' 

Scarlet gowns were worn on 'scarlet days' by doc- 
tors in all faculties (excepting those of divinity for 
such times as they were bound to wear scarlet copes, 
as will be seen below) on Nov. 5, Christmas- day, 
Easter-day, May 29, Trinity Sunday, at the procla-. 
mation of Barnwell (or Midsummer) fair, and of Stur- 
bridge fair, on Commencement Sunday, Commence- 
ment day, and the anniversary of the Sovereign's 
Accession 1 . 

The Scarlet days at present are Easter-day, Holy 
Thursday, Whitsun-day, Trinity Sunday, Commence- 
ment Sunday, Commencement-day, Michaelmas-day, 
Commemoration of Benefactors, Christmas-day. 

On Ash -Wednesday, being a Litany-day, doctors 
and noblemen wear their robes, and the proctors 
their congregation ruffs. 

The Oxford Statute, IX. iv. § 2, provides that Con- 
gregation may dispense ul Magister Cumulatus, pro 
ffabitu coccineo, nigro et solito, post per acta praesenta- 
tionis solennia, uti possit. 

That the SURPLICE {superpelliceum, the robe worn 
over the garment of skins pelliceum, pelisse) was put 
on over the head, and open only for a few inches at 
the chest, may be seen from Loggan's University Cost 
tumes of the latter part of the 17th century. After- 

1 Senate-House Ceremonies, Wall-Gunning. 1828,. pp. 60, 68, 8o ? 
101, 108, 109, 118 — 121, 129. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 531 

wards the surplice, like the Cambridge doctor's ' cope,' 
was split down the front out of slovenliness, or else 
for the sake of the wearers' wigs. 

The STOLE was discontinued after the Reformation, 
and, unfortunately, was never restored until the re- 
vival of doctrine, under the ' tractarians,' had pro- 
duced cravings for a revival of external ornaments. 
I have heard it said, that about the year 1838 there 
was only one shop in England where Anglican stoles 
could be had, — French's at Leicester. 

In most instances black stoles have been intro- 
duced, probably because people were accustomed to 
the broad doctor's or chaplain's scarf. (See pp. 500, 

One of the medallions on the title-page of ' 6*. Aus- 
tin imitated: or Retractations and Repentings in Re- 
ference unto the late Civil and Ecclesiastical Changes 
in this Nation. In II Books By John Ellis.' 1662, 
with the imprimatur of the chaplain of Gul. [i. e. 
Gilbert Sheldon] Ep. Lond. July, 1661, displays a 
bishop in cassock, rochet (with ruffles at neck and 
wrists, and a limp square cap on his head), giving 
absolution to a boy kneeling before him in a black 
gown. The bishop sits in a highbackt chair, and lays 
his right hand on the boy's zuchetto. He wears a 
doctor's scarf, which seems to shew that the scarf 
took the place of the stole. The reference to ' I Peter 3' 
below the picture relates probably to some interpre- 
tation of the 'harrowing of hell' bearing upon penal 
satisfaction, or spirits in prison. The other pictures 
represent the pardon of Shimei and of the Prodigal, 


532 University Society 

The Spectator of Oct. 20, 1714, No. 609, thus dis- 
courses on this topic. 'As I was the other Day 
walking with an honest Country Gentleman, he very 
often was expressing his Astonishment to see the 
Town so mightily crowded with Doctors of Divinity : 
Upon which I told him he was very much mistaken 
if he took all those Gentlemen he saw in Scarves to 
be Persons of that Dignity ; for that a young Divine, 
after his first Degree in the University, usually comes 
hither only to show himself; and on that Occasion, is 
apt to think he is but half equipp'd with a Gown and 
Cassock for his publick Appearance, if he hath not 
the additional Ornament of a Scarf of the first Mag- 
nitude to intitle him to the Appellation of Doctor 
from his Landlady, and the Boy at Child's. Now 
since I know that this Piece of Garniture is looked 
upon as a Mark of Vanity or Affectation, as it is 
made use of among some of the little spruce Adven- 
turers of the Town, I shou'd be glad if you would 
give it a Place among those Extravagancies you have 
justly exposed in several of your Papers: being very 
well assured that the main Body of the Clergy, both 
in the Country and the Universities, who are almost 
to a man untainted with it, would be very well 
pleased to see this venerable Foppery well exposed. 
When my Patron did me the Honour to take me 
into his Family (for I must own myself of this Order) 
he was pleased to say he took me as a Friend and 
Companion ; and whether he looked upon the Scarf 
: like the Lace and Shoulder-knot of a Footman, as a 
Badge of Servitude and Dependence, I do not know, 

in the Eighteenth Century. 533 

but he was so kind as to leave my wearing of it to 
my own Discretion ; and not having any just Title to 
it from my Degrees, I am content to be without the 

The frontispice of Symon PatrickV Devout Christian 
Instructed, &c, ed. 16, London: Printed for J. Wal- 
t/we, Ja. and Jo. Knapton, R. Knaplock, R. Wilkin, 
D. Midwinter, and A . Ward, R. Bettesworth, J. Down- 
ing, R. and J. Bonwicke, R. Robinson, W. Mears, 
R. Gosling, W. Innys, B. Motte, T. Ward, S. Birt, 
D. Brown, M. Wyat, and C. Bowyer, 1730, dis- . 
plays a remarkable interior of a church, looking 
eastward. Over the Altar, which is vested in a 
large white cloth, are the tables of the decalogue, 
surmounted by a cherub's head; on each side is an 
oblong slab similarly over-topped, and bearing, no 
doubt, the Lord's Prayer and the Apostles' Creed. 
The people all kneel on the marble pavement with 
no desks, (a few with books,) extensis manibus. The 
celebrant wears wig, bands, and chaplain's scarf, but 
appears not to have changed his black gown after, 
preachhig. While communicating the people he ex- 
tends his left hand in benediction. The assistant 
while ministering the Chalice lays his right hand 
upon the head of the communicant. He wears wig, 
bands, surplice, and scarf. The Flagon does not stand 
upon the Altar. The Altar in many books of devotion 
of this and the earlier period stands either under a 
canopy or in a recess inaccessible from the ends, 
and deeper than Dr Bentley's baldacchino in Trinity 
Chapel. It usually has a super-frontal. That in an . 

534 University Society 

older picture, in Foxe'j Actes and Monuments, of a 
Protestant service just at the time of the Reformation, 
has also two orphreys. Two immense Flagons stand on 
the ground near it. A Chalice and Paten on the Table 
itself. The frontispice of Liturgia : seu Liber Precum 
Communium, et Administrationis Sacramentorum... 
Epistolae, Evangelia, et Psalmi inseruntur juxta Sebas- 
tiani Castellionis Versionem. Editio septima, prioribus 
longe emendatior. Londini, Impensis J. Bonwicke, C. 
Hitch et L. Hawes, E. Wicks ted, Joan. Rivington, Jac. 
Rivington et J. Fletcher, W. Johnson, J. Richardson, 
S. Crowder Soc. et P, Davey et B. Law, T. Long- 
man, T, Calson, et C. Ware, 1759, bears the motto 
Agite veneremur supplices, jtexis ante Dominum Crea- 
toreni nostrum genibus. Psal. xcv. 6, and shews the 
interior of a church. In the foreground, on the north 
side is the Font; the congregation kneels on the pave- 
ment : no desks or seats. One gentleman of quality 
kneels on a round hassock, and has a book in his 
hand. One minister with gown, band, and skull-cap, 
kneels in the western pew of a 'three-decker.' An- 
other in surplice and band above him. The pulpit 
has a sounding-board, a pendent cloth, and a plump 
cushion. The Holy Table is railed-in, no room being 
left, at least on the south side, for any one to stand. 
On it are placed two Flagons, a Chalice, and an Alms- 
bason leaning against the wall. The words of the 
rubrics in this Latin version of our Common prayer, 
which relate to the position of the Celebrant are 
Presbyter autem stans ad septentrionalem partem Men- 
sae, and Quum Presbyter stans ante Mensam Domini 

hi the Eighteenth Century, 535 

Panem et Vinum ita disposuerit, ut expeditius ac de-> 
centms possit Panem frangere coram Poputo, et'Cali- 
cem in manus sumere, dieit formulam Consecrandi 
prout sequitur. 

A frontispice to another of bishop Symon Patrick 
of Ely's books, A Book for Beginners: or, an Help to 
Young Communicants, ed. 13, 1695, depicts commu- 
nicants kneeling at the Altar-rails. On the Altar stand 
two Flagons and Chalices with covers and the Paten 
veiled. The priest in surplice and hood stands ex- 
tensis manibus diagonally at the north-west corner, 
the book supported on a desk or cushion placed ac- 
cordingly to his position. That it was thought in 1640 
that the placing of the Table altar- wise- was incompa- 
tible with their last rubric before the Communion Office 
(the North-side) is clear from the articles of the trial 
of Dr Matthew Wren, bishop of Norwich and Ely 
(Cobbett'j State Trials, § 153. IV. col. 29). However, 
bishop Andrewes and Laud seem not to have stood 
at the side, but at the end, to judge from the position 
of the cushions in the plan of their chapels ; (Prynne's 
Canterburies Doome, 1646, p. 122) at least for the 
beginning of the service. Possibly up to the Prayer 
of Consecration they may have taken the view of the 
Privy Council in Hebbert v. Purchas, as bishop Cosin 
said he did, (in reply to Rouse's Article of Impeach* 
ment, No. 2. anno 1640, ap. Cobbett'j State Trials, 
§ 152, Vol. IV. col. 23. The decision of the Privy- 
Council in Martin v. Mackonochie, as Mr Phillimore 
reminds me, had nothing to do with the 'North-side' 
rubric, but only with that immediately preceding the 

536 University Society 

Prayer of Consecration, and seemed to apply the 
words standing before the Table to the whole of that 
prayer). On the other hand, if we may judge from 
a sermon of prebendary Smart, for which he was 
pilloried as inveighing against his bishop, the puri- 
tan party would not have been much pleased with-, 
bishop Cosin if he had stood at the north end of 
the Altar. Thus he descanted in A Sermon freachfd. 
in the cathedrall chvrch of Dvrham, July 7, 1628, 
by Peter Smart. Psal. 31. 7 a 'I hate them that 
hold of superstitious vanities.' Printed in the yeare 
1640. [Camb. Univ. Lib. 47. 5. 93.] p. 33, 'Our 
Communion table must stand as it had wont to doe 
in the midst of the quire : not at the east end, as 
farre as is possible fro the people, where no part 
at all of evening prayer is ever said, and but a peece 
of the morning, and that never till of late. Neither 
must the table be placed along from north to south, 
as the Altar is set, but from East to West as the 
Custom is of all reformed Churches : otherwise, the 
Minister cannot stand at the north side, there being' 
neither side toward the North. And I trow there are 
but two sides of a long table, and two ends : making 
it square and then it will have foure sides, and no 
end, or foure ends, and no side at which any Minister 
can stand to celebrate.' 

p. 36. ' The Lords table I say eleven years agoe 
was turned into an altar, and so placed, that the 
Minister cannot stand to do his office on the north side, 
as the law expressly chargeth him to doe, because 
there is no side of the table standing Northward'. ; 

in the Eighteenth Century. 537 

[Dr John Cosin was in 1624 prebendary of Durham. 
— 1628 joined in the prosecution of Peter Smart. — 
1634 succeeded bishop Matt. Wren as master of 
Peterhouse. — 1640, Nov. 7, instituted dean of Peter- 
borough ; Nov. 10, on Smart's petition is sequestrated 
by the house of Commons for superstitious practices. 
— i6f|, Mar. 15, is acquitted by the house of Lords, 
Smart's counsel being ' ashamed' of his client. — 1643 
being among the deprived royalists he retires to Paris 
and ministers to the protestant part of Q. Henrietta 
Maria's household. — 1660 dean, and then bishop, of 
Durham, having been restored to Peterhouse for a 
short time.] 

It has been stated by correspondents to the Guard-' 
tan newspaper in July 1873, that in 18 14 bishop Law 
of Chester consecrated standing before the midst of 
the Altar ; and that bishop Maltby of Durham and 
Chichester began the Liturgy at the north side (not' 
end) and afterwards passed to the midst. 

In an illustrated Book of Common' Prayer, — (of 
which the standing title-page is ' London, printed by 
John Bill, Christopher Barker, Thomas Newcomb, and 
Henry Hills, Printers to the King's most Excellent 
Majesty, Anno Dom. 1678. Cum Privilegio', but with 
prayers for William and Mary), containing a portrait 
of K. William, pictures of Guido Fawkes, of the 
martyrdom of K. Charles I. and the Restoration of 
his son, besides historical illustrations of the proper 
offices, about sixty in all, — is a curious cut of a; 
clergyman in long cassock, short surplice ornamented 
with lace. at. the sleeves and hem, and with a skull-' 

538 University Society 

cap on his head, saying the litany at the foot of the 
Altar. He kneels extensis manibus on a cushion at 
the bottom of the two steps on which it is raised 
(in the body of the church, for all that one can see to 
the contrary), the people too kneel on the pavement 
behind him : a few also at the south end, looking 
with their faces towards the Altar, at a respectful 
distance. The Altar is vested with a fringed short 
frontal (or long super- frontal). On the middle of the 
Altar lies an open book at which the priest seems to 
be looking, but it is turned away from him, though at 
too great a distance and at a most inconvenient 
angle if to be used by one standing at the end of the 
Holy Table, or indeed anywhere except behind it 
at the north-east corner, or in front at the midst. 
There are no rails. 

For a description of other engravings see notes at 
the end of this book. 

The university CQPE (pappa, capa, pluviale) is more 
full than the circular choral cope; more full, that is, 
even than the medieval cope which (like the medieval 
chasuble) was not so scanty as those of the modern 
Roman pattern. The Cambridge scarlet cope has an . 
ermine hood, likewise somewhat full : there is also a 
narrow edging of ermine from the neck downwards 
rather lower than the height of the elbow. The 
history of this is clearly to be gathered from the 
costumes in the margin of Speed's map of Cambridge 
and Cambridgeshire early in the 17th century, and 
from Loggan's habitus towards its close. The doctors 
there do not wear copes fastened with a morse, nor 

in the Eighteenth Century. 539 

open in front except so far as to allow the hands and 
forearm to be thrust out. This may also be seen in the 
portraits of 16th century doctors, now being removed 
into the hall of Peterhouse, and which in Fuller's time 
(Hist. Cainb. 1655, p. 32), and till the present century, 
were panels in the parlour (locutorium) or Combination- 
room. Thus the strip of ermine (which is shown in all 
the pictures aforesaid) was the edging of the opening 
in front; and though the copes have been split down 
the front (with better excuse than that which we may 
allow to the rending of surplice-fronts) this has been 
preserved at its original length : another instance of 
the conservatism of the Cambridge tailors. The occa- 
sions when the university cope was worn may be 
gathered from the pages of Senatehouse Ceremonies 
(Wall-Gunning, 1828), pages 2, 3, 39, 59, 80-82, 115, 
121, 175, 181, 183, 209, 215. These were as follows: 
By the regius professor and doctors of divinity at the 
clerum before the beginning of Michaelmas term ; also 
by the preacher if a B.D. and candidate for the 
doctor's degree. By the vice-chancellor at the magna 
congregatio or ' black assembly'; on the Friday before 
SS. Simon and Jude (Oct. 28), when the alder- 
men, burgesses, and parishioners took oaths before 
him and the mayor in the chancel of S. Mary's 
church : also at the speech on the afternoon of Nov. 5 
(Papists' Conspiracy). By D.D. on Nov. 5, at the 
sermon, and on the Accession, at the litany and 
sermon on Jan. 30 (Charles K. & M.) till after service, 
when they put on their scarlet gowns : and at the 
derum on Ash Wednesday, By the regius professor 

540 University Society 

at the graduation of bachelors in divinity on S. Barna- 
bas (June n), also when moderating the acts for the 
degree of B.D. At Commencement by commencing 
D.D. By B.D. or nobleman when presented to the 
vice-chancellor for the degree of D.D. It was also 
put on in the ceremony of admitting any person to 
that degree by mandate. According to bedel Buck'.? 
Book, 1665 (quoted above, p. 249), the vice-chan- 
cellor was to wear his cope, provided that he were 
a ' father' on the vepers or vespers of the commence- 
ment {in uesperiis comitiorum). 

When queen Elizabeth visited Cambridge in 1564, 
she was received by the provost of King's ' with all 
his company standing in copes': afterwards in 'the 
King's College Church' (where 'the communion table 
...stood north and south'), ' Mr Doctor Baker with all 
his company was in copyes,' and 'the Provost re-, 
vested in a rich cope of needle-work,' and after they, 
had gone into the Quire 'the Queen following, and going 
into her travys, under the canopy ; and marvellously 
revising at the beauty of the chappel, greatly praised 
it, above all other in her realme. This song [a song 
of gladness in English] ended, the Provost began 
the Te Deum in English in his cope: which was 
solemnly sung in prick-song, and the organs play- 
ing. After that, he began even-song, which also was 
solemnly sung : every man standing in his cope.' 
On the Sunday 'when mattenswere ended, every man 
repaired unto the Court gate to wait upon the Queen. 
All the Doctors, saving the Physicians, in their gowns 
of scarlet, as they went continually as long as the- 

in the Eighteenth Century. 541 

Queen tarried.' They then went to the church ad 
clerum. ' Incontinently began the Letany. And after 
that, Mr. Andrew Perne D.D. [master of Peterhouse 
1553 — 89] ready in his Doctors cope, was by the 
Bedells, brought to the pulpit, which stood over 
against her travis, which her Highness caused to be 
drawn open. And so, at the end of the stoole did sit 
downe, and was seene of all the people all the time of 
the sermon. 

'The Preacher, after he had done his duty, in 
craving leave by his three curtesys, and so kneeling, 
stood up, and began his matter, having for his theme 
Omnis anima subdita sit potestatibus super eininentibus. 
About the midst of his sermon, her Majesty sent the 
Lord Hunsdon to will him to put on his cap : which 
he did unto the end. At which time, or he could get 
out of the pulpit, by the Lord Chamberlayn, she 
sent him word, that it was the first sermon that ever 
she heard in Latin ; and she thought she should never 
hear a better. And then the quire sung in prick-song 
a song 1 .' 

It appears from the articles of impeachment of 
Dr Cosin (of Peterhouse) and his answers in 1640 that 
there were copes in use in Durham cathedral imme- 
diately before his consecration to that throne: one 
with the story of the Passion embroidered on it (on 
the ' hood' no doubt). He himself wore one of white 
satin without embroidery ' when at any time he at- 
tended the Communion-service 2 .' 

1 Cooper's Annals, II. 182, 186, 167, 190—192. ' 

2 Biog. Brit. Kippis. 

542 University Society 

' Copes or vestments,' i.e. chasubles, are ordered for 
bishops and priests celebrants in the rubric of 1549, 
which is continued by the existing rubric. This was 
interpreted as applicable to all cases by the dean of 
arches (Sir Ro. Phillimore), but the privy council have 
since discovered that this is restricted by the 24th 
canon of 1603 to the use of a cope (not a vestment) on 
the chief festivals in cathedral and collegiate churches. 
Copes were used in Durham cathedral till 1779, when 
Warburton (then prebendary) complained of the heat. 
He is said to have thrown the cope off in a pet 
because it ruffled his full-bottomed wig. They con- 
tinued to be worn on festivals a few years later 1 . 
Also at coronations. Since the judgment in the 
appeal Hebbert v. Purchas, copes have been restored 
in some cathedrals : but not (so far as I am aware) 
in any collegiate church. It is almost incredible that 
in the first instance the word cope should have been 
used strictly as the only vestment admissible for the 
celebrant (see J. H. Blunt and W. G. F. Phillimore's 
Book of Church Law, 1872, p. 95 n.). It appears from 
the use of the word in our university that the term 
was not restricted to the pluuiale ; and it is also note- 
worthy that one name of the cope was 'casula proces- 
soriaV Is it possible that permission was given by 
the rubric for poor parishes to use the red cope, which 
was left them if they could not afford a new chasuble 
{casula, planeta, or 'principal vestment')? It is evi- 

1 Quarterly Review, xxxn. 273, Traditions and Custom of Ca* 
thedrals. Mackenzie, E. C. Walcott, ed. 2. p. 47. 

2 See Scudamore's Notit. Eucharistka. 

in the Eighteenth Century. 543 

dent, from inventories of ornaments left in parish- 
churches by the reformation commissioners in 1566 1 , 
that a red cope was frequently left, and in some cases, 
converted into an altar frontal or antependium : a fact 
which in some measure accounts for the prevalence 
of red in Altar-cloths : crimson being at once a good 
wearing colour and the colour seasonable for the 
greatest number of Sundays in the English custom. 

In the margin of Speed's maps of Cambridge 
(1610, &c), one of the personages wears a vestment 
shaped like an unshorn chasuble, and a birretta. 

The congregation habit of the proctors (according to 
Wall-Gunning, 1828, p. 15), is RUFFS (camisiae) with 
white hoods, to be worn on ' litany days.' 

According to bedel Stokys' Book, in the middle of 
the sixteenth century, the bedells were to wear 
QUOIFS, and hoods, at the time of the oration at the 
examination of questionists in quinquagesima, when 
they were to bring heads and doctors 'through the 
Prese with their Staffs turned', i.e. with maces re- 
versed to make way through the crowd. 

1 English Church Furniture, by E. Peacock, Esq. F.S.A. 1866. 
pp. 42, 47, 48, 49, 52 bis, 68, 75, 81, 92, 106, 114, 117, 130. It ig 
mentioned p. 4.2 that we 'haue a cope in the churche, the wch wee are 
admitted [by the iniunc]tions to kepe for o r . mi'ster.' A ■vestment re« 
mained in one instance, p. 112. Copes were also made into pulpit cloths, 
pp. 89, 97 : albes were converted generally into surplices, also into Altar 
cloths, 29, 43 ; as sometimes were vestments, 65, 73. 


A. On a New Project for Riding the Great Horse. [1700.] 

B. Prideaux's University Reform. 1715. 

C. Serjeant Edmond Miller's Accoimt of Cambridge and 
Trinity College. 171 7. 

D. Winston's Emendanda in Academiii. 1717. 

E. Lord Macclesfield 's Memorial relating to the Universities. 

F. Ri. Newton's Expence of the University Education 
Reduced: and Statutes of Hart Hall (Hertford College). 1727— 

G. Diary of a Student at Trinity College, Cambridge. 
1795 — 1 801. 

L. B. E. 35 


On a 

New Project 

for Riding 



and other Exercises Physical and Mental 
to be practised 

in the 




548 Riding the Great Horse. 

Gutch, Collectanea Curiosa, Oxford, 1781. Vol. 2. 
pp. 24 — 35. No. VI. 'A Letter from a Friend of 
the Universities in reference to the new Project for 
riding the Great Horse! MS., the greater part in 
Dr J. Wallis' hand, and probably composed by him 
on the threshold of the 18th century. 

It appears that our present pronunciation of the word Acade- 
my was a French innovation on the more correct Academy.... 
Riding the Great Horse, singing, dancing, instrumental musick, 
mathematics, &c... 'In our College (as larger Societies) every 
Tutor with his pupils is such a private College as what they 
complain for want of; whose business is (beside lectures and 
other publick exercises in the College at large) to instruct his 
pupils (in one or more classes as there is occasion) in his private 
chamber or other convenient place in the several parts of direct- 
ing them what books to read for the purpose ; explaining these 
authors to them ; and taking acgount of their proficiency therein ; 
inspecting their manners and conversation from time to time, 
and otherwise taking the care and oversight of them. . . Dancing, 
singing, playing on musick &c. (which be rather an hindrance 
than a promotion of other studies, as taking up the time which 
might otherwise be better employed) there is no cause to com- 
plain for want of teachers in the Universities, for there are 
dancing-masters, singing-masters, musick-masters &c. enough 
to be had to teach those who are desirous to learn ; or if not in 
the Universities, at least in London .. 

' I could give many instances in our Universities of a like 
nature with what they call private Colleges, or Clubs by volun- 
tary agreements for particular parts of knowledge; and that 
thei-e is no cause to complain for want of such. It is now almost 
fifty years ago that Mr Staal (a skilfull Chymist) made it his 
business in Oxford to instruct such as did desire it in the practise 
of Chymistry. That is, when six, eight or more persons (of the 
better quality amongst us) have agreed together for that purpose ; 

Riding the Great Horse. 549 

he would with them in a convenient place go through a whole 
course of Chymistry, and so with one company to another from 
time to time. And the like hath been continued ever since by 
Dr Plot, Mr White and others to this time. And a convenient 
Laboratory built for that purpose by the University, well, fur- 
nished with furnaces and Utensils for that purpose. The like 
hath been done as to Anatomy by Dr Musgrave (while he was 
in Oxford) and others amongst us ; who at the request of some 
persons agreeing to that purpose hath gone through a course of 
Anatomy for their particular information. And there seldom 
happens a publick execution of condemned persons but one or 
more bodies are privately dissected for that use. And at other 
times the like is performed on the bodies of other animals. 

'The like was done as to Botanicks by Dr Morrison in the 
Physick Garden for the instruction of such as desire it in the 
nature of difference of herbs and other plants 

' That Mathematicks are a good accomplishment for gentle- 
men or others is very true : But I wonder with what face it can 
be pretended (unless from great ignorance therein) that they are 
not to be learned in our Universities? When it is well known 
that within fifty or threescore years last past Mathematicks 
have been more improved in our Universities than for five hun- 
dred years before. 'Tis above fifty year since (upon the as- 
swaging of our civil wars in England, and re-settling the Univer- 
sity) Dr Wallis and Dr Ward (Professor of- Mathematics in 
Oxford) beside other public lectures, have (in their private lodg- 
ing) instructed Gentlemen and others therein (who have desired 
it) from time to time ; some of whom have since been publick 
Professors therein. And the like hath been done by others (his 
successors) since Dr Ward was advanced to higher preferment. 
Beside which, Mr Caswell hath now for many years last past 
made it his business (and a good part of his livelyhood) to teach 
Mathematicks to such Gentlemen or others singly or by com- 
panies. And the like hath been done by some others ; and will 
be so as there is occasion. And I think it not amiss here to set 
down Dr David Gregory's method therein who is at present the 
Savilian Professor of Astronomy in Oxford. [Gutch does not 
transcribe the Method, if it be given in the MS. 'Ex archivis 
Univ. Oxon. in Turre Scholar."] His Great Horse we had 

550 Riding the Great Horse. 

rather want in our University than be troubled with it : which 
would have more spectators than riders to the misspending of 
time which might be better employed.... I do not think it proper 
that the publick should be charged with erecting Acdddemies 
for each of these [Hunting, Hawking, and more useful manual 
employments] ; no more than for teaching to drink wine, ale, 
and coffee... which rather stand in need of laws for restraint and 
regulation than for encouragement. [The MS. concludes in 
another hand.] The Universities are not enemies to exercises 
of the body no more than of the mind; and in particular they 
have a good esteem of riding the Great Horse as contributing to 
a sure seat and graceful air on horseback.... But &c.'- 


LVIII Articles 

for Reformation of the 



552 Prideauxs University Reform. 

Dean Humphrey Prideaux of Norwich (author of 
the Connexion of the Old and New Testament) wrote, 
Nov. 26, 171 5, to Charles viscount Townshend, prin- 
cipal secretary of state, certain Articles for the Refor- 
mation of the Universities. 

He had lived seventeen years at Oxford [at Christ Church, 
having been a pupil of Busby] but (he says) knew of Cambridge 
'only by enquiry and hear-say.' 

He regrets the neglect of episcopal visitations and also of 
visitation of the universities. One was proposed in the time of 
king William 'and the Lord Chancellor Sommers was for it; 
but, the Lord Chief Justice Holt giving his opinion to the con- 
trary, the King answered, That if they could not agree it to be a 
clear case, he would not meddle with it; and so this matter 
dropped. And therefore, to put the thing beyond doubt, an Act 
of Parliament now seems necessary; and indeed without that 
authority the Articles I now offer cannot be put in execution.' 
(Prideaux's Life, 1748, pp. 189—193.) 

The substance of the Articles (pp. 199 — 237) is as follows. 

1. Prayers on week-days at 6 a.m. and at 

2. The university bell to be tolled for half an hour before 

3. The college gates to be locked while prayers are going 
on, and the keys to be delivered to the head after they are over, 
and to be kept by him till after prayers next morning. 

4. The porter must apply to him in the meanwhile if neces- 
sary. The person so let in to 'give an account to the Govern- 
ment of the said College or Hall next morning.' 

5. Any one missing evening and morning prayer running to 
be considered to have been out all night. For which last offence 

Prideauxs University Reform. 553 

the punishment is public admonition for the first, the loss of a 
year for the second, and expulsion for the third time. 

6. Persons to be turned out of common-fire-rooms or com- 
bination-rooms at 10 p.m. and the keys to be taken to the heads. 

7. Any person so locked in, or any climbing over the college 
walls or the like, to be finally expelled. 

8. Stourbridge Fair to be abolished or removed \o miles 
from Cambridge. 

9. Fasting Nights to be abolished, and suppers to be pro- 
vided in hall : and persons to fast at their own discretion. 

10. For resorting to Taverns or Alehouses (i) admonition; 

(2) admonition, a public declamation, and the loss of a year ; (3) 
public expulsion : the tavern-keeper to be fined (1) 5/., (2) 10/., 

(3) 20/. and perpetually discommuned. 

11. Female servants and lodgers in the town to give certifi- 
cates of good character. Lewd women to be carted out of the 
university town, and if they return before they are 50 years old 
to be publicly whipped. Six persons to be appointed annually 
to inspect certificates. 

12. There shall be an act of parliament to make it felony 
without benefit of clergy for any to be accessory to the clandes- 
tine marriage of a minor. 

13. To prevent fellows living a 'dronish slothful life' they 
shall vacate their fellowships when they are of 20 years standing 
from matriculation : excepting a Public Professor, or Lecturer, 
or Upper or Under Library- Keeper, or Keeper of the Archives, 
or Register of the Convocation, or Judge of the V. C.'s Court or 
a Minister in the town or its suburbs. 

14. 'That, for the maintenance and support of such super- 
annuated Fellows or Students, who, in 20 years time, shall not 
have qualified themselves for any public service, there shall be 
an Hospital built, in each of the said Universities;., which shall 
be called Drone Hall? Their late colleges to provide 20/. per 
annum for each inmate, it being fitting that ' this burthen should 
be laid upon them, as a just mulct for their having bred up the 
said superannuated person to be good for nothing.' 

554 Prideauxs University Reform. 

15. After 10 years from matriculation the rule of residence 
should be relaxed so as to allow a fellow to become chaplain to 
a bishop or nobleman, or for any employment approved by the 
Government of his college. 

16. Fellowships to be vacated by acceptance of a prefer- 
ment above 80/. per annum, secundum uerum ualorem, after a 
year of grace. 

17. A 'Beadle' to vacate his Fellowship, &c. 

18. Pre-elections, by which a new fellow makes a payment 
to the out-goer, to be abolished. 

19. Dividends to be equalised, saving that each superior 
degree shall receive J more than that next below it. B.A. : — 
M.A., LL.B., M.B. :— B.D., LL.D., M.D.:— D.D. 

20. The number of fellows in each college to be proportioned 
to its income : none receiving above 60/. per annum. 

21. Elections with regard to merit only. 

22. Claim of Founder's kin disallowed. 

23. No treats to be given but in the College Hall. 

24. The abuse of taking degrees by forfeiting bonds given 
for the future performance of statutable exercises abolished. 

25. All persons of standing to take M.A. degree must per- 
form the exercises even if they do not choose to proceed, or have 
their names struck out of the Buttery-book. 

26. The privilege of non-residence at cures on pretence of 
study, under 21 Hen. VIII. cap. 13 and 28 Hen. VIII. cap. 12, 

27. Popish statutes to be reformed. 

28. Members of the foundation to communicate in their 
College Chapel at least once a month. The members to preach 
in rotation. 

29. Meeting of the heads and proctors every Monday at 
1 p.m. to prepare for Convocation. 

30. A standing commission of 20 Curators of the universi- 
ties to be appointed at the beginning of a new parliament by 
King, Lords and Commons. 

The archbishops and lord chancellor to be ex officio members 
of the board. 

Prideauxs University Reform. 555 

31. To prepare statutes for such societies as have them not. 

32. Three Commissioners may be delegated to visit. 

33. 'Whereas Fellows of Colleges often spend a great part 
of their time, as well as of their revenue, in quarrels among 
themselves, or with their Head ;' a select senate of all the resi- 
dent doctors of the three faculties with the bachelors of Divinity- 
shall arbitrate, with appeal to the Visitor of the college. 

34. This senate shall dispose all university preferment, 
since 'the junior Masters of Arts often give their votes rashly 
and partially, without that due consideration, which they ought 
to have towards the merits of the Candidates.' 

35. Heads not to be out of residence more than two months 
consecutively, or three months altogether in a year. 

36. The income of the Head to be made up to the value of 
3 of the best fellowships. 

37. Bishops and Deans must be D.D.; Archdeacons B.D., 
LL.D., or D C.L. ; Prebendaries or beneficiaries of ioo/. M.A., 
LL.B., or B.C.L., &c. &c. 

38. In the Schools the O. T. must be quoted in the Hebrew, 
and N. T. in the Greek. 

39. All tutors must be allowed and appointed by the Master 
and Seniors and licensed by the V. C. 

40. Tutors to find a deputy or read constantly to their 
pupils till their degree of BA., except for 3 weeks at Christmas, 
1 week at Easter and Whitsuntide, and during the Act or Com- 

41. Tutors constantly on all Sundays and holidays (except 
as under § 40) to read and expound 'the Articles of the Church 
of England or such other books or tracts of divine institution as 
shall be judged best.' 

42. No person to be licensed by the V. C. as tutor till he 
has sworn to observe § 41, as well as all such Oaths, Declarations 
and Subscriptions as the keeper of a public Grammar School 
is bound to take. 

43. Penalties for neglectful Tutors. 

44. Removal of ill-conducted Tutors. 

556 Prideauxs University Reform. 

45. Tutors to have proctorial authority over their pupils, 
with power of search in houses. 

46. Undergraduates to pay ready money to tradesmen. 

47. Heads to examine students quarterly, and to enquire 
into the causes of deficiency. 

48. Any undergraduate found non-proficient three times to- 
gether to be removed from the university. 

49. For the checking of illiterate curates, none is to be ad- 
mitted B.A., till he has passed an examination in the. Christian 
Religion as taught and professed in the Church of England. 

50. The Church Catechism and XXXIX. Articles to suffice 
till the Professors have fixed upon an uniform system for the 
Divinity Examination. 

51. Four resident divines of B.D. standing to be chosen 
examiners by the V. C. and Heads. 

52. The examination to be held in the Schools. 

53. Two examiners at a time to examine classes of six for 
two hours at least. 

54. The examiners to be paid from the stipend of the useless 
lectures of Grammar, Rhetoric, Logic [the Trivium~\ and Meta- 
physics, at Oxford; and at Cambridge by a similar method. 
[Perhaps by the abolition of the Barnaby ordinaries.] 

55. No person to be ordained till he have taken his B.A. 
degree, or have gone through an equivalent course in a foreign 

56. • No Players or Actors of Interludes to come within the 
university notwithstanding any grant or licence whatsoever, 
which they may bring. 

57. 'That, whereas the Lawyer's Gown... is often made an 
Asylum for the idle and the ignorant [harry sophs] such as have 
not, by their proficiency in their studies, qualified themselves for 
the Degree of B.A., it be ordained, that no person for the 
future, shall be allowed in either of the said Universities, to put 
on the Lawyer's Gown, till he hath first taken the Degree of 
B.A., or till three years after that, be admitted to take the 
Degree of Batchelor of Law.' 

Prideauxs University Reform. 557 

58. Cambridge to follow the practice of Oxford for the 
degree in Physic both for times and exercises, that there may be 

Dean Prideaux mentions that about the year 1675, 'dpi. per 
annum for a Commoner (or Pensioner, as the term is in Cain- 
bridge) and 80/. per annum for a Fellow Commoner, was looked 
on as a sufficient maintenance ; and, when I was a Tutor in 
Oxford (M. A. and tutor of Christ Church, 1675), I never desired 
.more for such of my Pupils, as were of either of these orders, 
and always found it amply to suffice for both. But now, (1715,) 
scarce 60/. per annum for the former and 120/. per annum for the 
latter, will serve for a compleat maintenance. And in propor- 
tion hereto, are increased the expences of all other orders and 
members of these two bodies.' (pp. 196, 197.) 

'Atheists, Deists, Socinians, Arians, Presbyterians, Indepen- 
dents, Anabaptists, and other Adversaries and Sectaries, surround 
us on every side, and are set, as in battle array, against us : and 
if we do not come armed and provided with equal knowledge 
and learning to the conflict, how shall we be able to support our 
Cause against them?' (p. 198.) 


An Account of 


Together with a few Natural 
and Easie Methods 


to both Houses of Parliament 


Edmond Miller, Serjeant at Law. 


Serj. E. Millers Account of Cambridge. 559 

'An Account of the University of Cambridge, and 
the Colleges there. Being A Plain Relation of many 
of their Oaths, Statutes and Charters. By which 
will appear, The Necessity the present Members lie 
under, of endeavouring to obtain such Alterations, 
as may render 'em practicable, and more suitable to 
the present Times. Together with A Few Natural, 
and Easie Methods, how the Legislature, may for the 
future fix That, and the other great Nursery of 
Learning, in the true Interest of the Nation, and 
Protestant Succession. Most humbly propos'd to 
both Houses of Parliament. By Edmond Miller, 
Serjeant at Law. 

Sincerum est nisi vas, quodcunque infundis, 

London : Printed and Sold by J. Baker, at the Black 
Boy in Pater-noster Row. 1 7 1 7.' (8vo. pp. 200.) 

Serjt. Miller mentions (p. 45) the answer to the 12th 
Query of K. Charles II. in 1675. ' The Coffee-houses are daily- 
frequented, and in great Numbers of all sorts (the Heads of 
Houses and other Doctors excepted) at all Hours; especially 
Morning and Evening.' 

But the most interesting part of his pamphlet is the attack 
upon his enemy Ri. Bentley, Master of Trinity. Like Sam. 
Cobb in his Tripos Speech, Miller reaches ' Aristarchus 1 by 
a boomerang shot. He takes the Statutes of Trinity College 
as a typical instance of the obsolescence which prevailed in the 
collegiate Statute books — and then the attack on Bentley is 
inevitable. Thus Miller apologizes (p. 98) : — 

560 Serj. E. Miller s Account of Cambridge. 

' Neither cou'd any thing have induc'd me seemingly to act 
so ungenteel a Part as (unless upon Proof in a Court of Justice) 
to say such ill things of any Person living, except Doctor 
Bentley : But verily believing That there is no History of any 
one in such a Station, who ever before acted so vile a Part ; and 
has committed such Rapine and Plunder, upon a College ; and 
so impudently insulted their Properties, Persons and Priveleges 
for about sixteen Years together, as he has done ; of all which 
he has been accused many Years since in a legal Method ; and 
his Accusers still desire nothing [P. 99] more than an Oppor- 
tunity of proving the same things before the proper Judges. 

' These circumstances I hope will take off the Imputation of 
Scurrility from anything which has been or can be said of such 
a Person, especially since the necessity of the case almost 
requires That these matters should be made Publick ; because 
this Wretch, by what Means is very wonderful, has found some 
Friends in three successive Ministries, who it seems have thought 
it worth exercising their Powers in skreening him hitherto from 
this most just Prosecution. 

' 'Tis suppos'd that by his vain Boastings of himself and 
insolent contempt of others (a pretty Collection of his Expressions 
of which sort may be seen in Mr Johnsoits Aristarchus) he has 
created a Belief in some considerable Persons who are better 
employ'd than to search into those Matters That he is a Prodigy 
for Learning, grounded upon his Corrections or rather Altera- 
tions of some Words, Syllables and Letters in Horace; which 
wou'd have been an irreparable Loss to the Nation, if they had not 
been retrieved by this great Genius ; Whereas among the many 
good Editions, and various [P. 100] Lections, that are to be found 
as well of Horace as other Classicks, who is there that has a 
tollerable understanding of 'em but can steal or invent several 
Alterations which shall with some colour of Reason please a 
Majority of Readers ; there being very few, who will think it 
worth their while to examine into the Reason and Authority of 
'em. But the Doctor has had the ill Fortune to fall into the 
Hands of Mr Johnso?i who (by giving himself the trouble of 
examining, only into the first Book of this applauded Per- 
formance) has in his Aristarchus above mention'd, discover'd 
so much want of Judgment, so many Absurdities, Inconsistencies, 

Serj. E. Miller's Account of Cambridge. 561 

silly affected Alterations ; together with so much Carelessness 
even to the writing not only improper but false Latin in many 
Instances; besides a knavish Arrogance of assuming other 
Peoples Discoveries to himself ; That he has made it plain (in 
much better Latin than his own) that the Doctor in this Edition 
as well as in his other Actions had his chief View upon the 
Profit ; And next (by the help of Favourers of Learning falsely 
so call'd) to gain an Impunity for what he is accus'd of; tho' 
it may be truly said as to whatever he has publish'd within these 
last seven Years (if there has been any Merit) it has been more 
owing to his Prosecutors than to himself ; who if he had been 
suffer'd quietly to go on in all Probability wou'd have contented 
himself in his Projects of sharping upon the College. Surely no 
sort of learned Men are so scarce now-a-days that 'tis needful 
for the Publick to encourage to tollerate 'em to Plunder and rob 
honest Men who are more scarce ; if they have nothing to plead 
in their Defence but the Benefit of Clerks : much less should 
this Clerk be so tolerated who has robb'd some more learned 
than himself; since he is discover'd to be so defective in the only 
part of Learning of which he cou'd pretend to boast.' pp. 
98 — 101. 

Miller proposes the repeal of certain Statutes for which 
scheme he gives, among other recommendations, the hope of 
weakening the 'Nonsensical as well as Destructive High Church 
Principles.' p. 170. 

L. B. E. 36 




by W. Whiston 
Sometime of Clare-Hall. 


Whis ton's Emendanda in Academia, 56; 

William Whiston, of Clare-Hall, 

Resided 1686 — 1694, 1703 — 1710. Inhis Memoirs (ed. 1749, 
p. 45), he says, 'While I was Resident at Cambridge, which 
I was in all about 17 years, I observed great Defects and 
Disorders in the Constitution of our College of Clare-Hall j as 
also in that of the University in general. And I accordingly 
drew up two Papers, the one under the Title of Emendanda in 
Collegio, the other of Emendanda in Academia j the former 
Paper, which was of less consequence, I have not preserved, 
but the latter of greater consequence I have by me, and, as 
improved a little afterward, [it] stood thus Verbatim. 

Emendanda in Academia. 

(See Parson's Advice to a Roman Catholick King of 

1. All Old Statutes to be repealed: yet so that their useful 
Parts be taken into the New Statutes ; and the Designs of the 
Founders preserved, as much as may be. 

The New Statutes to be, 

Few in Number: 
Plain in Words: 
Practicable in Quality: 
Known by all. 

2. No more than one Civil Oath, that of Allegiance, to be 

3. Penalties and not Oaths to be Securities in all other 

4. No more than one Ecclesiastical Subscription to be 
imposed ; that to the original Baptismal Profession ; with the 
owning the sacred Authority of the Books of the Old and New 
Testament; and this.. only on Students in Divinity. 


564 Whistoris Emendanda in Academia. 

5. Civil Authority and Courts to be put into the Hands of 
proper Persons, distinct from the University: with one Appeal 
to the Judges, and all to be governed by the Common Law. 

6. Visitors to be appointed where there are none ; but still 
with one Appeal to the Judges. 

7. Expences to be limited within certain Bounds. 

8. Particular Tutors in Colleges to be appointed by the 
Master ; and to unite in common for the teaching that particular 
Science they are best acquainted with. 

9. Publick Professors to consent to the Master's Appoint- 
ment; and to be Overseers to all those Tutors and Pupils in 
their own Faculties ; and to examine the Scholars every year, 
to see what Proficiency they have made the foregoing year. 

10. Rewards or Privileges to be allotted to the best 
Scholars upon such Examination, and the grossly idle, ignorant, 
and vicious not to advance in standing, till they have made some 
competent Proficiency. 

ii. All Elections into Scholarships and Fellowships to be 
after open Examination and Trial, as to Learning; as well as 
full Testimony as to Morals. And the Times for such Election 
to be known long beforehand, and fixed in the Statutes. 

12. Visitors may openly examine again upon Complaints; 
and in notorious Cases may alter the Election. 

13. Desert for Learning and Morals; Fitness for the Duty; 
and, caeteris paribus, Want, the only Qualifications for free 
Elections, viz. in all such Cases as are without Propriety [i. e. 
close appropriation, in the gift of one family, or the like]. 

14. No Persons to interpose to hinder the Freedom of 
Elections. And the Procurers of Letters from great men to be 

15. No present Possessor to be displac'd; [upon a Visita- 
tion, of the University:] Otherwise than according to their 
former Statutes, or those of the Realm. 

16. Fellowships to be annually diminished, if not vacated, 
after a certain Number of Years; excepting [Heads of Colleges] 

Whistoits Emendanda in Academic/,. 565 

Tutors, and Professors. And this for the Advantage of sending 
men into the World while they may be useful, and the procuring 
a quicker Succession. 

17. Heads of Colleges and Professors to be chosen as now; 
but from any College or Place whatsoever, and to be approved 
by the Bishop of the Diocese where the Founder lived. And in 
all Royal Foundations by the King. 

18. Discipline to be strict, but not rigorous, Prayers not to 
be too long, nor too early ; Short Prayers at nine at Night in 
Winter, and ten in Summer, for all to be present at. 

19. Scholars to be encouraged to do their Duty rather than 
forced, especially in the case of the Communion, which should 
at least be monthly. 

20. Fellows to be obliged to frequent the publick Worship 
as well as the Scholars. 

21. The College Servants to be instructed and catechized, 
either in their several Parishes, or Colleges, and to frequent the 

22. Scholastick Disputations about modern Controversies 
in Divinity, to be changed into Lectures on the Scriptures, or 
most primitive Writers, &c. 

23. Preachers not to meddle with State Affairs farther than 
the Gospel directly requires or allows. 

24. No modern Systems of Divinity to be followed; but 
the original Languages of the Bible, and the most ancient 
Authors, with such later Helps as are necessary to the Under- 
standing of them, to be recommended. 

25. Admissions into Colleges to be better taken Care of. 

26. No uncertain Systems of Philosophy to be recom- 
mended ; but Mathematicks and Experiments to be prefer'd. 

27. None in Holy Orders, nor Undergraduates to go to 
Taverns or publick Houses at all, without particular Business 
with Strangers there, and at early Hours. Others to be restrained 
from much frequenting the same. 

566 Whistoiis Emendattda in Accidentia. 

28. All Undergraduates to be in their several Colleges by 
nine at Night in Winter, and ten in Summer : and all Graduates 
within an Hour after. 

29. New Galleries to be built at St Mary's to hold all the 
Scholars, [This was done by the legacy of William Worts], 
and the Colleges to go thither on Lord's-Days in Order, as they 
do now to Clerums. 

30. None to have Testimonials for Orders till they have 
studied the Scriptures and Antiquity for three years. 

31. No Treats for Degrees to exceed a certain small sum, 
to be fixed for them. 

32. All pecuniary Punishments to go to the Charity-Schools, 
or Poor of the Parishes in Cambridge. 

April 15, 17 17. 





considered by 
Lord Chancellor Macclesfield. 

17 1 8. 

568 Lord Macclesfield 's Memorial 

Ld. Chancellor Macclesfield's Scheme for University 
Reform cir. 171 8 (see above, p. 53). Extracted 
from Gutch, Collectanea Curiosa. Oxford, 1781, II. 
pp. 53 — 75, No. IX. 'A Memorial relating to the 

Three Questions are discussed. 

Question I. By what method learning and industry may 
be promoted in the Universities, setting aside all party consider- 
ations ? 

The suggestions are 

(1) All Heads to be chosen by a body of State Officers, 
Archbishops, Bishops and the Visitor. 

(2) Fellowships limited to twenty years ; limit to number of 
College Livings ; augmentation of poor Vicarages ; two Tutors 
in each College, after fifteen years' service, to hold Fellowships 
for life. 

All Fellows to take office in turn. Non-residence of not 
more than six months at a time, and not more than ten times ; 
and that not till after five years' residence. 

Faculty Fellowships (Law and Physic) to be allowed. 

Others not taking Orders at once to vacate in ten years. 

(3) Foundation of a Professor of the Law. of Nature and 

(4) Lectures in Divinity, Law of Nature and Nations, 
Anatomy, Chymistry, Mathematics, Experiments in Natural 

Question II. What force may be necessary to ease the 
present disaffection of the Universities ? 

Vest the right of electing to Scholarships, Exhibitions, 
Fellowships, &c, in a Commission : but ' much wiser heads are 
employed in digesting for an Act of Parliament whatever is 
proper on this head. 1 

relating to the Universities. 569 

Question III. What gentle methods may be of service to 
win them over to the Government? 

!• By 1. §§ 3) 4. 

2. Tutors should encourage Noblemen and Gentlemen- 
Commoners to go through a course of Law of Nature and 

3- And English Law and Constitution. 

4- Pensions of £10 or ,£30 to about twenty Fellows to 
encourage them to serve Government. 

5. Let the Crown or Great Seals give yearly two or three 
Preferments to well-affected Persons. 

6. Let well-affected Patrons prefer well-affected Persons. 

7. Exhibitions of £10 or £20 to poor Scholars till they 
gain Fellowships. 

8. Government should pay for the education of needy stu- 
dents in different branches of study. 

9. Government to return persons to recommend fit objects 
for bounty. 

(a) Establish a Court of Appeal from the dominant power 
in Universities. 

(/3) Government to favour loyal Colleges, also to bestow a 
few livings on discontented persons. 

We learn also incidentally that £20 or £30 per annum at 
the University with a Fellowship made a pretty easy subsist- 
ence. There was an entire change of all that were not on the 
Foundation, in less than seven years, and more than a third of 
those on the Foundation were dead or gone in seven years. 

Courses of Classick Learning and Philosophy were provided 
by T